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YACHTING. Much information about different kinds of boats and rigging will be found in the article Sailing. There are now in this country about 75 yacht clubs, 20 of which are in New York and 10 in Boston. Only a few of the boats are large racers, the great majority of the 2000 boats on the official lists being comparatively small. Besides these, there are many thousand others whose owners belong to no club. The yacht clubs all hold races once or twice a year, and offer prizes for the fastest yacht. As the boats are of many different sizes, what is called a system of time-allowances is adopted, that small boats may race on even terms with larger ones. The object is to give a greater time-allowance the smaller the boat, and then credit it with the difference between this calculated time and the real time. Thus the time-allowance of a small boat may be 2 minutes per mile. If the course is 20 miles long, and she makes it in 80 minutes, her corrected time would be 80-40, or 40; while a larger boat, with a time-allowance of half a minute, whose actual time was but 56 minutes, would be credited with 56-10 or 46, and would therefore be beaten. There has been much discussion over the proper method of calculating timeallowances, and each club generally adopts its own rules. The English rule is based on the length and beam, which is one reason why English yachts are so narrow, the time-allowance being thus larger. The New York clubs use now a measurement based on sailarea and length, and the New England Racing Association one based on length alone. In the former system the allowance varies from nothing for the largest yacht up to 136 seconds per mile for the
smallest; and in the latter, frcci nothing for a boat 116 feet lots up to 5 minutes 29 seconds foroe^ only 12 feet long. The yachts in a club are usually divided into das es, according to their rig and measurement for time-allowance.
Steam launches and yachts. Steam launches are usually long and narrow, and have no decks. The boiler, which is upright, & placed in the centre of the boat, the engine aft, and the boat is driven by a screw propeller. The length varies from thirty to forty feet, the beam from seven to nine, and the draft from two and a half to three feet.
Steam yachts are larger thaa launches, with decks and cabins, and some of them are fitted up with great magnificence. The largest steam yacht in this countis the Alva, owned by W. K. Vair. derbilt, which is 285 feet long ate has 32.3 feet beam. Steam yachts generally have also masts and sails, to be used in case of accident to the machinery.
Some steam yachts have what is called a safety-coil boiler, in which a coil of pipe contains the water and. there is no danger ot explosion. Small launches have what are called naphtha engines, inwhicb the expansion of a small quantity of naphtha vapor drives the piston. These engines occupy little room and can be run by any one. To run a steam-engine a license from the United States Government s required. The only steam yacfc: club in this country is the American Yacht Club, formed in New York in 1883. There are several systems of time-allowance forsteam yacht racing, most of which are based simply on the length of the yacht. In the system devised by Dr. C. E. Emery, a yacht 50 feet long is allowed a speed of 9.947 knots an hour, and one of 300 feet 18.074 knots; so that if the former should make 12 knots in a race while the latter made 19, the smaller yacht would be considered the winner. The best recorded time made by a steam yacht was from Larchmont, N. Y.,to New London, Conn. (about 90 miles), in 4 hours, 34 minutes, 57 seconds, by the Atlanta, July 15, 1886.
History. Sailing for pleasure is a very old form of amusement. In the 17th century Englishmen were accustomed to buy their pleasureboats from the Dutch, and called them yachts, from the Dutch jagt, a swift form of sailing vessel. The first yacht race on record was in 1661, between Charles II., King of England, and his brother the Duke of York, afterward James II. The first organized yacht club was the Cork Harbor Water Club, of Cork, Ireland, formed in 1720, which was soon followed by the Royal Yacht Club and others in England. The yachts of this period were broad, had blunt or "bluff" bows, and drew but little water. The fourteen sail-boats owned by Charles II. varied in length from 31 to 66 feet, in beam from i2j^to21.6feet,and in draught water from 6 to 7.6 feet. Before the present century Americans
adopted a longer, deeper and narrower boat. The English followed, and have gone on in the same direction until the English " cutter" has become the narrowest and deepest of yachts. In this country, on the other hand, the tendency has been to return to boats of the old type, called by some people, in derision, "skimming dishes," because they are broad and shallow. One reason why the English favor such deep boats is because of the rough seas and deep water near England, and deep vessels sail better in very rough water. In this country the first yacht club, the New York Club, was formed in 1844.
In 1851, during the World's Fair in London, a keel schooneryacht, called the America, built for the purpose, was sent to England from New York to compete with English yachts. She raced, Aug. 22, 1851, fifteen English yachts, for a silver cup, and won it. This victory created great interest in yachting in both countries. In 1857 the cup won by the America was given by her owners to the New York Yacht Club, to be held till won by some foreign yacht. A list of the races for it, all of which have been held near New York, over a forty mile course, is given in the appendix. .
between the slits then comes between. Thus he will see in the same place a succession of momentary pictures, each in a slightly different posture, and it will seem to him as though he saw the man playing the bass viol. In this way an endless variety of movements may be counterfeited.
The disk bearing the figures is often made a little smaller than the one with the slits, and fastened with it on the axis at the same point (see Fig. 2). The observer then looks through the slits at a mirror, and the effect is the same