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except when worn by experienced horsemen, and no rider who turns his toes outward should put them on.
Stumbling. A stumbling horse should never be ridden. The fault may arise from some curable disease of the feet, but usually from weak knees or legs. If mounted on a stumbler, keep his head up and make him move at a lively pace by aid of whip or spur.
Bits. Most horses go well with the double bit; that is, the curb and snaffle or bridoon, as shown in the picture of the bridle. But some horses with very tender mouths or nervous dispositions go better with the snaffle alone: it may be used with two reins, but without the extra head-piece (B) in picture. A few horses go well with the curb, but dislike the additional mouthpiece of the snaffle. For these the Pelham bit may be used.
woman's saddle should have a flat seat (Martin & Martin, of 5th Avenue, New York, who have their workshop in London, or Peat & Co., Piccadilly, London, make them). The stirrup should be plain, or of the kind shown on the saddle illustration, not the old-fashioned slipper. Riding should be practised without using the stirrup: it gives great confidence, balance, and freedom. Of course it is not intended to recommend long rides without a stirrup; but only practise during exercise in the school or at some safe spot. The rise to the trot can be done without it, and should not depend too much upon it: by grasping the upright-head firmly with the right leg and pressing the left knee against the leaping-head, or lower pommel, the rise can be accomplished with the slightest aid from the stirrup, and in fact should be so ridden.
To make the horse canter, leading with his right leg, pull his head slightly to the left with the left rein and press him quickly with the left heel. To make him lead with the left foot pull the right rein and tap him with the whip, behind the girths, on the right side, where the heel would touch him if on that side.
A woman or girl, in mounting, should place her right hand on the upright-head, and her left foot in the left hand of an assistant, held about 16 inches from the ground. She places her left hand on his right shoulder, and his right hand is under her left arm-pit. The assistant counts one, two, three. At three, she springs upwards, the assistant aiding her by rising. Being on the saddle, she places her right knee over the upright-head. The assistant sees that her left foot is placed in the stirrup and fastens the elastic straps for holding the skirt in place. In dismounting, after first releasing the right leg and the dress from the pommel and turning from the forward position, she holds her arms at her sides and simply slips off the horse, her assistant placing a hand under each elbow, thus bringing her down lightly. Women should keep
A, Upright-head; B, Leaping-head; C, Seat'; D, Safe (corresponding part on right of Saddle is the Flap); E, Stirrup-leather; F, Stirrup; G, Secondary Stirrup (which turns down and releases foot in case of a fall); H, K, Girths; I, Balance Girth.
shoulders and hips squarely to the front, looking straight between the horse's ears. The right leg above the knee lies flat on the saddle, while the right knee grasps the upright-head firmly. Below the knee the leg is drawn back, and the toes are bent downward. The left knee is close to the saddle, and the leg below the knee hangs easily down. The foot in the stirrup is held parallel to the horse's side.
The rules of the road in riding are the same as for driving, and should be followed very carefully, both in the park and on the road. See under article on Driving.
RING BALL, a game played by any number or persons with a soft
ball of rubber or stuffed cloth. The players form a circle, each standing near a base, which is usually a stone. The bases are at equal distances; the size of the circle may be large or small, provided one standing inside it can easily throw to all the bases. At the beginning of the game any player takes the ball and throws it into the air. The one nearest whom it stops must stand within the circle. The one at his right now takes the ball and throws it at the player in the circle. If he misses, he also must go into the circle; if he hits, all leave their bases and run where they please, till the one hit gets the ball, when he shouts " Halt!" and all must stop. In either case, the one thrown at throws the ball in turn at some one of those on the circumference of the circle, but if he has been obliged to go out of the circle to get the ball, he must return inside before he can throw. The one he hits must join those inside the circle. If he hits nobody, all return to their bases. The one hit, or the one nearest the ball, takes the next turn at throwing it. So the game goes on. till all but one are inside the circle. This one now takes the ball, and running around the circle, outside, where he pleases, tries to hit those within, while they strive to get the ball and hit him. The player outside has the advantage, for he can run back as far as he wishes, while they cannot leave the ring. Those whom he hits are "dead," and must retire outside the ring. If he "kills" all without being hit himself, he is victor. But if he be hit, he and all he has " killed" must go within the circle, while the others take their stand at whatever bases they choose, and the game proceeds as before.
This ball game .is played in Germany, where it is called Kreisball (Ring Ball). In Switzerland it is named Eck und Krippe (Corner and Fence), the point inside the circle where the players stand being the "Eck," and the circle itself the "Krippe.'"
RING TOSS. See Grommets.
RING TRICK. The following trick requires the use of a second ring, similar to the one borrowed; hence it is best to borrow only a plain gold
To pass a ring through a table, sew a ring to the middle of a handkerchief by a piece of silk about four inches long. Borrow a similar ring, and pretend to wrap it in the handkerchief without really doing so. Then give the handkerchief to one of the company to hold. He will feel the sewed ring and think it to be the borrowed one. If there is no light from behind the performer, he may first hold up the handkerchief with the suspended ring on the side away from the company to show them that it is empty. Ask the company to choose at what point the ring is to pass through the table, and, placing a tumbler on the spot ask the handkerchief holder, keeping his hand on the ring within it, to hold it directly over the tumbler. Then drop the handkerchief over the tumbler, and ask him to let the ring go, when it will be heard to fall into the glass. Borrow a high hat, and take it in the hand holding the borrowed ring in such manner that the fingers, covering the ring are just inside the crown. The inside of the hat may then be shown to the company. Placing the hat on the floor just beneath the tumbler, the performer gently drops the ring into it and then, pulling the handkerchief with its attached ring away from the tumbler, invites one of the company to examine the hat, where he will, of course, find the borrowed ring.
ROBIN'S ALIVE, a game played by any number of persons, who sit in a circle. The one who begins
the game lights a piece of twisted paper or bit of wood and repeats the verse:
"Robin's alive, and alive he shall be; If he dies in my hand My mouth shall be bridled, my back shall be saddled, I'll be sent as a slave to Barbary."
As soon as the verse is recited the paper is handed to the next player, who also repeats the lines, and so it goes around the ring. The one in whose hand it goes out must pay a forfeit. This game is called also Jack's Alive, and each player repeats those two words only as he holds the lighted paper.
Sometimes the last line is sung,
"If it dies in my hand you may back-saddle me."
"Back-saddling " consists in placing the one in whose hand the light went out on his back on the floor, and piling chairs on him.
ROLY-POLY, or NINE HOLES, a game of ball played by any number of persons, generally nine. As many holes as there are players, each large enough to receive the ball, are dug about a foot apart, the whole forming a square. Around them a line is drawn, about four or five feet from the outside holes, and ten or fifteen feet from this line, in any direction, is marked the position of the Roller. Each player now chooses a hole, and one, selected by lot as Roller, takes his post, ball in hand. Each of the others must have one foot on the boundary line around the holes. The Roller tries to roll the ball into one of the holes. If he make three consecutive misses, a pebble is placed in his hole. If he succeeds, the player in whose hole the ball stops seizes it and throws it at any of the others, except the Roller. If he hit the one at whom he throws, the latterhashishole marked with a pebble and becomes Roller; if he miss, his own hole is so marked, and he becomes Roller in turn. He who throws the ball must stand on the boundary line as he does so, unless he chooses to hold the ball and wait his chance, instead of throwing it at once, in which case he may stand three feet from the line. The other players must run for safety; but if the thrower hold the ball, they may save themselves from being hit by running back within the boundary line before he can strike them with the ball. If the Roller send the ball into his own hole, he must run forward and throw the ball like any one else; but as he is so far from his hole, he is at a disadvantage, and he always tries, if possible, to send the ball into some other one's hole. The first player who gets three pebbles in his hole must stand with his back to the others, usually with his face to a wall, and throw the ball as far as he can over his shoulder. The others in turn, each standing where the ball stops, may throw it at him as hard as they choose; but whoever hits him in any other part of the body than the back must change places with him. Sometimes he who has three pebbles is considered out of the game, and his hole is stopped up. This goes on until only one is left. He is the winner, and is allowed to throw the ball at each of the others, as described above, in the order in which they went out. Each throws the ball over his shoulder to determine the spot from which it may be thrown at him.
History. Roly Poly is a very old English game. It is sometimes played in England with hats instead of holes, and is then often called Egg Hat. In this case the ball is pitched instead of rolled. The French call it Balk aux Pots (Pot Ball) and it is called also Roll Ball. The Germans have a game called Neunloch (Nine Holes), but the object of the player is simply to throw his ball into the holes in a certain order. At Yale College, where the game is much played by the Senior class, it is called Nigger Baby, or
African Infant, or sometimes Niger Infans, which is the same name in Latin.
The scoring stones placed in the holes are often named "Babies." In Austria they are similarly called Kinder (children).
In a variety called Scheiben schiessen (Target Shooting), the nine holes are of different sizes and arranged in the form of a cross, the smallest in the centre. He who hits the centre hole first is called the King, and he who does so next is called the Marshal.
ROPE-WAVES, Experiments with. Procure a piece of rope from 20 to 50 feet long, the longer the better; but, if the experiments are to be tried indoor, the rope cannot be longer than the room used. The rope must not be at all stiff; the best kind is cotton window-cord.
1. Tie the rope to some object, such as a door-knob, if indoor, or a tree or a fence outdoors, so that it will be pretty tight. Hold the other end of the rope in the hand. By jerking it quickly downward, a downward curve or depression may be made to run along the rope to the other end, where it will be reflected and return as an upward curve. Or tie the other end of the rope to a chair, stretch it as tight as desired, and then sit on the chair to hold it. When the rope is struck with a stick, a similar wave will run along it, more swiftly the tighter the rope is; so it can be seen better in a long rope than in a short one.
2. Send a downward curve, as before, and just as it is reflected send an upward curve. The two upward curves meeting in the middle of the rope will be added, and make it swing violently.
3. Send a downward curve, and just as it starts to come back as an upward curve, send another downward curve. The opposite curves meeting in the middle of the rope will destroy each other there, so the middle of the rope will remain nearly still, while the parts on either side swing up and down. The still point is called a "node." (See Violin, Experiments on.)
4. Try these experiments with the cord stretched tight and then loose. It will be found that the tighter the cord the faster the waves travel.
5. Send an upward or downward curve, as before, and as it is reflected send a curve to meet it by striking the rope sidewise. The result will be to make the rope move in a circle when they meet.
ROUNCE, a game of Cards played by not more than nine persons, with a full pack. The cards rank as in Whist. Each player is dealt five cards, two and three at a time, as in Euchre, and an extra hand of six cards, called " Dummy," is dealt in the middle of the table. If the eldest hand is satisfied, he says " I play:" otherwise, he says " I pass," and, throwing down his cards, may either retire from the game during that hand, or take up Dummy. If he retire, the next player to the left has the same choice, and so with the others in order. After Dummy has been taken up, the others must either play their hands or retire. He who takes up Dummy discards one of its cards. If the dealer choose to play without Dummy, he may take the trump card into his hand and discard one of his own cards. Play then begins, the eldest hand leading. Suit must be followed, if possible, otherwise any card may be played. The winner of a trick must lead trumps, if he can. At the beginning of the game, each player is credited with 15 points, one of which is subtracted for every trick that he makes. If he fail to make a trick, he is said to be "rounced," and five points are added to his score. He wins whose score is first reduced to nothing. The points are often marked by crosses, as in Auction Pitch.
RULES OF THE GAME.
1. In cutting for deal, low deals, and Ace is low.
2. The Dummy must be dealt three cards at a time, each three being given before the dealer gives any to himself.
3. If there be a misdeal, the dealer is rounced, and the deal passes to the next player.
4. Whoever takes Dummy must play it.
5. If all the players up to the one on the dealer's right have refused to play, that one must play his hand, take Dummy, or allow the dealer to score 5.
6. If a player revoke, expose a card, or fail to lead a trump, when possible, after taking a trick, he is rounced.
In Germany this game is called Rams, and is played with a Euchre pack. If a player hold no trump, he is allowed to play his poorest card face down, which calls for a trump from every other player.
ROUND TAG. See Fox AND Geese, II.
ROWING, the art of propelling a boat by means of oars. The different kinds of row-boats and oars are described in C. C. T., under Rowboat. The oarsman sits upright on the thwart, or stationary seat, with his feet against the stretcher, which should be at such a distance that the knees will be bent, but so that the hands will easily clear them. The knees are held about a foot apart, the heels close together, and the toes turned out. The handle of the oar is grasped naturally with both hands, one, called the inside hand, at the extreme end, the other, or outside hand, from oneand-a-half to two inches from it. The thumbs are usually underneath though some rowers hold the thumb of either the inside or outside hand above the oar. The rower begins by inclining the body forward, keeping the back straight and the head erect, and stretching out his arms