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. oi.LIC Li3RARY

570549

ASTOR, LENOX and
TILDEN FOUNDATIONS.
* 191V L

Copyright, 1890,
HENRY tiOLT ft CO.

ROBERT DRUMMOND, ElBCTROTVPRR AND TRINTFR, NEW

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The Young Folks' Cyclopedia Of Games And Sports is a compendium of recreations of all kinds, including indoor and outdoor games and plays, athletic and rural sports and pastimes, chemical and mechanical experiments and amusements, and every similar thing that can interest a wide-awake boy or girl. Like the other volumes in the Young Folks' Series, it is in cyclopaedic style, a novelty in a work of this kind, rendering its articles easy of reference, and combining other advantages never before united in a similar volume. Intended primarily for the family, for the use of children and youth of all ages, it will be of equal value to the adult, as it includes the official rules, given word for word, of athletic sports and standard games, and the official records of athletic meets and events, thus making it a work of reference for the settlement of disputed questions relating to such matters. To insure accuracy, such articles as require it have been revised by competent experts.

Among the features of the work are a brief historical sketch of each game or sport, the description of foreign varieties of each, a full illustration of the text by accurate plans and diagrams, and a system of etymology, as in the other volumes of the series, giving the derivation of names and technical terms. While the " padding" characteristic of too many such works has been rigorously excluded, the endeavor has been to make the explanations full enough for simplicity and clearness. Unlike many other works on sports and games published in this country, which are merely reprints of English books, this cyclopaedia has been written for American use from the American standpoint, even such a game as Cricket being treated as it is played in the United States.

While the illustration is very full, no picture has been inserted for its own sake, or otherwise than as an aid to the understanding of the text or the elucidation of different periods of games and sports.

A large number of works on sports and kindred subjects, in many languages, have been consulted and freely used in the preparation of this book, which is believed to be more comprehensive in its scope than any other similar publication. The editors are indebted to Messrs. A. G. Spalding & Bros, for permission to print the football rules of the University Athletic Club, and the official rules of other athletic sports.

In the present edition the description and rules of all such sports as baseball, football and tennis have been brought carefully down to date, the articles on cycling and golf have been greatly enlarged in view of the increased popularity of both, and other changes have been made to increase the value of the book.

New York, January Io, 1899.

Note.—Through an oversight of the editors, credit was not given in the earlier editions to Mr. Dan Beard for sundry devices and suggestions derived from the "American Boys' Handy Book."

New York, May 19, 1905.

CITY OF NlfiW YORK.

THE

YOUNG FOLKS' CYCLOPEDIA

GAMES AND SPORTS.'".

LP Words printed in LETTERS LIKE thESE are explained in their alphabetical places

The references C. C. T. and C. P. P., are to the M Young Folks' Cyclopaedia of Common Things," and the "Young Folks' Cyclopaedia of Persons and Places," companion volumes to this, which explain a great deal not coming within the plan of this book.

A

A—B—C. A game played by any number of persons with a pack of Cards, on each of which are a letter of the alphabet and a picture. The pack is placed face upward on the table, and each player in order names an object in the picture on the top card which begins with the letter on thatcard. Any one who cannot do so in less that one minute is out. No

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Agon Board ready for Playing.

ADJECTIVES. A game played by any number of persons. One writes a letter, leaving blank spaces for the adjectives, and then asks the other players, in order, to furnish the missing words without knowing what has been written. The letter is then read aloud. The game may be varied by leaving blanks for other words than adjectives, but in that case each

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player must be told what part speech he is expected to supply.

AGON, or the QUEEN'S GUARDS. A game played by two persons on a six-sided board like that represented in the pictures. Each player has seven pieces, a Queen, which is slightly higher than the others, and her six Guards. Each places his Queen on the corner space in front of him,

. and the guards are then arranged . alternately on the outermost .row as 'shown in the first illustration* The ^object of the game is to .get a Queen ..i'njto the center with rjeYfiuarcls ranged #on the six spaces arouij"d-hVr,as shown •W.-tfje'secood. figure, acq the player hyfjrstgrets his'p"iece,Sm thisposition wjTis".. The players move alternately afte"r<lje,firs$ move has been decided. Any piece may be moved one space forward or sideways, but never backward. If any Guard gets between two hostile pieces so that the three form a straight line on adjacent spaces, such Guard must be taken up for the next move, and placed somewhere on the outermost row. If the Queen gets in a similar situation she must likewise be taken up, but she may be placed anywhere on the board.

In playing, it is well to try to arrange the pieces so that several of the enemy's Guards can be taken up in succession, rather than to throw back one piece alone, for in the latter case that piece is often able to secure a good position. As no piece can be moved backward he who has a man in the rear has an advantage. It is a good plan to keep one man back and hurry the others forward, keeping them together as close as possible.

RULES OF THE GAME.

1. None but the Queens must occupy the center space.

2. Of two or more pieces liable to be thrown back at one time, the Queen, if she be one, must be taken up first, and the others may be taken in any order the player chooses, the removal of each piece counting as a move.

3. If a piece be touched preparatory to moving, it must be moved or the move be lost.

4. If the six Guards are placed in the circle surrounding the center space, leaving the Queen outside, the player of them forfeits the game.

AIR-PUMP, Experiments with an. The common air-pump is described

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in C. C. T. A simpler one may be made with a large glass jar or bottle, closed with a rubber stopper having a hole through it. Into the hole put a short piece of glass tubing, over the end of which fit a piece of rubber tubing, about an inch and a half long (See Fig. 1). Exhaust the lungs, apply the mouth to the tube and suck. Pinch the rubber tube tightly to prevent air entering the bottle, and after exhausting the lungs again, repeat the process. If the air is to be kept exhausted for some time, a pinch-cock (see ChemIcal Experiments) should be fastened to the rubber tube. In this way about three-quarters of the air can be removed from the jar.

EXPERIMENTS.

1. Put into the jar a small vaseline or other wide-mouthed bottle, with a piece of thin rubber cloth tied over the top. On exhausting the air, the cloth will bulge up like a balloon (See Fig. 2). This is caused by the air trying to get out of the bottle, owing to the lightening of the pressure above it.

2. Instead of exhausting the air, condense it, by forcing the breath into the bottle, pinching the rubber tube between breaths, as before.

The rubber cloth on the small bottle will bulge inward (see Fig. 3), owing to the increased pressure above it.

3. Replace the short glass tube with a longer one, c, having a jet b (see Chemical ExperiMents) on the end inside the jar. Exhaust the air as before, and then keeping the rubber tube pinched, hold the jar upside down, and put the end of

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