to address any remarks except to the base-runner, and then only in words of necessary direction; and shall not use language which will in any manner refer to, or reflect upon a player of the opposing club, the umpire or the spectators, and not more than one coacher, who may be a player participating in the game, or any other player under contract to it, in the uniform of either club, shall be allowed at any one time, except, that if base-runners are occuping two or more of the bases, then the captain and one player, or two players in the uniform of either club, may occupy the space between the players' lines and the captains' lines to coach base-runners. To enforce the above the captain of the opposite side may call the attention of the umpire to the offense, and, upon a repetition of the same, the offending player shall be debarred from further participation in the game, and shall leave the playing field forthwith.


Rule 53.—One run shall be scored every time a base-runner, after having legally touched the first three bases, shall touch the home base before three men are put out. (Exception)—If the third man is forced out, or is put out before reaching first base, a run shall not be scored.


"Play " is the order of the umpire to begin the game, or to resume play after its suspension.

'• Time " is the order of the umpire to suspend play. Such suspension must not extend beyond the day of the game.

"Game " is the announcement by the umpire that the game is terminated.

An " Inning "is the term at bat of the nine players representing a club in a game, and is completed when three of such players have been put out, as provided in these rules.

A " Time at Bat " is the term at bat of a batsman. It begins when

he takes his position and continues until he is put out or becomes a baserunner; except when, because of being hit by a pitched ball, or in case of an illegal delivery by the pitcher, or in case of a sacrifice hit purposely made to the infield which, not being a base-hit, advances a base-runner without resulting in a put-out, except to the batsman, as in Rule 45.

"Legal" or " Legally " signifies as required by these rules.


No time at bat shall be scored if the batsman be hit by a pitched ball while standing in his position, and after trying to avoid being so hit, or in case of the pitchers illegal delivery of the ball to the bat which gives the batsman his base, or when he intentionally hits the ball to the field, purposely to be put out, or if he is given first base on called balls.

A base-hit should be scored in the following cases:

When the ball from the bat strikes the ground within the foul lines and out of reach of the fielders.

When a hit ball is partially or wholly stopped by a fielder in motion, but such player cannot recover himself in time to handle the ball before the striker reaches first base.

When a ball is hit with such force to an infielder that he cannot handle it in time to put out the batsman. (In case of doubt over this class of hits, score a base-hit and exempt the fielder from the charge of an error.)

When a ball is hit so slowly toward a fielder that he cannot handle it in time to put out the batsman.

That in all cases where a baserunner is retired by being hit by a batted ball, the batsman should be credited with a base-hit.

When a batted ball hits the person or clothing of the umpire. In no case shall a base-hit be scored when a base-runner has been forced out by the play.


Where a batsman is given out by the umpire for a foul strike, or where the batsman fails to bat in proper order, the put-out shall be scored to the catcher. In all cases of " out" for interference, running out of line, or infield fly dropped, the "out" should be credited to the player who would have made the play but for the action of the baserunner or batsman.

An assist should be given to each player who handles the ball in assisting a put-out or other play of the kind.

And generally an assist should be given to each player who handles or assists in any manner in handling the ball from the time it leaves the bat until it reaches the player who makes the put-out, or in case of a thrown ball, to each player who throws or handles it cleanly and in such a way that a put-out results, or would result if no error were made by the receiver.


An error shall be given for each misplay which allows the striker or base-runner to make one or more bases when perfect play would have insured his being put out, except that "wild pitches," "bases on balls," bases on the batsman being struck by a "pitched ball," or in cases of illegal pitched balls, balks and passed balls, all of which comprise battery errors, shall not be included in said column.

One Old Cat, a kind of base ball played by any number of persons. The Home base is the only base, and the positions of the players are Batsman, Catcher, Pitcher, and any number of fielders, called First Field, Second Field, and so on. The striker keeps his place till he is put out. He is out if a fair fly or a foul bound is caught, all balls being fair that strike in front of the base, or if the Catcher catch, the ball after his third strike. If the ball is not caught at the third strike he has three more,

and no strikes are counted except those actually made. When the striker is put out he takes the place of the lowest fielder. Each fielder then rises one step in rank, and First Field becomes Pitcher, while Pitcher takes the Catcher's place, and Catcher goes to the bat. Sometimes, when a fair ball is caught, the fielder who makes the catch is allowed to go to the bat at once. The Batsman takes the lowest place as before, but only those lower than the successful fielder rise in rank.

One Old Cat is sometimes varied by having two bases, Home and First Base, and making the Batsman run to the latter and back when he strikes a fair ball. If he does so without being put out at Home, he scores a run. There is no First Baseman.

Two Old Cat. This differs from One Old Cat only in having two Batsmen, to whom the ball is pitched alternately, the Catcher for one acting as Pitcher for the other. The fielders are partly behind one Batsman and partly behind the other.

Single-Handed Base, a kind of Base Ball resembling One Old Cat, with a First Base, except that there is a First Baseman, who can put the striker out as in the regular game. No count is kept of runs; but if the Batsman reaches his base safely the Baseman goes to the bat, and the two thus alternate till one of them is put out. When there is an out, the players change positions as in One Old Cat, except the Baseman, who continues at his post, and alternates with the new Batsman.

History, Games of ball in which a feature is running from one base or goal to another have probably been played for a long time, and games of some sort in which a bat is used are still older (see Cricket). The illustration, from an old manuscript, shows a game of "club ball" in the 14th century. In 1748 the family of the Prince of Wales are said to have played "Base Ball," and in 1798

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called Rounders. It has been said many times that American Base Ball is derived from Rounders, but some writers deny this, and the only ground for the assertion seems to be the similarity of the games, which have, very likely, a common origin.

Similar games are favorites in other European countries. In Deutches Ballspiel (German ball) the field is nearly square and the striker stands on one of the sides. There are but two bases, and the striker runs from one to the other and back. If the ball is thrown at him and hits him, while running, he is out. The last one out can call for three strikes, as in Rounders. The French "Balle au Camp" (Camp Ball) is also like Rounders, except that the ball is struck with the hand, no bat being used. The shape of the field (called the Camp) and the number of bases vary in different places. In a form of the same called Balle Empoisonfe (Poisoned Ball), the base-runner may kick the ball out of his way, but must not touch it with his hands, it being considered "poisoned."

The first regular Base Ball club in the United States is believed

to have been the " Knickerbocker" of New York, formed in 1845. Others soon followed, a uniform set of rules was adopted by a convention of clubs in 1857, and in 1858 " The National Association of Base Ball Players" was organized. In 1859a rule was passed forbidding paid players to take part in matches, but this was often broken, and in 1868 it was repealed. In 1871 the first association of paid or "professional" players was formed, and now there are several such. The old "National Association" is not now in existence, and the principal associations of amateur players are the various college associations. Base Ball is now widely known as the American national game, and it is the only outdoor game that is played almost exclusively in the United States. The principal difference between the present game and its earlier forms is that while at first the pitcher was compelled to pitch or toss the ball to the striker, as his name shows, he is now allowed to throw it. The result is that the ball is harder to hit and fewer runs are made. Formerly, in a match game, it was not unusual for each side to make thirty or forty runs.

BATTLEDORE AND SHUTTLECOCK, a game played by any number of persons. The implements are shown in the accompanying figures. The Shuttlecock is usually made of cork loaded with lead, or sometimes of rubber, and crowned with feathers. The Battledore is sometimes made entirely of wood, but better of parchment stretched over a wooden frame, and it is often strung with twine or catgut, like a lawn TENNIS racket. The object of the game is simply to prevent the Shuttlecock from falling to the ground by striking it from one player to another with the Battledore. The shuttlecock has in the air a spinning motion caused by the feathers. In whatever direction it is struck, it always turns so that the cork goes

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feet. Badminton, a game played also with Battledores and a Shuttlecock, is noticed at the end of the article on lawn TENNIS.

History. The game was played at least 500 years ago. In the 17th century it was a fashionable game. In a comedy printed in 1609 occur the words, "To play at shuttlecock methinks is the game now." The Battledore is named after a similar instrument once used for beating clothes in washing. The word (sometimes spelled Battledoor) is thought by some to be the Spanish batallador, a combatant, but it is more probably related to the words bat and beat. The Shuttlecock is so called because it is driven backward and forward like a shuttle in weaving. Some think it is for Shuttle cork, and some that it is called a cock on account of its feathers.

BATTLE GAME, THE. See Fox And Geese.

BEAN BAGS, a game with cloth

bags, partially filled with beans, played by any number of persons. After choosing sides, the players stand in two lines facing each other. Each line has a chair or table, at each end, on one of which are piled half the bean bags. At a signal, the player in each line nearest his pile of bags seizes them one by one and passes them along the line; as they reach the other end of the line they are placed on the chair or table at that end, and the side which first transfers all its bags wins the game. Each player must have hold of only one bag at a time, and must hold that in only one hand at a time, passing it from one hand to the other and from that to the next player in order. If a player pass a bag wrongly, or drop it, his side loses the game. There should be an umpire to decide all disputed questions. This game of bean bags is more amusing when it is played with bundles of clothes-pins loosely tied together, as it is difficult to hand the clothes-pins down the line without dropping some of them.

BELL AND HAMMER, a game played by any number of persons, with counters, dice, and five cards, which bear respectively the figures of a White Horse, an Inn, a Bell, a Hammer and a Bell and Hammer together. The dice bear not only numbers, but also blanks and the figures of a bell and hammer. One of the players is chosen as cashier, who distributes an equal number of counters to each. He then sells by auction, to the one who bids the highest number of counters, the five cards, separately. The counters thus paid are placed in the middle of the table to form the pool, to which each player pays four counters more. The players then throw the dice in order, the cashier first and then the others in any order he may choose, but the same order must be preserved during the game. If any one throw all blanks, each player must pay one counter to the holder of the White

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The game ends when some player takes all the counters in the pool, and such player acts as cashier for the next game. Bell and Hammer is much played in Germany, where it is called Glocke und Hammer (Bell and Hammer) or Schimmel (Horse).

BEZIQUE, a game of Cards played by two, three, or four persons, with as many EUCHre packs as there are players. The two-handed game will be described first. The cards rank as follows: Ace, Ten, King, Queen, Knave, Nine, Eight, and Seven. The players cut for deal and the highest deals eight cards to each; three, two, and three at a time. The cards that are left are called the stock, and are placed where each player can reach them. The dealer turns up the top card of the stock as a trump and lays it near the stock. Should it be a seven, he scores ten. The non-dealer now leads any

card he chooses, and his opponent follows, but he is not obliged to follow suit nor to win the trick. The winner of the trick scores ten for every Ace and every Ten in the trick, and may also lay on the table in front of him any group of cards that is named in the list given below, scoring the proper number of points for it. This is called making a declaration, and the cards so laid down are said to be declared. They are still part of his hand, though they remain on the table, and he may play them like the others. After the declaration, if there is any (otherwise immediately after the trick is taken),the winner adds to his hand the top card of the stock, and his opponent takes the next one; thus each has eight cards as at first. The winner of the last trick leads, and the playing, declaring, and drawing go on till the stock is exhausted. After

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