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to move sidewise. When the ropes are very near together, it is almost as easy to move the swing sidewise as straight ahead; but when they are far apart, the backward and forward motion is the easier, as will be seen by trial. When the ropes are farther apart and slope toward the seat, the swing is also less likely to twist. But, on the other hand, when the ropes are far apart it is harder to keep one's seat. A swing that will neither move sidewise nor twist can be made by fastening the ends of the rope to trees 30 to 50 feet apart.. The motion of such a swing is delightful, but it requires great skill to sit in it. Swings that will not twist are made also entirely of wood. They are usually hung in a wooden framework, which may be set up anywhere. Some kinds are set in motion by the swinger, who presses with his feet on a board in front of the swing.
synthesis, or SETTO, a game played by any number of persons with 64 cards, 25 of which contain each one root of a word; 19, three prefixes (or beginnings of words) each; and 15, three suffixes (or ends of words) each. There are also five prize-cards, each with one suffix. Words can be formed by putting a prefix before a root or a suffix after it, or both. Thus, with the root act, the prefix trans and the suffix ion can be formed the words transact, action, and transaction.
At the beginning of the game each draws a card, and he who gets the first prefix deals. There are several ways of playing. In the first method four cards are dealt to each player, and four are placed face upward on the table. When all have played their cards as described below, the dealer gives four more to each, and soon till all have been dealt, but no more are dealt to the table. The player at the dealer's left begins the game by trying
to make a word by combining cards on the table, using any of the prefixes and suffixes he pleases. If he can do so, he places the word in front of him, and it becomes his property. Whether he has been able to do so, or not, he then plays one of his own cards, and tries to combine it with some card or cards on the table in like manner to form a word. If he cannot, and has other cards in his hand which will form a word with the one he is playing, with or without any on the table, he may play, saying " I form," giving the word he intends to make, and piling together the cards that form part of it. He must take it as soon as possible, and can play on no other word before he does so. Any other player may take it by forming the announced word, but no other. If the player can neither take a word nor form, he must lay his card with the others on the table. The next player has the same choice, but instead of using his card to form a word with those in the middle of the table, he may add it, if possible, to the word the first player made, thus taking it away from him. The other players go on in like manner, each in his turn. When a word made by any one has remained uncaptured during one round, it cannot be taken afterward. When all the cards have been played, he who has taken the largest number of cards scores 3 points; and every word of 4 syllables scores 1 point, of 5 syllables 2 points, and of 6 syllables 3 points. When a player takes all the cards from the middle of the table, he is said to have made a " sweep " as in Casino, and every sweep counts a point for him who makes it. In addition, the five prize-cards each count toward game the number of points marked on it. He who has most points wins the game.
Another way of playing is to give six cards to each, and put none on the table. The players must not look at their cards. They play, in order, till some one can make a word with the cards on the table, when he takes it as before. Any player may retake it by putting on another syllable at any time during the game. But if a player can take more than one word in one turn, he may do so, and such words cannot then be retaken.
A third method is to remove the root-cards. Twelve cards are placed on the table, face upward, and the players have no cards, but each, in playing, may use any root in the English language.
In a fourth way of playing, the prizes are removed and four cards dealt to each. No one looks at his cards. The first prefix or suffix card played is called the Leader. A player may take all cards on the table any of whose syllables is the same as a syllable on the card he plays. The greatest number of cards like the Leader scores 3, every syllable like one on the Leader scores 1, and the greatest number of cards taken scores 2. The game is 13 points.
These games may be varied, or others devised, at the pleasure of the players. The word Synthesis is from two Greek words meaning a putting together.
Farrago. The same game as Synthesis, except that each card bears but one syllable. Farrago means a mixture. It was originally a Latin word, meaning a kind of mixed fodder for cattle.
syringe. The force-PUMP is really only a syringe arranged to throw a steady stream. Simpler ones can be made as follows.
1. Cut off the top of a smooth round glass bottle so far below the neck that the remainder will be of the same size all the way down (see instructions for glass working under Chemical Experiments). Fit to it a piston like those described under
PUMP, without a valve. Now make a tiny hole in the side or bottom of the bottle, either by directing the tip of a blowpipe flame on the glass or by boring with a file moistened with turpentine. The smaller the hole, the greater the force with which the water can be driven out by pushing in the piston.
2. A syringe may be made also from a piece of any kind of wood that contains pith. The pith must first be punched out, and then one end of the pipe thus made must be plugged with a bit of wood having a small hole in the centre. The piston can be made as be. fore.
SYRINX, or Pan-pipe, an ancient musical instrument. One can be made by a boy with an ear for music, of any wood that contains pith. Punch out the pith, and plug one end with a wooden stopper. By blowing across the open end, a rough musical sound can be made. By cutting different lengths and trying them, a perfect scale may be obtained. The pipes should now be fastened side by side to across strip so that all the open ends are in line, when a tune can be played on them with a httle practice.
SYRUP, Experiment with. Threequarters fill a bottle with very thick syrup, and then, having corked it, turn it upside down. After most of the syrup has descended to what is now the bottom of the bottle, what remains will form into a curious shape resembling a '%. water-spout, large at the top and ta
Experiment with peering at the bot
Syrup. tom. The taper
ing part twists about curiously till all the syrup has run down, which takes several minutes.
TABLEAUX, or TABLEAUX VIVANTS (French for "Living Pictures"). A theatrical entertainment in which the performers neither move nor speak. The effect depends entirely on the dress, attitude, expression and grouping, as in a picture. Unless an artist is stage manager, tableaux are best made by copying an actual painting as nearly as possible in grouping, costume and background ; or, if an engraving be copied, the colors may be arranged at pleasure. The chief thing to remember as regards colors is that the picture must neither be too sombre nor contain brilliant colors close together, whether on the figures or in the background. As it is very difficult for the performers to keep perfectly still, tableaux can be shown for only a few seconds at a time, and it is well to raise and lower the curtain several times. The great changes of scene necessary between the tableaux and the short time during which they can be shown often makes such exhibitions tiresome, and everything possible should be done to reduce the waits between the scenes. To this end no performer should take part in two consecutive tableaux, and as soon as the curtain falls on one scene the actors in the next should be ready to take their places. If possible, one background should be arranged behind another, so that it is necessary only to take away the first to show the second. One method is to make three frames, representing picture-frames, at the rear of the stage, either with or without separate curtains. Tableaux can be arranged behind these during the exhibition of one on the stage. It is then necessary only to lower the curtain while the actors leave the stage, raise the background curtain which concealed the frames in the
rear, and then raise the stage-curtain again, disclosing the new tableau. If the frames have separate curtains they may be raised and lowered alternately, one tableau being prepared while another is exhibited. Some of the frames may be made so as to show only the head and shoulders, in which case it is merely necessary for the actors to stand behind them. The background, in the case of small frames, should be black or very dark cloth. The illusion is heightened by having fine black gauze stretched between the stage and the audience. Instead of an ordinary curtain several curtains of white gauze may be let down, one by one, and then raised in the same way; the effect being to cause the picture to fade away gradually. This is especially effective when some slight change in the position of the actors is all that is necessary between two tableaux. One of the frames at the rear may be used to showa sort of panorama, a line of figures passing slowly behind it, each stopping for a few seconds at the proper place. The figures may represent historical or mythological characters; and a lecturer may describe them, pointing to each with a wand. In all tableaux, since the figures are seen on one side only, no care need be taken of that part of the costume turned away from the spectators. The faces should be colored or made up in the same way as for theatricals.
TAG. A game played by any number of persons, one of whom tries to touch or " tag " any of the others he can. If he succeeds, the one tagged must take his place. No player can be tagged when touching the "goal," or "bye," which is any object agreed upon, such as a tree, fence, or stone. Sometimes, instead of some particular object, anything made of a given material is considered a "bye "—such as anything of stone, iron, or wood. The game is then called "Stone Tag," " Iron Tag," or " Wood Tag," as the case may be. The first tagger is generally selected at the opening of the game by COUNTING OUT.
Cross Tag. There is no goal in this form of the game, but any player who is chased can be relieved by any other player running between him and the one trying to tag him. The latter must then run after the player who ran between, till he in turn is relieved. When any one is tagged, he must take the pursuer's place as before.
Tree Tag. Each player chooses a tree as his goal, and cannot be captured while touching it except by some other player'sgoingaround it three times. When any player is touched by another, or captured at his tree, the tree of the one who captures him becomes his goal. The game ends when all the players are at one tree.
Squat Tag. When a player who is pursued is tired, he is allowed to stoop or squat close to the ground, the pursuer not being allowed to touch him while in this position. The number of squats allowed varies from two to eleven.
King's Land. A kind of Tag played by any number of persons, one of whom, representing the king, stands within boundaries agreed upon at the beginning of the game. The other players can be touched by him only when they venture inside the boundary; and when they do so they call out, "I'm on king's land; king can't see !" or similar words. By running in and out again on all sides they strive to confuse the king and divert his attention from one to the other.
In Connecticut the forbidden land is sometimes called Van Diemen's Land, in New York Dixie's Land, and in Philadelphia Golden
Pavement. The name for it in Devonshire, England, is Judge Jeffrey's Land, from the cruel judge of that name who lived in the reign of James II.
This game is sometimes called Rook's Castle, and the old English name for it was Tom Tiddler's Ground. The German boys, when they play it, say:
"King, I'm in your land;
In France, the king is called the Crow, and French children playing this game, say, "I am in your castle, Crow, and I shall always be there."
A similar game, though not a game of Tag, is King's Castle.
Several kinds of Tag are played in France. In one, called Chat Perchi (Cat on a Perch), a player cannot be caught when his feet do not touch the ground; as, for instance, when he is on a bench or clinging to a tree. Chat Coupi (Cut Cat) is our Cross Tag. In a kind called M>re Garuche (Mother Garuche; probably from gare, meaning " take care!") the players, called Children, as they are caught must hold the hands of the first pursuer, and thus all must pursue together. Any pursuer may seize and detain whomever he can; but the original pursuer, Mother Garuche, must touch him before he is regarded as caught.
Gorilla. A kind of Tag in which the pursuer is called the Gorilla. The other players howl and make any kind of noise, but the Gorilla keeps perfectly quiet. As soon as he touches any player he begins to howl, while the touched player, becoming Gorilla, stops howling. The players know who is Gorilla by his silence, and can thus avoid him.
TAKE CARE. A game played by any number of persons in several ways. In one of the most common, flour is packed tightly into a bowl, which is then turned over and removed, leaving the flour in a mound. On top of this is placed a small coin. The players in turn then remove each a part of the flour with a knife, and whoever lets the coin fall must pick it from the flour with his teeth. Sometimes each one says "take care" as he cuts off his portion of the flour, and the game thus receives its name.
There are many substitutes for the flour and coin. One of the best is a card-house of two cards on a pile made of the rest of the pack loosely thrown together. Each player removes one card, and he who allows the card-house to fall must pay a forfeit. The game may be played out of doors with a little flag stuck in a pail of sand, from which each player removes a little on the end of a stick.
TALKING MACHINES. A machine to say the word "Mamma" can be made as follows: Take a toy trumpet, and holding the small end in the mouth place the two hands over the funnel. By blowing through the trumpet and opening and shutting one hand the syllable "Ma" can be produced quite plainly. By repeating this the word " Mamma " can bespoken.
A very good imitation of the human voice can be made also by stretching two india-rubber bands across the end of an empty spool (see illustration). The edges of the bands should be close together without overlapping. On blowing through the other end of the spool the bands vibrate like the human vocal chords, and make a sound something like the voice, which changes with the force of the breath.
TASTE, Experiments on. 1. To find which of the company has
the most delicate sense of taste, dissolve a little sugar in water so as to make a slightly sweet solution. Pour half of this into a glass and replace it with pure water. Put half the diluted liquid into a second glass, replace it with pure water, and so on till the liquid cannot be distinguished from ordinary water. The liquid must not be too strong to begin with, or too many dilutions will be required. Care should be taken to keep the glasses in proper order, as, if they should be mixed, it would spoil the experiment. Now place on the table the glass containing the strongest solution, and one of pure water, and let the company enter one at a time, blindfolded. Give each to drink several times from the two glasses, in any order you please, asking him after each taste whether he had pure or sweetened water. Care should be taken to have glasses alike, and filled to the same height. Those who tell incorrectly are considered "out." Those who make no mistake take part in a similar trial in which the next weaker solution is used. This goes on till only one is left who can taste the sugar-water, who is declared to have the most delicate taste.
The experiment may be tried over again, using first salt and then vinegar, instead of sugar. It will often be found that he who has the most delicate taste for sugar cannot detect acids as easily as some one else.
2. Prepare three glasses of water, dissolving a little quinine in one. salt in the second, and leaving the third pure. After holding some of the bitter or salt water in the mouth for a few seconds, swallow some of the pure water, and it will taste sweet.
TEA-KETTLE. A game played by any number of persons, one of whom leaves the room while the | others agree upon a word with sev