Ancient See-Saw.

on a pivot nearer the heavier person. The light rider, therefore, has a longer ride, and moves faster than the other.

See-sawing is a very old amusement. An ancient French seesaw, called Bascule Double (Double Swing-down) is shown on the following page. The boards swing on pivots A A in a standard E, and move at right angles to each other. B is a cushion, C is a back for the rider to lean against, and D a handle for him to hold on by.

SENSITIVE FLAMES, Experiments with. Nail a block of wood, A, to a block, D, as shown intheillustration, and fasten at the top of A a wire, B, with a ring five inches in diameter at one end. Lay a piece of wire gauze, C, over the ring. Make a glass jet, E (see Chemical ExperiMents), of tubing about quarter of an inch in outside diameter, the diameter at the opening being about three quarters of this. Bend it at right angles, and stick it with wax on the block E with its tip about two inches under the gauze. Connect the jet with a gas burner by rubber tubing, and light the gas above the gauze, where itshouldburn in a thin conical flame about four inches long. This flame is so sensitive to noises, that at the sound of

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If the gauze and tube be raised slowly, the flame shortensand finally begins to " sing " loudly. The gauze should now be lowered till the singing just ceases, when the flame becomes very sensitive, beginning to sing at the slightest sharp sound, but ceasing when the sound stops. The responses are so quick that when, for instance, the word " sensitive" is pronounced, the flame sings twice, once for each S.

SETTO. See Synthesis.

SEVENS AND EIGHTS, or DOMINO WHIST, a game of Cards played by any number of persons with a full pack. The scoring is done with counters, any number of which are distributed equally among the players at the beginning of the game. The whole pack of cards is dealt, one at a time, and then each plays in turn, beginning with the eldest hand. The object of the players is to place the Sevens and Eights in two rows on the table, and then all the other cards in order, by suits. Thus, opposite the Sevens of Hearts must be placed in order the Six, Five, Four, Three, Two, and Ace of Hearts; and opposite the Eight, the Nine, Ten, Knave, Queen, and King of the same suit. No card can be put down out of its regular order except Sevens and Eights, which can be played at any time. Only one card is played at a time. Each one must play if he can, and if he cannot, he must place a counter in the middle of the table to form part of the Pool. He who first gets rid of his cards takes the Pool and in addition each of the other players gives the winner a counter for every card left in his hand.

Of course the first card played will be a Seven or an Eight, and the opportunity for playing will generally be greater as the game goes on. A good player often holds back a Seven or Eight as long as possible, thus preventing others from playing, increasing the pool, and enabling him to get rid of his

cards before them. If there is not room enough on the table for the whole pack to be spread out, the other cards may be piled on the Sevens and Eights.

The game is sometimes called Domino Whist because the cards are matched on the table somewhat as in Dominoes, but it does not at all resemble Whist.

SEVEN UP. See All Fours.

SHADOW PICTURES, shadows thrown on a wall or screen so as to form pictures in various ways. The most common shadow pictures are made by holding the two hands so that their shadows will resemble some animal or bird. To make such pictures well requires considerable skill. The position of the hands in making several of them is shown in the full-page illustrations.

Another kind of shadow pictures is made by cutting out figures from sheets of paper and throwing their shadows on a sheet hung in a doorway, the spectators sitting on the opposite side. The best size for the pictures is about three feet long by two feet high. They may be made by cutting out parts of any large woodcut Like those in the illustrated papers, but care must be taken that the figures selected are in profile, so that their shadows will look well. If the exhibitor has any skill at all in drawing, a better way is to make pictures especially for the purpose. They may be drawn on an ordinary newspaper, and no matter how crude they are, they usually look well in shadow. All the pictures are made on paper of the same size, and then the sheet in the doorway is covered with papers pinned to it, all but a space in the middle just large enough to show the pictures, which will then appear in brilliant white on a dark background. There should be two exhibitors, each of whom holds a corner of the picture so that it hangs close against the sheet. If there is


1. Old Man ; a. Elephant; 3. Doe; 4. Rabbit; 5. Horse ; 6. Negro; 7. Bear;

8. Walrus.

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ingeniously made that it is difficult to tell what they represent till the shadow is thrown on the wall. In the illustration, Fig. 1 shows how the paper is cut. Fig. 2 is a sharp shadow thrown by it, and Fig. 3 a blurred shadow. The last gives the proper effect.

Portraits may be made for exhibition by throwing the sitter's shadow in profile on a sheet of paper pinned against the wall. The outline of the shadow is traced with a pencil and then cut with scissors. The portrait will be light on a dark ground or dark on a light ground, according as the outside or inside of the paper is used to cast the shadow. Such portraits may be preserved by pasting them on black paper, and they may then be framed or kept in a portfolio. Care should be taken in tracing the outline that the sitter remains perfectly still, and in

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