they cry out "Coming! say nothing !" and, if there is no reply, they go out in different directions to look for the Wolf. If the Wolf is not ready when he hears the cry he must shout "No!" and the others must then wait a reasonable time before they shout again. When any one finds the Wolf he cries "Wolf!" to let the others know, and all then run to the goal. If the Wolf can touch any of them beforethey reach it, the ones caught become Wolves also, and hide with him next time; but if he catches no one he must hide again alone. The game goes on till all are Wolves and the first one caught by the Wolf is Wolf at the beginning of the next game. The Wolf often does not wait to be found, but runs out whenever he thinks there is a good chance to catch any one. If he can get to the goal before any of the others he can generally touch many of them as they come in. In such a case one of the best runners can often lead the Wolf away on a chase while the others run in to the goal. The game may be blocked by the Wolf's keeping close to the goal in such a case, or by his insisting on chasing a player he cannot catch. The players, therefore, before the game, should agree either that the Wolf must select some one player to pursue, and allow that player to return to goal if not caught in a certain time, or that all the players must run in to goal, letting the Wolf touch whom he can. When there are several Wolves they may hide in the same place or different places, as they choose, and any one of them may run out when he pleases. If the Wolves arrange among them where they shall hide and how they shall run out, they usually succeed in catching more players than when each follows a method of his own. Any player

who wishes may remain at the goal, instead of running out to look for the Wolves.

This game is sometimes called "Whoop" in England. There is never more than one player that hides, and he tries to catch but one. The one caught carries his captor to the goal on his back, and then hides in his turn.

WORD MAKING AND WORD taking. See Logomachy.

WRESTLING. A sport in which one person tries to throw another to the ground. There are several kinds, which differ chiefly in the manner inwhich thecontestantsare

Wrestling—Fig. i.

allowed to hold one another. The simplest and best kind for boys is the kind first practised in Cumberland, England. In this country this form of wrestling is commonly called " backhold " catch. In it the contestants are allowed to hold each other in only one way, which is arranged before the wrestling begins. The wrestlers stand chest to chest, each placing his chin on the other's shoulder and grasping him around the body, as shown in Fig. 1, the right arm of each being under his opponent's left. They are allowed to use every means to throw each other, except kicking or similar injury, and if either con The object of each is now to seize his opponent under the latter's arms which is called getting the "underhold," and is an advantage. In Fig. 3 the boy whose back is toward the spectator has the underhold. The opponent tries to prevent this by pushing aside his hands. Neither may succeed in getting the underhold, in which case the wrestling is similar to that just described. If either get the underhold, he may throw his opponent by lifting him up bodily or by drawing him forward by the waist and pushing backward against his breast, as well

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ders touch the floor. The object of each contestant in this kind of wrestling should be to force his right shoulder beneath his opponent's arm-pit. To prevent this, the latter must keep his left arm pressed in as far as possible. Each tries to throw the other by swinging him sidewise, pulling him forward, or pushing him backward, at the same time trying to trip him in various ways. Some of the devices employed are described below.

The Back-heel. The wrestler puts his foot behind his opponent's heel and tries to bend him over it. To meet this, the latter may loosen his hold or turn his side.

The Buttock. The wrestlerturns as far as he can to the right, then he straightens up and at the same time throws his left leg back of his opponent's left, which will enable him to bend him over backward for a fall by doubling him over his hip. To meet this the opponent will hold him tight, and at the moment of his tryingto trip, he will endeavor to lock his left leg from the inside around the left of his adversary, and then bend him over backward for a fall. This last is called a " back-hank."

The Hank. The wrestler turns sidewise, twists his leg about that

of his adversary, and pulls him backward. To meet this the opponent should lean forward and strengthen his hold.

The Click. The wrestler pulls his opponent forward to make him resist by dragging back, and then suddenly ceasing, trips him up with one foot.

The Hipe. The wrestler forces his shoulder under his adversary's right arm, lifts him up as far as possible, and at the same time catching the opponent's left leg with his right, drags it up. If properly done, this brings the opponent down on his back. The hipe may be performed with the left shoulder and leg; and though this is not so easy, if it fails, the wrestler is left in a position for a Buttock.

Dog Fall. This occurs when both wrestlers fall to the ground together. They must then break their hold, rise, and begin the contest anew.

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as in the other ways described. Sometimes tripping is not allowed in this kind of wrestling, and sometimes several other holds are allowed, such as seizing the head with one or both hands or with the arm taking the shoulders or arms with one or both hands; seizing the legs; or a combination of any two of these holds.

In the shoulder grip, shown in Fig. 4, the wrestler seizes his opponent by the shoulders with both hands, pulls him outwards, to right or left, and throws him with a sudden jerk, using any trip that is available.

One of the arm grips is shown in Fig. 5, where the wrestler seizes his opponent with both hands by the left fore-arm, pulls him quickly forward, and, putting the arm over his shoulder, throws him, as shown in

the cut. Fig. 6 shows a method of throwing by a leg grip.

In Collar and Elbow, or Cornish wrestling, the hold is by the jacket,

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"Catch as Catch Can." The rules of the kinds of wrestling most generally used in public contests in this country are given below.

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Wrestling—Fig. 7.

collar and elbow, suitable for the grasp of an opponent. They shall wear rubber sandals on the feet.

2. Each man shall take hold of the collar of his opponent with his right hand, while with the left hand he must take hold of the right elbow.

3. Both men shall stand up breast and breast, with limber arms, and show fair and equal play with the feet.

4. Either man breaking his hold with one or both hands, to save himself from a fall, shall forfeit said fall.

5. All falls must be square back falls; either two hips and one shoulder or two shoulders and one hip to be on the carpet simultaneously, to constitute a fall.

6. Striking upon the face, side or knees is no fall, and nothing shall be allowed for forcing a man from such positions to his back. Going down on one or both knees is fair, as long as no holds are broken.

7. A rest of at least ten and not more than twenty minutes shall be allowed between each fall.

8. The first fall, best two in three or three in five, shall win, according to mutual agreement.

9. The ring shall be twenty-four feet square, and nobody shall be allowed inside except the referee and two umpires.


i. The contestants can take any hold, trip or lock they please.

2. To constitute a fall, two shoulders must strike the floor simultaneously.

3. Long or short drawers must be worn, and nothing heavier for the feet will be allowed than socks and thin slippers.

4. A rest of at least ten and not more than twenty minutes shall be allowed between each fall.

5. The umpires shall take their positions at a proper distance from the contestants, and there remain, and will not be allowed to talk to or advise the principals during the contest. They shall however have the right to call the attention of the referee to any point which, in their judgment, may require his decision.

6. Doing anything to injure an opponent shall be considered foul. For each violation of this rule the offender shall be deemed to have lost a fall, and the referee shall have the power to award the match to the injured party.

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but finally their use was forbidden and the wrestlers contended naked, their bodies being made slippery with oil. In the middle ages wrestling was a sport only among the lower classes, though knights and nobles often looked on at wrestling bouts. They were very rough, and the wrestlers were frequently maimed or even killed. A medisval wrestling match is shown in Fig. 7. Fig. 8, from an old manuscript, shows an early English wrestling match in which the contestants mounted on the shoulders of other men. In early times (14th and 15th centuries), in England, such matches

were held on feast days before the Lord Mayor and aldermen of London, dressed in their robes of office. After the Reformation the sport was not in favor, yet it was kept up in the west and north of England and by students at the Universities. Advocates of athletic sports tried hard to bring it into favor again, but physicians thought it caused rheumatism and ague, and it was not until about 1826 that it began to be revived. Since that time it has been popular.

The Japanese are famous wrestlers. Fig. 9 shows one of their contests.

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