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30 pupils, nine positive cases and nored instructions to consult a phyfour suspicious ones were found in sician when the school nurse sent November

their children home with suspicious In addition to the impetus which throats. was given the epidemic by the Steps have now been taken to cororiginal faulty diagnosis, imperfect rect these laxities, as a result of adquarantine regulations aided its vice given by Dr. Albaugh at a spread. Cases were released from meeting of health authorities, quarantine, when apparently cured, school officials, physicians and without bacteriological examination Findlay residents. Findlay's fight, of throat cultures to establish free- however, has become a much more dom from infection. As a result, difficult one than it would have later examinations have proved that been in the beginning. This situaa number of patients who were re- tion is due largely to the failure of leased still had the germs in their everybody concerned — physicians, throats and acted as dangerous school officials and teachers and "carriers."

parents, as well as health officials Parents also failed to take their to take the epidemic seriously responsibilities seriously, and ig- enough when it started.

PLANS UNDER WAY FOR THIRD DISTRICT'S

NEW TUBERCULOSIS HOSPITAL Ohio's sixth district tuberculosis Tuberculosis deaths in 1916 in hospital is to be located in District 'the five counties of District 3 numNo. 3, comprising Lorain, Huron, bered 198, divided among the counErie, Sandusky and Ottawa coun

ties as follows: Erie 43, Huron ties, according to a decision reached

25, Lorain 82, Ottawa 16, Sandusky by representatives of these counties

32. For preceding years the death in a recent meeting at Sandusky.

totals for the district were as folIt is proposed to spend $150,000 lows:

222 in 1909, 230 in 1910, on the structure, which will ac

215 in 1911, 230 in 1912, 195 in commodate 100 patients. The site has not been selected.

1913, 182 in 1914, 168 in 1915. The plan under consideration

The addition of the new district calls for the extension of the initial will raise to 32 the total number of expenditure over 10 years, with counties which are providing care yearly installments of $15,000.

for their tuberculous citizens. DisEstimates put the cost to the tax- trict hospitals already established payers at about five cents

per

-located at Dayton, Springfield, $1,000 per year for 10 years. The Lima, Springfield Lake and Chiltotal tax duplicate of the five coun- licothe provide for 22 counties. ties interested is $361,422,670. There are also three county and

The cost, which is assessed by two municipal tuberculosis hospilaw among the participating coun- tals. Besides the 32 counties thus ties in proportion to the relative accommodated, nine counties mainsizes of their tax duplicates, will tain their patients in a private sanfall as follows: Lorain county itarium at McConnelsville, under $52,537, Huron $25,754, Erie $28, contract. The state sanatorium at 374, Sandusky $27,225, Ottawa Mt. Vernon cares for incipient $16,109.

cases.

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During the five years, which fever-those two generally dreaded ended a year ago, nearly 2,400

diseases of childhood. During the Ohio children died of whooping five years in question either meacough. In the same period 1,849 sles or whooping cough alone took deaths from measles occurred in

more lives than did scarlet fever, the state. Of those who died of

and the two together practically whooping cough, nearly four-fifths

equalled diphtheria in fatality.
were babies a year old or younger,
and all but a bare handful were

Data for 1916 are not included under five years old. In the case

in the tables herewith, which were of the measles victims, three compiled before detailed figures by fourths were under five years old.

age groups were available for that The figures in the accompanying

year. The totals alone, however, table show in detail the terrific

for 1916 are as follows: Whoopgamble with death which is under ing cough 674, measles 781, diphtaken by the thoughtless mother

theria and croup 621, scarlet fever who exposes her baby to either of 210. these diseases — "so it will get Last year, that is, produced them and have it over." The table whooping cough and measles death also shows how measles and totals larger than any of the prewhooping cough compare. in fa- ceding five years and diphtheria tality with diphtheria and scarlet and scarlet fever totals smaller

OHIO DEATH TOTALS FOR THE FIVE YEARS 1911-15 INCLUSIVE,
BY AGE GROUPS, FOR THE FOUR LEADING CHILDHOOD

EPIDEMICS:
Whooping

Diphtheria Scarlet
Age.

Cough. Measles. and Croup. Fever.
Under 1

1,310
391
234

87 year.

572 568

513

168 223 239

596 202 112 122

509 203 80 468

149 82

177 1,238 51.9
101
502

239 20 years and over..

14 171

241

99 Totals

2,379 1,849 4,301 1,666

1 year
2 years
3 years
4 years
5 to 9 years.
10-19 years

OHIO DEATH TOTALS BY YEARS. 1911-15 INCLUSIVE, FOR THE

FOUR LEADING CHILDHOOD EPIDEMICS: Cause.

1911 I012 1913 1914

1915 Totals. Whooping cough

554 427 668 375 355 2,379 Measles

316
401
674
239

219 1,819 Diphtheria and Croup 691 1,104 1.051 783 672

4,301 Scarlet Fever

491 393
324 234 224

1,666

than any of those. Also, it should serious diseases, especially for very be noted that measles and whoop- young children. Many babies are ing cough in 1916 each killed more paying their lives each year as inpersons than either diphtheria or nocent victims of their parents' igscarlet fever.

or carelessness of this Measles and whooping cough are fact.

norance

HEALTH OFFICER'S CALENDAR FOR A YEAR

DUTIES LISTED BY MONTHS A health officer's calendar for

July the year has been published by the

Abolish insanitary places. Health News of the New York

Emphasize anti-fly measures, State Department of Health. This

such as the use of screens, fiy traps is the way it lists the health ex- and treatment of fly-breeding ecutive's duties as they come to the places with borax or hellebore. front in various months:

Administer anti-typhoid vacciJanuary

nation to those going on vacations. Guard against the introduction

August of measles, whooping cough, scar

Exercise particular care to prelet fever and tuberculosis. Stimulate the use of open win

vent the public from coming into

contact with persons having tydows in the home.

phoid fever. February

Employ isolation and proper disStimulate the organization of

infective measures until diagnosis local societies to foster health is established for persons returnwork.

ing from vacations with fever Continue January activity which continues several days. against the spread of the diseases mentioned for that month.

September

Take a disease census of school March

children to get information reConduct public health educa

garding the number non-immune tional work in regard to pneumonia

to the various communicable disand tuberculosis. Investigate the possibility of

October water supplies becoming infected during spring thaws.

Provide physicians with labora

tory supplies, literature and report April

blanks. Inspect dairies:

November
May

Guard against the introduction Inspect water supplies.

and spread of diphtheria. Carry out an official clean-up Stimulate local interest in a week.

physical examination for each Co-operate in the nation-wide member of each household. baby week. June

December Attend to inspection and licens- Aid sale of Red Cross Christmas ing of hotels, boarding houses and

seals. health resorts.

Prepare annual report.

eases.

U. S. Public Health Investigator Reports

on Springfield Survey

Following a survey of public quired of a public health nurse, health administrative methods in including post and prenatal work, Springfield, Dr. Carrol Fox of the welfare work, school nursing, and United States Public Health Serv- services required in the control of ice has submitted his report. He the communicable diseases. says:

That a nurse follow up every “The city of Springfield may birth reported to the health departtake just pride in the fact that it ment, and that she be provided has the foundation of an excellent with a "certificate of registration” health department which, by a lit- to present to the parents, this certle rearrangement and some addi- tificate to be furnished by the tions, could be made a highly effi- health department; and that activicient organization."

ties concerned in the conservation In the line of "rearrangements" of child life be carried on during and "additions," he makes the fol

the entire year. lowing recommendations :

That provision be made in the That a full-time bacteriologist new wing of the city hospital for be employed at not less than $1,000 the care of infants. a year. That the nursing staff be in

Isolation Hospital Urged creased by the addition of two That an isolation hospital of not public health nurses, each to re- less than 30 beds be constructed ceive a salary of not less than $900 on the site of the old hospital; that a year.

it be used for the isolation of all That a telephone clerk be added

communicable diseases (including to the staff of the health depart- smallpox) except tuberculosis. ment.

That the isolation hospital be Employ Food Inspector under the supervision of the city That a food inspector be em

hospital but that the admission and ployed at not less thas $900 a year

discharge of patients be placed to work under the supervision of

under the control of the health the milk and dairy inspector.

officer. That the board of education em

That typhoid fever be made a ploy one more nurse and attach its placardable disease, and that disstaff of nurses to the health de

infectants be issued free of charge partment.

to families in which there is a case That the anti-tuberculosis league

of that disease. employ a nurse instead of an in- That all children be required to vestigator and attach her to the be vaccinated against smallpox behealth department.

fore entering the public or paThat the city be divided into rochial schools. seven districts and a nurse placed That all surface wells and in each district to perform within privies be adolished within the city that district all of the duties re- limits.

That the city water supply be That thorough and comprehentreated by chlorination before it is sive study be made looking toward delivered to the consumer.

the development of a satisfactory

water supply for the city. Test Water Daily

That ordinances be passed reThat daily bacteriological exam- quiring the proper disposal of inations be made in the laboratory manure and stable refuse and the of the health department of the cutting of weeds. city water supply.

That the sanitary inspector be That all of the milk of the city

authorized to devote his entire time of Springfield be pasteurized be- to those matters which have a difore delivery to the consumer.

rect bearing on the spread of comThat the standard for pasteur

municable diseases, including the ized milk shall be as follows: that

abolition of surface wells and surit be heated rapidly to a tempera

face privies, the proper disposa! ture of 145° F. and held at that of manure, and the requirement temperature for 30 minutes; that that all householders provide themit be cooled immediately to a tem- selves with a garbage can. perature of 50° F. or lower and That the police department lend promptly bottled; and that it con- its co-operation by making it a tain not more than 50,000 bacteria

duty of the patrolmen to abate per cubic centimeter when deliv- those nuisances which have no diered to the consumer.

rect bearing on the spread of comThat milk from dairies which do municable disease, such as ash piles not score 60 or above be excluded. or other accumulations of rubbish,

That milk be transported from unsightly matters in general, producer to distributor in sealed weeds, chicken yards, slop water, cans, and that only bottled milk bad odors, etc. be sold to consumers.

Transfer Plumbing Inspector That the board of education appoint the health officer as a mem- That the plumbing inspector der of its teaching staff to lecture be transferred to a building dito the pupils of the high and gram- vision or the enineering departmar school on the subject of pub- ment. lic health, and that the pupils be That the poundmaster be transrequired to pass an examination ferred to the service department. on that subject upon the com- That as soon as practicable the pletion.

city inaugurate a system of gar

bage and refuse collection, includBulletin for School Pupils

ing manure. That the health department issue That not less than $17,000 be a weekly bulletin on the subject of appropriated to the health departthe lecture, a copy to be given to ment to be spent as outlined in the each pupil.

body of the report. That the city install as soon as

That in the building code, now practicable a modern disposal plant being written, ample provision be for the treatment of sewage, a incorporated to prevent block conchlorine plant for the treatment of gestion and overcrowding of the water supply, a municipal ab- houses; to regulate the construcattoir and an incinerator for the tion and use of tenement and lodgdisposal of garbage.

ing houses, etc.; to require toilet

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