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opinion of the umpire, such contact is so slight as not to influence the race.
10. No fouling whatever shall be allowed; the boat committing a foul shall be disqualified.
11. The umpire may, during a race, caution any competitor when in danger of committing a foul.
12. The umpire shall decide all questions as to a foul.
13. A claim of foul must be made to the umpire by the competitor himself, and, if possible, before getting out of his boat.
14. In case of a foul, the umpire shall have the power—(a) To place the boats (except the boat committing the foul, which is disqualified) in the order in which they come in; (b) to order the boats engaged in the race, other than the boat committing the foul, to row over again on the same or another day; (c) to re-start the qualified boats from the place where the foul wascommitted.
Accidents. 15. Every boat shall abide by its accidents, except when, during a race, a boat while in its own water shall be interfered with by any outside boat, the umpire may order the race to be rowed over, if, in his opinion, such interference materially affected its chances of winning the race.
Assistance. 16. No boat shall be allowed to accompany a competitor for the purpose of directing his course or affording him other assistance. The boat receiving such direction or assistance shall be disqualified at the discretion of the umpire.
umpire. 17. The jurisdiction of the umpire extends over the race and all matters connected with it, from the time the race is specified to start until its final termination, and his decision in all cases shall be final and without appeal.
18. The judge at the finish shall report to the umpire the order in which the competing boats cross the line, but the decision of the race
shall rest with, and be declared by, the umpire.
19. Any competitor refusing to abide by the decision, or to follow the directions of the umpire, shall be disqualified.
20. The umpire, if he thinks proper, may reserve his decision, provided that in every case such decision be given on the day of the race.
21. Contestants rowing a dead heat shall compete again after such interval as may be appointed, and the contestant refusing to so row shall be adjudged to have lost the race.
Turning Races. 22. In turning races, each competitor shall have a separate turning stake, and shall turn from port to starboard. Any competitor may turn any stake other than his own, but does so at his peril.
Juniors, An oarsman who has never won a race, nor pulled in one with those who have done so, is called a junior, and special races are sometimes held in which only juniors are allowed to row. Competitions with members of his own club, however, are not considered to affect an oarsman's standing as a junior.
Rowing Machines. Many machines have been devised to give to an oarsman, indoors, the same practice that he would get in a boat. In the simplest of these he sits on a sliding seat and pulls on a handle about 18 inches long, to which is attached a cord running over a pulley and fastened to a weight beneath the floor. This does not exactly represent rowing, however, for the weight exerts a constant pull, whereas the resistance of the water to the oar is not the same at all points. The weight, too, assists in the recover, while the oar does not. In the best rowing machines real oar handles are so arranged that pulling on them operates a piston in a cylinder filled with water, or winds up a spring as in the one shown in the illustration. The Yale and Harvard crews now practice rowing during the winter in real boats in large tanks of water in their gymnasiums.
History. In ancient times the largest vessels were propelled with oars arranged in rows called banks, one above another. Boat-racing was not uncommon among the Greeks and Romans, and Virgil describes a race in the fifth book of the Aeneid. The illustration opposite shows a Greek rowing vessel, or galley, as it is
pictured on an ancient monument, n the middle ages large galleys in use on the Mediterranean sea, were manned by slaves and criminals who had been condemned to row in them as a punishment. The ancient Britons used boats of wickerwork covered with skins, called coracles, which they propelled with paddles, and similar craft are still to be seen in Wales. Alfred the Great introduced long galleys from the Mediterranean into England for use in war. In early times, before the introduction of carriages, rowing
was a very common means of transit for kings and nobles in England, and by the 12th century large numbers of men were employed on and about the rivers as watermen. In 1514 they had become so numerous that laws were passed for their regulation. At the present time the watermen are employed chiefly on lighters and steam-boats. The earliest record of boat-racing in England is of the establishment of a prize by Thomas Doggett, an actor, in 1715. to celebrate the anniversary of the accession of George I. to the throne. It was to be rowed for annually on the Thames by six young waterman's apprentices, and consisted of a red coat with a large silver badge on the arm. This prize, called "Doggett's coat and badge" is still competed for by the Thames watermen. In 1775 a rowing-race, called a regatta (Italian regata) was held on the Thames, in imitation of similar contests or festivals held in Venice, and since that time rowing or sailing contests have been commonly called by this name. Early in the present century clubs began
to be formed for pleasure rowing, and about the same time it was taken up as a sport by the English public schools and universities. Eton had a crew in 1811, and in 1817 beat the watermen in a fouroared race. In 1829 the first race was rowed between Oxford and Cambridge, on the Thames, and since 1856 these two universities have rowed every year. Since 1839 there has been also a great regatta annually at Henley-on-Thames. In this country amateur rowing began at about the same time as in England, but it did not become popular so soon. The first recorded race was between crews from New York City and Long Island, in 1811, and took place with four-oared barges with coxswains on the North River. The New York boat, the " Knickerbocker," won. The first regular amateur boat club in America—the Castle Garden Amateur Boat Club Association, was organized in 1834. At the present time there are hun
dreds of such clubs, most of which are banded together in rowing associations for the purpose of giving yearly regattas. The largest of these, the National Association of Amateur Oarsmen, was formed in 1873
The first American College boat club was formed at Yale in 1843, and the next at Harvard in 1844, and the two colleges rowed their first race in 1852. Since that time they have met almost every year, sometimes alone, and sometimes in connection with other colleges. A list of all the intercollegiate races held up to the present time, with the times of the contending crews, is given in the Appendix.
Since the introduction of boatracing, the racing-boat has been greatly changed. At first it was 35 feet long and 6 feet beam, and weighed 700 pounds. The oars were clumsy, of great size, and loaded with lead at the handle, while the blades were wide and flat. As early as 1828 rude wooden outriggers were attached to boats, but the outrigger as it is now used was invented by Henry Clasper, of Newcastle, England, who built his first boat with them in 1844. The sliding seat and the swivel rowlock were both invented by Americans. The former was devised by J. C. Babcock, who put one, in a sculling-boat in 1857, but the device was not perfected till 1870, nor generally adopted till several years later.
At Oxford and Cambridge there are a large number of boat clubs, which compete every year for the honor of being what is called " the head of the river." As the rivers on which they row are too narrow to allow boats to pass easily, the shells are arranged in a line at equal distances apart. The object of each is to strike against, or " bump " the
boat in front of it, and when this is done, the bumped boat yields its place to the other. This is repeated several times, and the boat that wins or keeps a place at the head is the victor. This arrangement is not necessary in any of the American colleges where boating is practised, for all of them row on wide bodies of water. At Yale and Harvard each class has its boat club, and there is a class regatta twice a year. These regattas, like the "bumping races" at the English universities, serve to train oarsmen for the University crews. For an eight-oared University crew 15or 20 men are usually selected several months before the race, and the necessary eight are picked out from among these afterward, when it has been seen who are the best.
Many substitutes for oars, in pro
SADDLE MY NAG, a game played by any number of persons. Sides are chosen, and the leaders decide by lot who shall have first innings. The losers arrange themselves as follows: One stands almost upright, but bending slightly forward, his hand resting against a wall or tree; a second puts his head on the back of the first; a third in like manner on the back of the second, and so on, till all on that side are in line. Each player may hold to the clothes of the one in front of him, cross his arms on his breast, or rest his hands on his knees. One of the other players now runs, places his hands on the back of the one at the rear of the line, and leaps as far forward as he can. The rest of those on his side follow in order, until all are on the backs of the other side. If all can remain on without touching the ground with any part of the body while the leader counts twenty; or if any of the other party sink down under their weight, or touch the ground to support themselves, the riders keep their innings and the game is repeated. Otherwise the sides change places.
sailing. The hulls of boats are of various sizes and shapes, but all have the forward end (called the bow) sharp, that it may cut through the water. The afteF-eWlpealled the stern, is fitted wiitf & Kidder, with which the < boat is steered. This rudder, which is the same in principle as that of a row-boat (see
Rowing), is managed in small boats by means of a handle or lever, called a tiller; when the tiller is pushed to one side, the rudder turns to the opposite side; and (as explained under Rowing) as the boat turns to the same side as the rudder, the tiller must be moved to the side opposite to that in which the steersman wishes the boat to go. The right-hand side of the boat, as one faces the bow, is called the starboard side, and the left-hand the port side (formerly called larboard). To "port the helm," or "put the helm to port," means to push the tiller toward the port or left side, thus turning the boat to the starboard or right. Large boats are generally steered with an upright wheel connected with the rudder by ropes, cogs, or otherwise. Small boats are sometimes entirely open, but generally half-decked, and larger ones usually have a covered cabin. The bottom of a boat's hull, called the floor, may be almost flat, or it may be more or less curved. The depth of a boat below the water's surface is called her " draught." If this distance is two feet, for example, she is said to "draw two feet of water." Of course the draught is greater if the boat be loaded. The difference of draught between the bow and stern of a boat is sometimes called the drag. It is the best plan to ballast or "trim" small boats so that the stern sinks a little deeper than the bow.
The boats called cutters draw a