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after, and the Board of Trustees of the Home were authorized to receive other indigent children into that institution, and provide for their education in industrial pursuits.

Trustees, 1881:-C. M. Holion, Iowa City; Seth P. Bryant, Daven port; C. C. Horton, Muscatine. S. W. Pierce, Davenport, Superintendent.

STATE NORMAL SCHOOL.

Cedar Falls, Black Hawk County. Chapter 129 of the laws of the Sixteenth General Assembly, in 1876, established a State Normal School at Cedar Falls, Black Hawk County, and required the Trustees of the Soldiers' Orphans' Home to turn over the property in their charge to the Directors of the new institution.

The Board of Directors met at Cedar Falls June 7, 1876, and duly organized. The Board of Trustees of the Soldiers' Orphans' Home met at the same time for the purpose of turning over to the Directors the property of that institution, which was satisfactorily done and properly receipted for as required by law.

On the 12th of July, 1876, the Board again met, when executive and teachers' committees were appointed and their duties assigned. A Steward and a Matron were elected, and their respective duties defined.

The buildings and grounds were repaired and fitted up as well as the appropriation would admit, and the first term of school opened September 6, 1876, commencing with twenty-seven and closing with eighty-seven students.

Directors, 1881:--C. C. Cory, Pella; E. H. Thayer, Clinton; G. S. Robinson, Storm Lake; N. W. Boyes, Dubuque; L. D. Lewelling, Mitchellville; J. J. Tollerton, Cedar Falls; E. Townsend, Cedar Falls, Treasurer. ASYLUM FOR FEEBLE-MINDED CHILDREN.

Glenwood, Mills County. Chapter 152 of the laws of the Sixteenth General Assembly, approved March 17, 1876, provided for the establishment of an asylum for feeble-minded children at Glenwood, Mills County, and the buildings and the grounds of the Soldiers' Orphans' Home at that place were to be used for that purpose. The asylum was placed under the management of three Trustees, one at least of whom should be a resident of Mills County. Children between the ages of 7 and 18 years are admitted. Ten dollars per month for each child actually supported by the State was appropriated by the act, and $2,000 for salaries of officers and teachers for two Fears.

Hon. J. W. Cattell, of Polk County; A. J. Russell, of Mills County, and W. S. Robertson, were appointed Trustees, who held their first meeting at Glenwood, April 26, 1876. The Trustees found the house and farm which had been turned over to them in a shamefully dilapidated condition. The fences were broken down and the lumber destroyed or carried away; the windows broken, doors off their hinges, foors broken and filthy in the extreme, cellars reeking with offensive odors from decayed vegetables, and every conceivable variety of filth and garbage; drains obstructed, cisterns broken, pump demoralized, wind-mill broken, roof leaky, and the whole property in the worst possible conditition. It was the first work of the Trustees to make the house tenable.

The institution was opened September 1, 1876; the first pupil admitted September 4, and the school was organized September 10.

Trustees, 1881:- Fred. O'Donnell, Dubuque; S. B. Thrall, Ottumwa; E. R. S. Woodrow, Glenwood; 0. W. Archibald, M. D., Medical Superintendent.

THE REFORM SCHOOL.

Eldora, Hardin County. By "An act to establish and organize a State Reform School for Juvenile Offenders," approved March 31, 1868, the General Assembly established a State Reform School at Salem, Lee (Henry) County; provided for a Board of Trustees, to consist of one person from each Congressional District. For the purpose of immediately opening the school, the Trustees were directed to accept the proposition of the Trustees of White's lowa Manual Labor Institute, at Salem, and lease, for not more than ten years, the lands, buildings, etc., of the Institute, and at once proceed to prepare for and open a reform school as a temporary establishment.

The contract for fitting up the buildings was let September 21, 1868, and on the 7th of October following, the first inmate was received from Jasper County. The law provided for the admission of children of both sexes under 18 years of age. In 1876 this was amended, so that they are now received at ages over 7 and under 16 years.

April 19, 1872, the Trustees were directed to make a permanent location for the school, and $45,000 was appropriated for the erection of the necessary buildings. The Trustees were further directed, as soon as practicable, to organize a school for girls in the buildings where the boys were then kept.

The Trustees located the school at Eldora, Hardin County, and in the code of 1873, it is permanently located there by law.'

The institution is managed by five Trustees, who are paid mileage, but no compensation for their services.

The object is the reformation of children of both sexes, under the age of 16 and over 7 years of age; and the law requires that the Trustees shall require the boys and girls under their charge to be instructed in piety and morality, and in such branches of useful knowledge as are adapted to their age and capacity, and in some regular course of labor, either mechanical, manufacturing or agricultural, as is best suited to their age, strength, disposition and capacity, and as may seem best adapted to secure the reformation and future benefit of the boys and girls.

A boy or girl committed to the State Reform School is there kept, disciplined, instructed, employed and governed, under the direction of the Trustees, until he or she arrives at the age of majority, or is bound out, reformed or legally discharged. The binding out or discharge of a boy or girl as reformed, or having arrived at the age of majority, is a complete release from all penalties incurred by conviction of the crime for which he or she is committed. ..

Trustees, 1881:-J. A. Parvin, Muscatine, President; W. J. Moir, Eldorado, Treasurer; W. G. Stewart, Dubuque; J. T. Moorhead, Ely; T. E. Corkhill, Mount Pleasant; B. J. Miles, Eldora, Superintendent. L. D. Lewelling is Superintendent of the Girl's Department, at Mitchellville, Polk County. . FISH HATCHING ESTABLISHMENT.

Near Anamosa, Jones County. The Fifteenth General Assembly, in 1874. passed - An act to provide for the appointment of a Board of Fish Commissioners for the construction of fish ways for the protection and propagation of fish;" also "an act to provide for furnishing the rivers and lakes with fish and fish spawn." This act appropriated $3,000 for the purpose. In accordance with the provisions of the first act above mentioned, on the 9th of April, 1874, S. B. Evans, of Ottumwa, Wapello County; B. F. Shaw, of Jones County, and Charles A. Haines, of Black Hawk County, were appointed to be Fish Commissioners by the Governor. These Commissioners met at Des Moines, May 10, 1874, and organized by the election of Mr. Evans, President; Mr. Shaw, Secretary and Superintendent, and Mr. Haines, Treasurer.

The State was partitioned into three districts or divisions to enable the Commissioners to better superintend the construction of fish ways as required by law. At this meeting, the Superintendent was authorized to build a State Hatching House; co procure the spawn of valuable fish adapted to the waters of Iowa; hatch and prepare the young fish for distribution, and assist in putting them into the waters of the State.

In compliance with these instructions, Mr. Shaw at once commenced work, and in the summer of 1874, erected a “State Hatching House” near Anamosa, 20x40 feet, two stories; the second story being designed for a tenement; the first story being the "hatching room." The hatching troughs are supplied with water from a magnificent spring, four feet deep and about ten

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feet in diameter, affording an abundant and unfailing supply of pure running water. During the first year, from May 10, 1874, to May 10, 1875, the Commissioners distributed within the State 100,000 shad, 300,000 California salmon, 10,000 bass, 80,000 Penobscot (Maine) salmon, 5,000 land-locked salmon, 20,000 of other species.

By act approved March 10, 1876, the law was amended so that there should be one instead of three Fish Commissioners, and B. F. Shaw was appointed, and the Commissioner was authorized to purchase twenty acres of land, on which the State Hatching House was located, near Anamosa.

In the fall of 1876, Commissioner Shaw gathered from the sloughs of the Mississippi, where they would have been destroyed, over a million and a half of small fish, which were distributed in the various rivers of the State and turned into the Mississippi.

In 1875-6, 533,000 California salmon, and in 1877, 303,500 lake trout were distributed in various rivers and lakes in the State. The experiment of stocking the small streams with brook trout is being tried, and 81,000 of the speckled beauties were distributed in 1877. In 1876, 100,000 young eels were distributed. These came from New York, and they are increasing rapidly.

A. A. Mosier, of Spirit Lake, was appointed Assistant Fish Commissioner by the Governor, under Chapter 156, Laws of 1880.

la In 1876% rivers of half of

THE PUBLIC LANDS.

The grants of public lands made in the State of Iowa, for various purposes, are as follows:

1. The 500,000 Acre Grant.
2. The 16th Section Grant.
3. The Mortgage School Lands.
4. The University Grant.
5.. The Saline Grant.
6. The Des Moines River Grant.
7. The Des Moines River School Lands.
8. The Swamp Land Grant.
9. The Railroad Grant.
10. The Agricultural College Grant.

I. THE FIVE HUNDRED THOUSAND ACRE GRANT. When the State was admitted into the Union she became entitled to 500,000 acres of land by virtue of an act of Congress, approved September 4, 1841, which granted to each State therein specified 500,000 acres of public land for internal improvements; to each State admitted subsequently to the passage of the act, an amount of land which, with the amount that might have been granted to her as a Territory, would amount to 500,000 acres. All these lands were required to be selected within the limits of the State to which they were granted.

The Constitution of Iowa declares that the proceeds of this grant, together with all lands then granted or to be granted by Congress for the benefit of schools, shall constitute a perpetual fund for the support of schools throughout the State. By an act approved January 15, 1849, the Legislature established a Board of School Fund Commissioners, and to that Board was confided the selection, care and sale of these lands for the benefit of the School Fund. Until 1855, these Commissioners were subordinate to the Superintendent of Public Instruction, but on the 15th of January of that year, they were clothed with exclusive authority in the management and sale of school lands. The office of School Fund Commissioner was abolished March 23, 1858, and that officer in each county was required to transfer all papers to and make full settlement with the County Judge. By this act, County Judges and Township Trustees were made the agents of the State to control and sell the sixteenth sections; but no further provision was made for the sale of the 500,000 acre grant until April 3d, 1860, when the entire management of the school lands was committed to the Boards of Supervisors of the several counties.

II. THE SIXTEENTH SECTIONS. By the provisions of the act of Congress admitting Iowa to the Union, there was granted to the new State the sixteenth section in every township, or where that section had been sold, other lands of like amount for the use of schools. The Constitution of the State provides that the proceeds arising from the sale of these sections shall constitute a part of the permanent school fund. The control and sale of these lands were vested in the School Fund Commissioners of the several counties until March 23, 1858, when they were transferred to the County Judges and Township Trustees, and were finally placed under the supervision of the County Boards of Supervisors in January, 1861.

III. THE MORTGAGE SCHOOL LANDS. These do not belong to any of the grants of land proper. They are lands that have been mortgaged to the school fund, and became school lands when bid off by the State by virtue of a law passed in 1862. Under the provisions of the law regulating the management and investment of the permanent school fund, persons desiring loans from that fund are required to secure the payment thereof with interest at ten per cent. per annum, by promissory notes endorsed by two good sureties and by mortgage on unincumbered real estate, which must be situated in the county where the loan is made, and which must be valued by three appraisers. Making these loans and taking the required securities was made the duty of the County Auditor, who was required to report to the Board of Supervisors at each meeting thereof, all notes, mortgages and abstracts of title connected with the school fund, for examination.

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