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130 The king's return out of Scotland. His answer to the remonstrance. [BOOK IV. that were kept at Westminster, for the security of “ counsellors, whom he had exposed to trial, he the two houses, ever since the news out of Scot “had given sufficient testimony, that there was no land, to be dismissed; and shortly after published man so near unto him, in place or affection, a proclamation, “for obedience to be given to the “ whom he would not leave to the justice of the “ laws established, for the exercise of religion.” “ law, if they should bring sufficient proofs, and These proceedings of his majesty much

troubled a particular charge against him: in the mean and the entertainment given to him by the “ time, he wished them to forbear such general city of London, in which their entire confidence aspersions, as, since they named none in parwas, much dejected them; and made them appre ticular, might .reflect upon all his council ; that, hend, their friends there were not so powerful as “ for the choice of his counsellors, and ministers they expected. However, they seemed to abate “ of state, it was the natural liberty all freemen nothing of their mettle; and, shortly after his re “ have, and the undoubted right of the crown, to turn, resolved to present their remonstrance, lately “ call such to his secret council, and public emframed, to him, together with a petition; in which “ ployment, as he should think fit; yet he would they complained “ of a malignant party, which “ be careful to make election of such, as should “ prevailed so far, as to bring divers of their in- have given good testimonies of their abilities and “ struments to be of his privy-council; and in “ • integrity, and against whom there [could] be no “other employments of trust and nearness about * just cause of exception; that for the depriving “his majesty, the prince, and the rest of his chil “ the bishops of their votes in parliament, they “ dren: to which malignant party, amongst other “ should consider, that their right was grounded wickedness, they imputed the insurrection of the


the fundamental law of the kingdom, and papists in Ireland; and therefore, for the sup “ constitution of parliament.” pressing that wicked and malignant party, they “ For what concerned religion, church govern

besought his majesty, that he would concur with “ ment, and the removing unnecessary ceremo“ his people, in a parliamentary way, for the de- l“ nies, if the parliament should advise him to call

priving the bishops of their votes in parliament, “ a national synod, he should consider of it, and (when at that time the bill to that purpose had not give them due satisfaction therein; declaring his passed the house of peers,)“ and abridging their “ resolution to maintain the doctrine and disci* immoderate power over the clergy: [and] for “ pline established by law, as well against all in“ the removing unnecessary ceremonies, by which “ vasions of popery, as from the irreverence of “ divers weak consciences had been scrupled; that “ schismatics and separatists; wherewith, of late, “ he would remove from his council such persons “ this kingdom and this city abounds, to the great

as persisted to favour any of those pressures “ dishonour and hazard both of church and state ; “ wherewith the people had been grieved; and “ for the suppression of whom, his majesty re“ that he would for the future employ such per “quired their timely and active assistance.

sons in the public affairs, and take such to be "To their desire concerning Ireland, he told near him in places of trust, as his parliament “ them, he much doubted whether it were season

might have cause to confide in; and that he “ able to declare resolutions of that nature, before “would reject and refuse all mediation and soli- “ the events of the war were seen : however, he “ citation to the contrary, how powerful and near “ thanked them for their advice; and conjured

soever; that he would forbear to alienate any of “ them to use all possible diligence and expedition “ the forfeited and escheated lands in Ireland, “ in advancing the supplies thither; the insolence “ which should accrue to the crown, by reason of “and cruelty of the rebels daily increasing." “ this rebellion. Which desires of theirs being The graciousness and temper of this answer

graciously fulfilled by his majesty, (they said,) made no impression on them; but they proceeded

they would apply themselves to such courses and in their usual manner; framing and encouraging, “counsels, as should support his royal estate with underhand, those whispers, by which the rebellion “honour and plenty at home, with power and in Ireland might be understood to receive some

reputation abroad; and by their loyal affection extraordinary countenance from the court of “and service lay a sure and lasting foundation of England, the scandal whereof, they knew, would “ the greatness and prosperity of his majesty, and quickly fall upon

the queen. “his royal posterity in future times."

And the diligence and dexterity of the lord mayor This petition, together with the remonstrance, caused an address to be prepared to his majesty was presented at Hampton-court, on the first day from the court of aldermen ; which was sent by the of December; and within few days after, both the two sheriffs, and two others of that body; by which petition and remonstrance were by order printed, “ his majesty was humbly desired to reside at and with great industry published throughout the “ Whitehall:” which angered the governing party kingdom. Albeit the king, at the receipt thereof, as much as the ceremonious reception had done. desired and forbade them to publish either, till he The petition was graciously received; all the aldershould send his answer : which he did shortly men knighted; and the court, within a day or two, after, expressing,

removed to Whitehall. “ How sensible he was of that disrespect : repre The letters out of Ireland were very importunate

hending them for the unparliamentariness of for relief, of men, money, and provisions; the “their remonstrance; in point whereof,” he said, rebels very much increasing, and taking courage, “ he would reserve himself to take such course, as from the slow proceeding here for their suppres" he should think fit, in prudence and honour.” sion: which indeed was not advanced equal to But to their petition, he told them, “that if they men's expectations; though the king, upon his would make that wicked and malignant party, first coming to the houses after his return from “ whereof they complained, known to his majesty, Scotland, with great earnestness recommended it “ he would be as ready to suppress and punish it, to them. Only the propositions made from Scot

as they could be to complain ; that by those I land, “ for the sending ten thousand men from

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1641.] A bill for pressing men for Ireland rejected by the lords.

131 “ thence into Ulster, to be paid by the parliament," In the mean time, letters came every day from were consented to ; whereby some soldiers were Ireland, passionately bemoaning their condition; despatched thither, to defend their own plantation; and multitudes of men, women, and children, who and did in truth, at our charge, as much oppress were despoiled of their estates, and forced into this the English that were there, as the rebels could kingdom for want of bread, spake more lamentably have done; and had upon the matter the sole than the letters. In this strait, they knew not what government of that province committed to them, to do; for whatever discourse they pleased themthe chief towns and garrisons, which were kept by selves with, concerning the lords, it was evident English, being delivered into their hands. The the fault would lie at their own doors; besides lieutenant himself, the earl of Leicester, (who was that, his majesty might take that occasion, to take now grown gracious to the managers,) made not the whole business out of their hands, and manage that haste to his charge some men thought neces- it himself by his council; which would both lessen sary; pretending that the rebels had yet some their reputation and interest, and indeed defeat

apprehensions and terror of his coming thither much that they had projected. “ with great forces, and provisions of all kinds; Hereupon, Mr. Saint-John, the king's solicitor, “ but that if they should hear he were landed, (a man that might be trusted in every company,) “ with so small a strength as was yet raised, and went privately to his majesty; and seemed to him “in no better equipage than he was yet able to much troubled “at the interruption given by the

go in, they would take courage and would op commons; and to consent, that the preamble press him, before more succours could come ; was unreasonable, and ought to be insisted by reason, that those who yet stood upon their [against] by the lords, on the behalf of his maguard, and publicly sided not with the rebels, “ jesty's prerogative: however, he told him, since (till, by the resistance and opposition they found “ he thought it impossible to rectify the commons

prepared for them, they might guess who was " in their understandings, it would be a great “ like to prevail,) would then freely declare, and blessing to his majesty, if he could offer an exjoin with the rest.”

“ pedient to remove that rub, which must prove The slow levies of men was imputed to the diffi

- fatal to Ireland in a short time; and might grow culty of getting volunteers; their numbers, who " to such a disunion between the two houses, as had commissions, upon beating their drums, rising might much cloud the happiness of this kingvery inconsiderably: and therefore they prepared dom; and, undoubtedly, could not but have a a bill for pressing; which quickly passed the com very popular influence upon both, when both mons' house, and was sent up to the lords. It “ sides would be forwarder to acknowledge his cannot be supposed, that there could be then a majesty's great wisdom and piety, than they scarcity of men, or that it could be hard, within “ could be now made to retract any thing that three months after the disbanding the northern was erroneous in themselves ;” and then adarmy, to gather together as many men as they had - vised him to come to the houses; and to express occasion to use: but their business was to get his princely zeal for the relief of Ireland; and power, not men; and therefore this stratagem taking notice of the bill for pressing, depending was used, to transfer the power of impressing men “ with the lords, and the dispute raised, concernfrom the king to themselves; and to get the king, ing that ancient and undoubted prerogative, to that he might be now able to raise men for Ireland, avoid further debate, to offer, that the bill should to disenable

himself from pressing upon any other pass with a salvo jure, both for the king and occasion. For, in the preamble of this bill, which people; leaving such debates to a time that they sent up to the lords, (as they had done before might better hear it.” in the first act for tonnage and poundage,) they

Which advice his majesty followed; and coming declared, “that the king had in no case, or upon to the house, said the very words he had proposed any occasion, but the invasion from a foreign to him. But now their business was done, (which

power, authority to press the freeborn subject; truly, I think, no other way could have been com“ which could not consist with the freedom and passed,) the divided lords and commons presently liberty of his person.”

unite themselves in a petition to the king; “acThis doctrine was new to the lords, and contrary knowledging his royal favour and protection to to the usage and custom of all times; and seemed “ be a great blessing and security to them, for the a great diminution of that regal power, which was enjoying and preserving all those private and necessary for the preservation of his own subjects, public liberties and privileges which belong unto and assistance of his allies; which in many cases “ them; and whensoever any of those liberties or he was bound to yield. And the attorney general privileges should be invaded, they were bound, took the courage

“ to desire the lords,” (as he “ with humility and confidence, to resort to his should often have done in other cases,) “ that he princely justice for redress and satisfaction; be

might be heard on the king's behalf, before they the rights and privileges of parliament “ consented to a clause so prejudicial to the king's were the birthright and inheritance, not only of “prerogative.” This necessary stop was no sooner “ themselves, but of the whole kingdom, wherein made, than the commons laid aside the considera every one of his subjects was interested : that tion of Ireland; ordered their committee “to meet amongst the privileges of parliament, it was their

no more about that business;" the levies, which “ ancient and undoubted right, that his majesty were then making of volunteers, stood still; and ought not to take notice of any matter in agitathey declared, “that the loss of Ireland must be « tion and debate, in either house of parliament,

imputed to the lords.” On the other side, the “ but by their information and agreement; and lords too well understood that logic, to be moved “ that his majesty ought not to propound any by it; and were rather sensible of the inconveni condition, provision, or limitation, to any bill, ences they had incurred by their former compli or act, in debate or preparation, in either house ance, than inclined to repeat the same error. “ of parliament; or to declare his consent or dis

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132 The bill for pressing passed. On the state and power of the militia. [BOOK IV.

sent, his approbation or dislike, of the same, carry on his service, because they presumed to “ before it be presented to him in due course of undertake, at least to endeavour, (for they under

parliament. They declared, that all those pri- took nothing, nor looked for any thanks for their vileges had been lately broken, to their great labour,) to do that which they ought to have done; sorrow and grief, in that speech which his ma and so they were upon this disadvantage, that

jesty had made to them; wherein he took notice whenever they pressed any thing in the house, “ of a bill for pressing of soldiers, not yet agreed which seemed immediately to advance the king's upon; and offered a salvo jure, and provisional power and authority, some of the king's council

, “ clause, to be added to it, before it was presented or his servants, most opposed it, under the notion “to him: and therefore they besought him, by “ of being prejudicial to the king's interest :” ' * his royal power to protect them, in those and whilst they who had used to govern and impose “ the other privileges of his high court of parlia- upon the house, made show of being more modest, ment; and that he would not, for the time to and yet were more silent (insolent]; and endeacome, break or interrupt them; and that, for the youred, by setting new counsels on foot, to enreparation of them in that their grievance and tangle, and engage, and indeed to overreach the

complaint, he would declare and make known house; by cozening them into opinions which " the name of such person, by whose misinforma- might hereafter be applicable to their ends, rather

tion, and evil counsel, his majesty was induced than to pursue their old designs, in hope to obtain

to the same, that he might receive condign pu- in the end a success by their authority. The night “nishment. And this they did desire, and, as his of the remonstrance had humbled them in that

greatest and most faithful council, did advise his point: and from that time, they rather contrived majesty to perform, as a great advantage to him, ways to silence those who opposed them, by tra' by procuring and confirming a confidence and ducing them abroad, and taking any advantage “unity betwixt his majesty and his people," &c. against them in the house, for any expressions

And having delivered this petition, they no more they used in debate which might be misinterconsidered Ireland, till this manifest breach should preted; and so calling them to the bar, or combe repaired; which they resolved nothing should initting them to the 'Tower : which did in truth do, but the passing the bill: and therefore, when strike such a terror into the minds of many,

that the king offered them, by a message sent by the they forbore to come to the house, rather than erearl of Essex," that he would take care, by com- pose themselves to many uneasinesses there. “ missions which he would grant, that ten thou There was at this time, or thereabout, a debate “sand English volunteers should be speedily raised started in the house, as if by mere chance, which “ for the service of Ireland, if the houses would produced many inconveniences after; and, if there « declare that they would pay them;" the overture had not been too many concurrent causes, might was wholly rejected; they neither being willing be thought the sole cause and ground of all the that such a body of men should be raised by the mischiefs which ensued. Upon some report, or king’s direction, (which would probably be more discourse of some accident, which had happened at his devotion than they desired,) nor in any other upon or in the disbanding the late army, an obway than they proposed: and so in the end (after scure member moved, That the house would other ill accidents intervening, which will be re "enter upon the consideration, whether the militia membered in order) he was compelled to pass the “ of the kingdom was so settled by law, that a bill for pressing, which they had prepared.

sudden force, or army, could be drawn together, However, for all this, and the better, it may

be, “ for the defence of the kingdom, if it should be for all this, the king, upon his arrival at Whitehall

, “invaded, or to suppress an insurrection or refound both his houses of parliament of a much“ bellion, if it should be attempted.” better temper than they had been; many having The house kept a long silence after the motion, great indignation to see his majesty so ill treated the newness of it amusing most men, and few in by his own servants, and those who were most truth understanding the meaning of it; until one obliged to his bounty and magnificence; and like- and another of the members, who were least taken wise to discern how much ambition and private notice of, seeming to be moved by the weight of interest was covered under public pretences. They what had been said, enlarged upon the same arguwho were in truth zealous for the preservation of ment: and in the end it was proposed, “ That a the law, the religion, and true interest of the na “committee might be appointed, to consider of tion, were solicitous to preserve the king's honour " the present state of the militia, and the power of from any indignity, and his regal power from vio it; and to prepare such a bill for the settling it, lation; and so always opposed

those who trenched “ as might provide for the public peace, and for upon either, and who could compass their ends by " the suppressing any foreign enemy, or domestic no other means than by trampling upon both. So “insurrection.” that, in truth, that which was called the king's

And hereupon they were inclined to nominate a party, in both houses, was made up of persons committee, to prepare such a bill as should be who were strangers, or without any obligation, to thought necessary: upon which Mr. Hyde spake the court; of the best fortunes, and the best repu- against the making any such committee ; said, tation, in their several countries where they were " There could be no doubt, that the power of the known; as having always appeared very zealous in “ militia resided in the king, in whom the right of the maintenance of their just rights, and opposed, making war and peace was invested; that there as much as in them lay, all illegal and grievous “ had never yet appeared any defect of power

, b: impositions : whilst his own privy-council, (two or " which the kingdom had been in danger, and w three only excepted,) and much the greater num might reasonably expect the same security fo ber of all his own servants, either publicly opposed, “ the future.” With which the house seemed we or privately betrayed him; and so much the more satisfied and composed, and inclined to resum virulently abhorred all those who now appeared to soine other debate, until Saint-John, who was the

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The power of the militia declared not to be in the king.

133 the king's solicitor, and the only man in the house was not; nor was there mention of


commisof his learned council, stood up, and said, " He “ sioners; but a blank was therefore left, that the “could not suffer that debate, in which there had “ house might fill it up as they thought fit, and “ been so many weighty particularities mentioned, put the power into such hands as they thought

to be discontinued without some resolution : proper ; which, for aught he knew, might be “ that he would be very glad there were that “ the king's; and he hoped it would be so.

power in the king, (whose rights he was bound And with this answer the bill was received, not* to defend,) as the gentleman who spake last withstanding all opposition, and read; all those “ seemed to imagine; which, for his part, he knew persons who had formerly been deputy lieutenants, “ there was not; that the question was not about and lay under the terror of that vote, presuming, “ taking any power from the king, which was that this settlement would provide for the indem“ vested in him, (which was his duty always to nity of all that had passed before; and the rest,

oppose,) but to inquire, whether there be such a who might still be exposed to the same hazards, if

power in him, or any where else, as is necessary they should be required to act upon the like occa“ for the preservation of the king and the people, sions, concurring in the desire, that somewhat “ in many cases that may fall out; and if there might be done for a general security; and they “ be not, then to supply him with that power and who had contrived it, were well enough contented

authority;" and he said, " he did take upon him that it was once read; not desiring to prosecute
*“ with confidence to say, that there was a defect it, till some more favourable conjuncture should
“ of such power and authority :” he put them in be offered : and so it rested.
mind, “how that power had been executed in the About this time, the king not being well satis-

age in which we live; that the crown had granted fied in the affection or fidelity of sir William Bal“ commissions to great men, to be lord lieutenants four, whom he had some years before, to the great “ of counties; and they to gentlemen of quality, and general scandal, and offence of the English

to be their deputy lieutenants; and to colonels, nation, made lieutenant of the Tower; and finding “ and other officers, to conduct and list soldiers ; that the seditious preachers every day prevailed in “ and then he wished them to consider, what votes the city of London, and corrupted the affections

they had passed, of the illegality of all those and loyalty of the meaner people towards the gocommissions, and the unjustifiableness of all the vernment of church and state; resolved to put proceedings which had [been] by virtue of those that place (which was looked upon as a bridle commissions; so that let the occasion or neces upon the city) into the hands of such a man upon

sity be what it would, he did presume, no man whom he might rely: and yet, he was willing to “ would hereafter execute any such commission; be quit of the other, without any act of disobliga“ and if there were any men so hardy, that nobody tion upon him; and therefore gave him three “would obey them; and therefore desired them thousand pounds, ready money, which was raised “ to consider, whether there be not a defect of by the sale of some of the queen's own jewels : and

power, and whether it ought not to be supplied.” | immediately caused colonel Lunsford to be sworn

It was now evident enough, that the debate had in his place, lieutenant of the Tower. not begun by chance, but had been fully deliber This was no sooner known, than the house of ated; and what use they would make, upon occa commons found themselves concerned in it; and sions, of those volumes of votes, they had often upon pretence

“ that so excellent a person as sir poured out upon all accidental debates; and no «William Balfour” (who in truth was very graman durst take upon him to answer all that had cious to them, for the safe keeping the earl of been alleged, by saying, all those votes were of no Strafford) " could not be removed from that validity; and that the king's right was, and would charge, but upon some eminent design against be, judged the same it had been before, notwith “ the city and the kingdom; and that the man standing those votes ; which is very true : but this “ who was appointed for his successor was a perbeing urged by the king's own solicitor, they ap son of great license, and known only by some pointed him “to bring in and prepare such a bill “ desperate acts ; for which he had been formerly

as he thought necessary;" few men imagining “ imprisoned by the state, and having made his that such a sworn officer would not be very careful escape, fled the kingdom: they desired the lords and tender of all his master's prerogatives, which “ to join with them in a petition to the king, to he was expressly sworn to defend.

put the Tower into better hands;" making such Within few days after, he brought in a very arguments against the person of the man, as beshort bill

, in which was mentioned by way of pre- fore spoken of. The lords replied to them, “That face, “ That the power over the militia of the king “ it was an argument of that nature, they thought “ dom was not settled in any such manner, that “ not themselves competent advisers in it; the " the security of the kingdom was provided for, in custody of the Tower being solely at the king's

case of invasion or insurrection, or such like “ disposal, who was only to judge of the fitness of “ accidents;" and then an enacting clause, “ That " the person for such a charge." But at the same “ henceforward the militia, and all the power time that they refused to join in a public desire to “ thereof, should be vested in - &c.” and then the king, they caused privately advice to be given a large blank left for inserting names; and after- to him, " that he should make choice of a fitter wards, the “absolute authority to execute -&c.” person, against whom no exceptions could be The ill meaning whereof was easily understood;

« made.” For indeed sir Thomas Lunsford was and with some warmth pressed, “ That by this not then known enough, and of reputation equal “ bill all the power would be taken out of the to so envious a province; and thereupon, within crown, and put into the hands of commission two or three days at most, he resigned the place,

To which the solicitor made answer, and the king constituted sir John Byron in the “ That the bill took no power from any body who place. “ had it, but was provided to give power where it This gave them no satisfaction in the change,

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“ fit.”

The virulence against the bishops increased.

[BOOK iv. since it had no reference to their recommendation ; “ and secured; the laws against priests and jesuits which they only looked after : but it gave them fully executed; and the prelacy rooted up: that great delight, to see that the king's counsels were so the work of reformation might be prosperously not so fixed, but their clamour might alter them; “ carried on; their distracting fears removed ; that and that doing hurt, being as desirable a degree of “the freedom of commerce and trade might pass power [to some men] as doing good, and likely to on more cheerfully, for the encouragement of the gain them more proselytes, they had marred a man, petitioners,” &c. though they could not make one. And without

This, and such stuff, being printed, and scattered doubt, it was of great disadvantage to the king, amongst the people; multitudes of mean people that that counsel had not been formed with such flocked to Westminster-hall, and about the lords' deliberation, that there would need no alteration; house; crying, as they went up and down, No which could not be made, without a kind of recog- | bishops, no bishops, “that so they might carry on nition.

" the reformation." All this time the bill depended in the lords’ I said before, that upon the king's return from house, “ for the taking away the votes of bishops, Scotland, he discharged the guards that attended “ and removing them from the house of peers ;' upon the houses. Whereupon the house of comwhich was not like to make a more prosperous pro- mons (for the lords refused to join with them) petigress there, than it had six months before; it being tioned the king, “in regard of the fears they had evident, that the jurisdiction of the peerage was “ of some design from the papists, that they might invaded by the commons; and therefore, that it “ continue such a guard about them as they thought was not reasonable to part with any of their supporters. But the virulence against them still in To which his majesty answered, “ That he was creased ; and no churches frequented, but where “ confident they had no just cause of fear ;

and they were preached against, as antichristian ; the “ that they were as safe as himself and his chilpresses swelled with the most virulent invectives “ dren: bút, since they did avow such an appreagainst them; and a sermon was preached at West “ hension of danger, that he would appoint a sufminster, and afterwards printed, under the title of “ficient guard for them.” And thereupon directed

The Protestation Protested, by the infamous Burton, the train-bands of Westminster and Middlesex whereby he declared, “That all men were obliged (which consisted of the most substantial house

by their late protestation, by what means soever, holders, and were under known officers) in fit “ to remove both bishops and the common prayer numbers to attend. “ book out of the church of England, as impious This security was not liked; and it was asked, “and papistical :” whilst all the learned and ortho- Quis custodiet ipsos custodes ---! And when the dox divines of England were looked upon under disorderly rabble, spake of now, first came down, the notion of scandalous ministers; and if the they resisted them, and would not suffer them to meanest and most vicious parishioner they had disturb the houses; and some of them, with great could be brought to prefer a petition against either rudeness, pressing to the door of the house of peers, of them to the house of commons, (how false so their lordships appointed the guard to be called up ever,) he was sure to be prosecuted as such. to remove them; and the earl of Dorset, being then

In the end, a petition was published, in the name lord lieutenant of Middlesex, (the crowd oppressing “ of the apprentices, and those whose apprentice- him, and refusing to leave the room,) in some pas

ships were lately expired,” in and about the city sion, called upon the guard “to give fire upon of London; and directed, “ To the king's most ex “them ;" whereupon the rabble, frighted, left the “ cellent majesty in the parliament now assembled; place, and hasted away.

shewing, 'T'hat they found by experience, both by The house of commons, much incensed that “ their own and masters' tradings, the beginning their friends should be so used, much inveighed “ of great mischiefs coming upon them, to nip them against the earl of Dorset; and talked “of accus“ in the bud, when they were first entering into the ing him of high treason;" at least,“ of drawing “ world; the cause of which they could attribute to up some impeachment against him ;" for some

no others but the papists, and the prelates, and judgment he had been party to in the star-chamber, “ that malignant party which adhered to them: or council-table : and so giving these hints of their “ that they stood solemnly engaged, with their displeasure, that he might have the more care “ utmost of their lives and fortunes, to defend his hereafter to carry himself; they concluded, that “sacred majesty and royal issue, together with the since they could not have such a guard as pleased

rights and liberties of parliaments, against pa- them, they would have none at all : and so sent to pists, and popish innovators; such as archbishops, the lords for the discharge of the train-bands

bishops, and their dependents, appear to be. They “that attended :" who willingly consented to it; “ desired his majesty in parliament to take notice, which was done accordingly : the house of com" that notwithstanding the much unwearied pains mons declaring, “ That it should be lawful for “ and industry of the house of commons, to sub every member to bring his own servants, to “ due popery, and popish innovators; neither is “ attend at the door, armed with such weapons as

popery yet subdued, nor prelates are yet re they thought fit.” “ moved ; whereby many had taken encourage It was quickly understood abroad, that the com“ments desperately to plot against the peace and mons liked well the visitations of their neighbours:

safety of his dominions : witness the most bar- so that the people assembled in greater numbers " barous and inhuman cruelties perpetrated by the than before, about the house of peers ; calling still

papists in Ireland; from whence (they said) a out with one voice, No bishops, no popish lords ;

new spring of fears and jealousies arose in them : crowded and affronted such lords as came near " and therefore they desired, that the popish lords, them, and whom they knew affected not their ends, “and other eminent and dangerous papists, in all calling them rotten-hearted lords.

parts of the kingdom, might be looked unto, Hereupon the house of peers desired a confer

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