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Rebellion in Ireland. The king writes to both houses. [BOOK IV. land, and exceedingly courted by all the party In the other parts of the kingdom they observed which governed. Whether he found that he had the time appointed, not hearing of the misfortunes raised a spirit that would not be so easily conjured of their friends at Dublin. A general insurrection down again, and yet would not be as entirely go- of the Irish spread itself over the whole country, verned by him as it had been ; or whether he de- in such an inhuman and barbarous manner, that sired from the beginning only to mend his own there were forty or fifty thousand of the English fortune, or was converted in his judgment that the protestants murdered, before they suspected themaction he was engaged in was not warrantable, cer- selves to be in any danger, or could provide for tain it is, that he had not been long in England, their defence, by drawing together into towns, or before he liked both the kingdom and the court so strong houses. well, that he was not willing to part with either. From Dublin, the lords justices, and council, He was of a pleasant and jovial humour, without despatched their letters by an express (the same any of those constraints which the formality of man who had made the discovery, one O'Conelly, that time made that party subject themselves to ; who had formerly been a servant to sir John Clotand he played his game so dexterously, that he worthy) to London, to the earl of Leicester, then was well assured upon a fair composition that the lord lieutenant of Ireland. From the parts of the Scots' army should return home well paid, and north, and Ulster, an express was sent to the king that they should be contented with the mischief himself, at Edinburgh; and the king's letters from they had already done, without fomenting the dis- thence, to the two houses, arrived within less than tempers in England. He was to marry a noble two days after the messenger from Dublin. lady of a great and ample fortune and wealth, and It was upon a Sunday night, that the letters should likewise be made a gentleman of the king's from Dublin came to the earl of Leicester ; who bed-chamber, and a privy-counsellor; and upon immediately caused the council to be summoned, these advantages made his condition in this king- and, as soon as it was met, informed them of the dom as pleasant as he could; and in order there- condition of Ireland; that is, so much as those unto, he resolved to preserve the king's power as letters contained : which were written, when little high as he could in all his dominions. When any more was known than the discovery at Dublin ; extraordinary accidents attend those private con- and what the conspirators had confessed upon tracts, men naturally are very free in their cen- their examinations. The house of peers had then sures, nd so his sudden falling into a sickness, adjourned itself to the Wednesday following; but and from a great vigour of body, in the flower of the house of commons were to meet on the next his age, (for he was little more than thirty,) into a day, Monday morning; and the council resolved, weakness, which was not usual, nor could the phy “ that they would in a body go to the house of sicians discover the ground of it, administered commons, as soon as it sat, and inform them of much occasions of discourse ; and that his coun- " it;" which they did ; notice being first given to trymen too soon discovered his conversion. He the house, “that the lords of the council had some was not able to attend upon his majesty to Scot “ matters of importance to impart to them, and land; where he was to have acted a great part; were above in the painted chamber ready to but he hoped to have been able to have followed come to them :" whereupon chairs were set in him thither. His weakness increased so fast, that the house for them to repose themselves, and the by the time the king was entered that kingdom, sergeant sent to conduct them. As soon as they the earl died at Richmond, whither he retired for entered the house, the speaker desired them to sit the benefit of the air ; and his death put an end down; and then being covered, Littleton, lord to all hopes of good quarter with that nation; and keeper, told the speaker, " that the lord lieutenant made him submit to all the uneasy and intolerable “ of Ireland, having received letters from the lords conditions there, they could impose upon him. justices and council there, had communicated Yet he returned from thence with some confidence “ them to the council; and since the house of that he should receive no more trouble from
peers was not then sitting, they had thought fit, thence, the principal persons there having made “ for the importance of the letters, to impart them him great acknowledgment, and greater profes “ to that house;" and so referred the business to sions; (for which he had given them all they could the lord lieutenant; who, without any enlargedesire, and indeed all and more than he had to ment, only read the letters he had received, and give :) and Lesley the general, whom he made earl so the lords departed from the house. of Leven, with precedence of all earls for his life, There was a deep silence in the house, and a had told him voluntarily, and with an oath, that kind of consternation: most men's heads having he would not only never serve against him, but been intoxicated, from their first meeting in parwould do him any service he should command, liament, with imaginations of plots, and treasonright or wrong.
able designs, through the three kingdoms. The There was a worse accident than all these, which affair itself seemed to be out of their cognizance ; fell out in the time of the king's stay in Scotland, and the communication of it served only to preand about the time of the two houses reconvening; pare their thoughts, what to do when more should which made a wonderful impression upon the be known; and when they should hear what the minds of men; and proved of infinite disadvantage king thought fit to be done. And when the king's to the king's affairs, which were then recovering letters arrived, they were glad the news had come new life; and that was the rebellion in Ireland : to him, when he had so good council about him to which broke out about the middle of October, in advise him what to do. all parts of the kingdom. Their design upon The king was not then informed of what had Dublin was miraculously discovered, the night been discovered at Dublin : but the letters out of before it was to be executed ; and so the surprisal Ulster (which he sent to the parliament) gave him of that castle prevented; and the principal con notice “ of the general insurrection in the north ; spirators, who had the charge of it, apprehended. I " and of the inhuman murders committed there,
121 upon a multitude of the protestants ; and that son and plot against the kingdom.
One day, “ sir Phelim O'Neil appeared as the general and a letter from beyond seas, of great forces pre“ commander in chief."
pared to invade England;" then, Upon which his majesty writ to the two houses, tempt upon the life of Mr. Pym ;” and no occa“ that he was satisfied that it was no rash insur- sion omitted to speak of the evil council about the
rection, but a formed rebellion; which must be king; when scarce a counsellor durst come near
prosecuted with a sharp war; the conducting him, or be suspected to hear from him; then an “ and prosecuting whereof he wholly committed to order must be framed to the marquis of Hertford, “ their care and wisdom, and depended upon them (governor to the prince,) to require him to take all “ for the carrying it on; and that for the present care of his highness' person, and a motion that the “ he had caused a strong regiment of fifteen hun king might be desired to make no privy-counsellor “ dred foot, under good officers, to be transported but such as the two houses might approve of, and “ out of Scotland into Ulster, for the relief of many other such extravagancies, which, though “ those parts;" which were upon the matter wholly they seemed then but the murmurings of inconinhabited by Scots and Irish; there being fewer siderable persons, were artificially vented to try English (there], than in any part of Ireland. the pulse of the house, and whether they were
This fell out to their wish; and thereupon they sufficiently inflamed with the new discoveries. made a committee of both houses, “ for the con After some days, a new bill was presented to
sideration of the affairs of Ireland, and pro- the house of commons, “ for the taking away the
viding for the supply of men, arms, and money, bishops' votes in parliament; and for disabling “ for the suppressing that rebellion;" the lord “ them to exercise any temporal office in the kinglieutenant of Ireland being one of the committee, “ dom:" against which was objected, “ that it was which sat every morning in the painted chamber; contrary to the course and order of parliament, and the lord lieutenant first communicated all the “ that any bill that had been rejected should be letters he received, to them to be consulted on, and again preferred the same session, and therefore to be thence reported to the two houses; which “ that it ought not to be so much as read :” to were hereby possessed of a huge power and de- which nothing was replied but noise; and that pendence; all men applying themselves to them, “ this bill varied in some clauses from the former ; that is, to the chief leaders, for their preferments and that the good of the kingdom absolutely dein that war: the mischief whereof, though in the pended upon it:" and so, by majority of voices, beginning little taken notice of, was afterwards felt it was ordered to be read; and afterwards, without by the king very sensibly.
any equal opposition, passed the house, and was These concurrent circumstances much altered transmitted to the lords: the greatest argument and suppressed that good humour and spirit the being, that their intermeddling with temporal houses were well disposed to meet with ; and the “ affairs was inconsistent with, and destructive to, angry men, who were disappointed of the prefer “the exercise of their spiritual function.” Whilst ments they expected, and had promised them their reformation, both in Scotland and this kingselves, took all occasions, by their emissaries, to dom, was driven on by no men so much as those insinuate into the minds of the people," that this of the clergy, who were their instruments. As, “ rebellion in Ireland was contrived or fomented without doubt, the archbishop of Canterbury had
by the king, or, at least, by the queen, for the never so great an influence upon the counsels at “advancement of popery; and that the rebels court, as Dr. Burgess and Mr. Marshall had then “ published and declared, that they had the king's upon the houses ; neither did all the bishops of
authority for all they did;” which calumny, Scotland together so much meddle in temporal though without the least shadow or colour of affairs, as Mr. Henderson had done. truth, made more impression upon the minds of There being at this time the bishoprics of Worsober and moderate men (who till then had much cester, Lincoln, Exeter, Chichester, and Bristol, disliked the passionate proceedings of the parlia- void by death, or translation; the king, during ment) than could be then imagined, or can yet be the time of his being in Scotland, collated to those believed. So great a prejudice, or want of reve sees, Dr. Prideaux, the regius professor of divinity rence, was universally contracted against the court, in Oxford; Dr. Winniff, dean of St. Paul's; Dr. especially against the queen, whose power and Brownerigg, master of Catherine-hall in Camactivity was thought too great.
bridge; Dr. Henry King, dean of Litchfield; and Shortly after the beginning of the parliament, Dr. Westfield, of Great St. Bartholomew's, Lonthere had been a committee appointed, “to pre- don; all of great eminency in the church; frequent
pare and draw up a general remonstrance of the preachers ; and not a man, to whom the faults of “ state of the kingdom, and the particular griev- the then governing clergy were imputed, or against
ances it had sustained;” but it scarce ever met, whom the least objection could be made.
meet;" for which, of course, a time and place to take away the old, the king should presume to
Animosities between some great lawyers and some [BOOK iv. who wished it, apprehended no possibility, that house of peers, if they had not been fatally sotted, the lords would join with them; or, if they did, must have resented it as a high presumption, and that the king would be prevailed with. However, insolent breach of privilege,) with more formality being glad to find their companions had so much and colour, though as unreasonably, they pressed, mettle, after a long debate, the major part carried “ that those thirteen bishops, whom they had it, “ that a committee should be appointed to draw before impeached, for making the late canons ;
up reasons to give the lords, to concur with " and upon whom their lordships themselves had “ them in that desire to the king :” but, after passed notable votes,” (such in truth as were that, moved that stone no further.
fitter for accusers than judges, unparliamentary In all debates of this nature, where the law, and unprecedented,)“ might be sequestered from reason, and common sense, were in a diameter “the house, till they should be brought to judgopposite to what they proposed, they suffered those “ ment.” And for this, without any shame, they who differed from them in opinion, and purposes, found lawyers in their house, who, prostituting to say what they thought fit in opposition; and the dignity and learning of their profession, to the then, without vouchsafing to endeavour their satis- cheap and vile affectation of popular applause, faction, called importunately for the question; well were not ashamed to aver custom and law for their knowing that they had a plurality of voices to con- senseless proposition. But the house of peers was cur with them, in whatsoever they desired. I re not yet deluded enough, or terrified, (though too member, in this last business, when it was voted many amongst them paid an implicit devotion to that a committee should be named to draw up the house of commons,) to comply in this unreareasons, the committee being to be named, many sonable demand. of those who had during the debate positively And here I cannot but with grief and wonder argued against the thing, were called upon to be remember the virulency and animosity expressed of that committee; and, amongst these, the lord upon all occasions, from many of good knowledge Falkland, and Mr. Hyde, who stood up, and in the excellent and wise profession of the common “ desired to be excused from that service, where law, towards the church and churchmen; taking
they could be of no use; having given so many all opportunities, uncharitably, to improve mistakes reasons against it, that they could not apprehend into crimes ; and, unreasonably, to transfer and
any could be given for it; therefore they thought impute the follies and faults of particular men “ the work would be better done, if those, who | (swollen with ambition or corrupted with avarice) “ had satisfied themselves with the reasonableness to the malignity of their order and function; and “of what they wished, would undertake the con so whet and sharpen the edge of the law, to wound
verting and disposing of other men.” There the church in its jurisdiction; and at last to cut was a gentleman who sat by, (Mr. Bond of Dor- it up by the roots, and demolish its foundation. chester; very severe, and resolved, against the It cannot be denied, that the peevish and petulant church and the court,) [who,] with much passion spirits of some clergymen have taken great pains and trouble of mind, said to them, “For God's to irreconcile that profession to them; and others
sake be of the committee ; you know none of as unskilfully (finding that in former times, when
our side can give reasons ;” which made those the religion of the state was a vital part of its that overheard him smile, though he spake it sud- policy, many churchmen were employed eminently denly, and upon observation that their leaders in the civil government of the kingdom) imputed were not then in the house. Otherwise, it cannot their wanting those ornaments their predecessors be denied, those who conducted them, and were wore, to the power and prevalency of the lawyers ; the contrivers of the mischief, were men of great some principal men whereof, in all times, they parts, and unspeakable industry; and their silence could not but remember as avowed enemies of the in some debates proceeded partly from pride, that church : and so believed the straitening and conit might appear their reputation and interest had fining their profession must naturally extend and an influence upon the sense of the house, against enlarge their own jurisdiction. Thence proceeded any rhetoric or logic: but principally from the their bold and unwarrantable opposing and propolicy they were obliged to use ; for though they testing against prohibitions, and other proceedings could have given a pregnant reason for the most at law, on the behalf of ecclesiastical courts; and extravagant overture they ever made, and evinced the procuring some orders and privileges from the it, that it was the proper way to their end; but it king, on the behalf of that faculty; even with an being not yet time to discover their purposes, (how exclusion of the other : as the archbishop of Canapparent soever they were to discerning men,) they terbury prevailed with the king to direct, “ that were necessarily to give no reasons at all; or such “half the masters of the chancery should be alas were not in truth the true ones.
ways civil lawyers ;” and to declare, “that no This stratagem failing, of stopping the creation others, of what condition soever, should serve of the new bishops, they endeavour by all means “ him as masters of request.” Which was a great to hasten the house of peers to despatch the work mistake : for, besides the stopping prohibitions before them, before they should be qualified (their was an envious breach upon the justice of the elections, confirmations, and consecrations, and kingdom; which, at some time or other, will still other ceremonies, spending much time) to increase be too hard for the strongest opposers and opthe number of the opposers; and for the better pressors of it: I could never yet know, why the doing thereof, with great confidence, they demand doctors of the civil laws were more of kin to the of the lords, “ that no recusant lord, or bishop, bishops, or the church, than the common lawyers
might have a vote in the passing that act: the were. To say that their places were in their dis“ last being parties; and the other not supposed posal, as chancellors, commissaries, and the like ;
competent judges on the behalf of the kingdom.” and, therefore, that their persons were more like But, when they found that logic could not prevail, to be at their disposal too, at least, to pay them (the demand being indeed so scandalous, that the greater reverence, concludes nothing : for they
123 had all opportunity enough, and I think equal to gether, and, in truth, so incorporated in each oblige and create a dependence from the other other, that like Hippocrates' twins, they cannot but profession; and I am persuaded, the stewardships laugh and cry together; and that the professors of to bishops, and of the lands of the church, which the law were never at so great a height, as even in were to be managed by the rules of the common this time that they so unjustly envied the greatlaw, were not much inferior in profit to all the ness of the church: and, lastly, [that they,] who chancellorships in England. And for their affec- might well know, that the great and unwieldy.body tion and respect to their patrons, I believe, experi- of the clergy, consisting of such different tempers, ence hath now manifested, that though many of humours, inclinations, and abilities, and which inthe common lawyers have much indiscretion, in- evitably will have so strong an influence upon the justice, and malice to repent of towards the church, natures and affections of the people, could never the professors of the civil law have not been less be regulated and governed by any magistrates, but active, to their skill and power, in the unnatural of themselves; nor by any rules, but such power destruction of their mother; and then, where their which the bishops exercised; whom (besides all policy may consist with justice, it will be no ill arguments of piety, and submission to antiquity) measure in making friendship, to look into the experience of that blessed time since the reformapower of doing hurt and doing good, as well as tion, not to be paralleled in any nation under into the faculty of judging; and it was apparent, heaven, declared to be the most happy managers of that the civil law in this kingdom could neither that power, whatsoever rankness and excrescence help or hurt the church in any exigent, it being had proceeded from some branches : I say, that neither of reputation enough to advance it, or these knowing and discerning men (for such I must power to oppress it; whereas the professors of the confess there have been) should believe it possible other had always, by their interests, experience, for them to flourish, and that the law itself would abilities, and reputation, so great an influence have the same respect and veneration from the upon the civil state, upon court and country, that people, when the well disposed fabric of the church they were notable friends or enemies; and then should be rent asunder, (which, without their actthe dependence of the church was entirely upon ivity and skill in confusion, could never have been that law, all their inheritance and estates (except compassed,) hath been to me an instance of the their minute tithes) being only determinable by Divine anger against the pride of both, in suffering those rules; and by which they have seldom re- them to be the fatal engines to break one another: ceived eminent injustice. And truly, I have never which could very hardly have been oppressed by yet spoken with one clergyman, who hath had the any other strength or power than their own. experience of both litigations, that hath not in And I cannot but say, to the professors of that genuously confessed," he had rather, in the re- great and admirable mystery, the law, (upon which
spect of his trouble, charge, and satisfaction to no man looks with more affection, reverence, and “his understanding, have three suits depending submission,) who seem now, by the fury and “ in Westminster-hall, than one in the arches, or iniquity of the time, to stand upon the ground they any ecclesiastical court.”
have won, and to be masters of the field; and, The particulars above mentioned were, I confess, it may be, wear some of the trophies and spoils to vulgar minds, great provocations and tempta- they have ravished from the oppressed; that they tions to revenge; and, therefore, I do not at all have yet but sharpened weapons for others to wonder, that, in the great herd of the common wound the ves; and that their own eloquence lawyers, many pragmatical spirits, whose thoughts shall be applied to their own destruction. And, and observations have been contracted to the therefore, if they have either piety to repent and narrow limits of the few books of that profession, redeem the ill that they have wrought, or policy or within the narrower circle of the bar-oratory, to preserve their own condition from contempt, and should side with the others, in the womanish art themselves from being slaves to the most abject of of inveighing against persons, when they should the people, they will wind up the church and the be reforming things: and that some, by degrees, law into one bottom; and, by a firm combination having found the benefit of being of that opinion, and steady pursuit, endeavour to fix both to the (for we all remember, when papist and puritan same pinnacle, from whence they have been so lawyers got more money than their neighbours, violently ravished. for the opinions they had; not which they de By this time the king was as weary of Scotland, livered,) grew, at last, to have fits of conscience as he had been impatient to go thither; finding all in earnest; and to believe, that a parity in the things proposed to him, as to a vanquished person, church was necessary to religion, and not like to without consideration of his honour, or interest; produce a parity in the state ; the suspicion of and having not one counsellor about him, but the which would quickly have wrought upon their duke of Lenox, (who from the beginning carried divinity.
himself by the most exact rules of honour, gratiBut, that learned and unbiassed (I mean unpro- tude, and fidelity to him,) and very few followers, voked) men, in that science, who knew the frame who had either affection to his person, or respect and constitution of the kingdom, and that the
of his honour. bishops were no less the representative body of That which should have been an act of oblivion, the clergy, than the house of commons was of the was made a defence and justification of whatsoever people; and, consequently, that the depriving them they had done: their first tumults, and erecting of voice in parliament, was a violence, and remov- their tables in opposition [to], and at last suping landmarks, and not a shaking (which might pressing, both courts of justice and session; and settle again) but dissolving foundations; which the acts and orders of those tables, declared to be must leave the building unsafe for habitation : “ the effects of their duty to his majesty; and [that such men,] who knew the ecclesiastical and according to the law of the land :” and so all civil state was
so wrought and interwoven to those, who according to their allegiance had op
124 Seditious acts of the Assembly.— The king confers honours in Scotland. [BOOK IV. posed and resisted them on the behalf of his quis Hamilton assured me, in his hearing,)“ that majesty, and [were] qualified by his majesty's - he would not only never more serve against him, commissions, [were] adjudged criminal; and the “but that whenever his majesty would require only persons excepted from pardon, and exempted “ his service, he should have it, without ever askfrom the benefit of that oblivion.
ing what the cause was:” and many of them The seditious acts of the assembly, which had whispering in his ear, and assuring him, “ that as expelled all bishops, and the canonical clergy, from soon as the troubles of the late storm could be being members of that assembly; and declared “perfectly calmed, they would reverse and repeal themselves to have a power
« to inflict the cen “ whatsoever was now unreasonably extorted from “sures of the church upon his majesty himself;" “ him.” And his majesty having never received were declared “ to be lawful, and according to the any profit from Scotland, or other benefit than the “ constitution of the kingdom; and the govern- reputation of a kingdom in his title, cared the less ment of the church by archbishops and bishops, for what he parted with there: and, it may
be, “ declared to be against the word of God, and an being resolved they should be no more charge to
enemy to the propagation of the true reformed him in his court, (for sure he was then perfectly
protestant religion; and therefore to be utterly irreconciled to the whole nation, he believed he “ abolished; and their lands given to the king, should save more in this kingdom, than he had “ his heirs, and successors."
given in that; and he made no scruple, but that In consideration of the king's necessary absence they were so full fed now, that they would not stir from that his native kingdom, it was thought fit, from home again, till the temper and affection of “that the full and absolute government thereof his people here should be better disposed for their “ should be committed to the lords of the secret reception. “ council ; who were likewise made conservators But his majesty never considered, or not soon “ of the peace of the two kingdoms, during the enough, that they could not reasonably hope to “intervals of parliaments;” and those lords and keep what they had so ill got, but by the same conservators were then, and still, to be named arts by which they were such gainers; and there
by parliament, which was once in three years to cannot be a surer evidence of the continuance of “ assemble upon a day certain, without any sum an enemy, than the having received injuries from
mons from the king, if he neglected to publish him, of a nature that do not use to be forgiven. “such summons; and, upon the same reason, all Neither did he sufficiently weigh the unspeakable
great officers, as chancellor, treasurer, secretary, encouragement, and, in some particulars, the rea“ and the rest, nominated by parliament; and in sonable pretence the factious party here would “the interval by the lords of the secret council;" have, from the prosperous wickedness of those without so much as being concerned in his ma- there. And, it is certain, their number from thence jesty's approbation.
increased wonderfully; the enemies of the church All which acts, and whatsoever else they were presuming their work was more than half done, pleased to present to him, concerning church or when the king himself had declared, (for his constate, the king confirmed; and thereby made the sent to that act they would easily make appear to lord Lowden, who had been the principal manager be such,)“ that the government by archbishops, of the rebellion, chancellor of Scotland; and cre “ and bishops, was against the word of God, and ated him likewise an earl; and conferred the other “the propagation of religion.” Many concluding great offices, as he was directed: then he made the king would at last yield to any thing, put the earl of Argyle (for he was still trusted with themselves in company of the boldest and most conferring of honours) marquis; their great ge- positive askers; and some, who in their hearts neral, Lesley, earl of Leven; and their lieutenant- abhorred what the Scots had done, yet disdaining general, earl of Calendar; and conferred other to be overwitted by them; and that they should honours, according to the capacity and ability they get more for themselves, and receive a greater had had in doing him mischief: and, lastly, (leav- argument of the king's trust, than we of this ing all his own party to live, for he had procured nation; out of pure malice to them, resolved to a pardon for them from the parliament, upon con- do the same things with them; and so joined and dition “they came not near the king's presence; concurred in any exorbitances. All which the
nor received any benefit from him, without their king too late discovered, by the entertainment he approbation,”) he gave all the lands of the church, received upon his return. which had been devolved to him by their ruin, About the time the news came of the king's and whatsoever he had else to give, in that king- being to begin his journey from Scotland upon a dom, to those who had discovered it not to be in day appointed; and that he had settled all things good hands before: so that he seemed to have in that kingdom to the general satisfaction; the made that progress into Scotland, only that he committee for preparing the remonstrance offered might make a perfect deed of gift of that king- their report to the house; which caused the dom; which he could never have done, so abso- draught they offered to be read. It contained a lutely, without going thither. And so, having very bitter representation of all the illegal things nothing more to do there, he began his journey which had been done, from the first hour of the towards England about the middle of November. king's coming to the crown, to that minute; with
It is not to be doubted, in consideration of those all those sharp reflections which could be made, extravagant concessions, they made as ext; agant upon the king himself, the queen, and council promises to the king ; that, by their loyal and and published all the unreasonable jealousies of dutiful comportment, his majesty should find no the present government, of the introducing podiminution of his power; that he should have the pery; and all other particulars, which might disentire obedience of that nation, to preserve his full turh the minds of the people; which were enough rights and regalities in England ; and to reduce discomposed. Ireland: the earl of Leven telling him, (as mar The house seemed generally to dislike it; many