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1641.] The lords appoint watchesthe commons discharges them.

135 ence with the commons; at which they complained to consult, and receive orders from those by whom of these tumults; and told them, “that such disor- they were to be disposed. A meeting of this kind “ ders would be an imputation upon the parliament, being about the time we speak of in Southwark, in “and make it be doubted, whether they had free a place where their arms and magazine for that

and so might happily become a blemish to borough was kept; the constable, being a sober “those many good laws they had already passed, man, and known to be an enemy to those acts of

as well as prevent the making more: and there- sedition, went amongst them, to observe what they “ fore desired them, that they would, for the dig- did : he was no sooner espied, but he was re

nity of parliaments, join with them in a declara- proached with disdainful words, beaten and dragged “ tion, for the suppressing such tumults.” This in so barbarous a manner, that he hardly escapeil was reported to the commons; and as soon laid with his life. Complaint was made to the next aside, “ for the handling of other matters of more justices; and oath of the truth of the complaint importance.”

made: whereupon a writ was directed to the The tumults continued ; and their insolences sheriff, to impannel a jury, according to the law, increased; insomuch, as many dissolute and pro- | for the inquisition and examination of that riot. fane people went into the abbey at Westminster, This was complained of in the house of comand would have pulled down the organs, and some mons, as an act that concerned their privileges : ornaments of the church; but being resisted, and for that it was pretended, “that meeting in Southby force driven out, they threatened, " they would “ wark had been by godly and well affected men,

come with greater numbers, and pull down the only to draw up and prepare a petition against “ church.”

bishops; and that the constable, being a friend Hereupon the lords again sent to the house of “ to bishops, came amongst them to cross them, commons, to join with them in their declaration ; “ and to hinder men from subscribing that wholeand many members of that house complained, some petition.” And this discourse, with“ that they could not come with safety to the out any further examination, an order was made

bouse; and that some of them had been as- by that house, “that the under-sheriff of Surrey “saulted, and very ill entreated, by those people “should be enjoined, not to suffer any proceedings " that crowded about that door. But this could “ to be made upon any inquisition, that might connot be procured; the debate being still put off to cern any persons who met together to subscribe some other time; after several speeches had been a petition to be preferred to that house." made in justification of them, and commendation By this, and other means, all obstacles of the of their affections : some saying, “they must not law being removed, and the people taught a way

discourage their friends, this being a time they to assemble lawfully together, in how tumultuous “must make use of all friends ;” Mr. Pym him- a manner soever, and the Christmas holidays self saying, God forbid the house of commons giving more leave and license to all kind of people,

should proceed, in any way, to dishearten people the concourse grew more numerous about Westto obain their just desires in such a way:

minster; the people sometimes, in their passage In the end, the lords required the advice of the between the city and Westminster, making a stand judges, “what course was legally to be taken, to before Whitehall, and crying out, No bishops, no

suppress and prevent those disorders ;” and bishops, no popish lords, would say aloud,“ that thereupon directed the lord keeper of the great they would have no more porter's lodge, but seal, “to issue out a writ, upon the statute of “ would speak with the king when they pleased :" “ Northampton, to the sheriff and justices, to ap- and, where they came near the two houses, took

point strong watches in such places as they out papers from their pockets, and getting upon judged most convenient, to hinder that unlawful some place higher than the rest, would read the “conflux of people to Westminster, to the dis names of several persons, under the title of disaf

turbance of their consultations." Which writ fected members of the house of commons; and called issuing accordingly, the justices of the peace, in many lords, false, evil, and rotten-hearted lords. obedience thereunto, appointed the constables to But their rage and fury against the bishops grew attend at the water side, and places near about so high, that they threatened to pull down the Westminster, with good watches, to hinder that lodgings where they lay ; offered to force the tumultuous resort.

doors of the abbey at Westminster, which were This was no sooner done, than the constables kept locked many days, and defended by a conwere sent for, and, after the view of their warrants, tinual guard within; and assaulted the persons of required to discharge their watches. And then some of the bishops in their coaches ; and laid the justices [were) convened, and examined ; and hands on the archbishop of York, in that manner, albeit it appeared, that what they had done was in that, if he had not been seaso

asonably rescued, it was pursuance of a legal writ, directed to them under believed they would have murdered him : the great seal of England, by the advice of the all the bishops, and many other members, of both lords in parliament, without so much as conferring houses, withdrew themselves from attending in the with the lords upon that act of theirs, the setting houses, out of a real apprehension of endangering such a watch was voted to be “a breach of privi- their lives. “ lege :” and one of the justices of the peace,

These insurrections by this means were so counwho, according to his oath, had executed that writ, tenanced, that no industry or dexterity of the lord was committed to the Tower for that offence. mayor of London, sir Richard Gourney, could give

Upon this encouragement, all the factious and any check to it (them); but, instead thereof, himschismatical people about the city and suburbs as- self (with great and very notable courage opposing sembled themselves together with great license; all their fanatic humours, both in the court of and would frequently, as well in the night as the aldermen, and at the common council) grew to be day, convene themselves, by the sound of a bell, or reckoned in the first form of the malignants, (which other token, in the fields, or some convenient place, I was the term they imposed upon all those they

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136 Falkland secretary of stato~Colepepper chancellor of the exchequer. (BOOK IV. meant to render odious to the people,) insomuch, take upon him to say to others, whom he would as his house was no less threatened and disquieted trust, what the king desired, or to whom they who by the tumults, than the house of lords: and when wished well could resort for advice and direction; he apprehended some of those who were inost no so that whilst there was a strong conjunction and torious in the riot, and committed them to the combination to disturb the government by depravcustody of both the sheriff's of London in person, ing it, whatever was said or done to support it

, to be carried to Newgate, they were, by the power was as if it were done by chance, and by the priand strength of their companions, rescued from vate dictates of the reason of private men; the them in Cheapside, and the two sheriffs compelled king resolved to call the lord Falkland, and sir to shift for their own safety. And when it was John Colepepper, who was knight of the shire for offered to be proved, by a member in the house of Kent, to his council; and to make the former commons, that the wife of captain Venn, (having secretary of state in the place of Vane, that had received a letter from her husband to that purpose,) been kept vacant; and the latter chancellor of the who was one of the burgesses for London, and exchequer, which office the lord Cottington had was known himself to lead those men, that came resigned, that Mr. Pym might be put into that tumultuously down to Westminster, and Whitehall, office, when the lord Bedford should have been at the time of the passing the bill of attainder of treasurer, as is mentioned before. They were the earl of Strafford, had with great industry so- both of great authority in the house ; neither of licited many people to go down with their arms to them of any relation to the court; and therefore Westminster, upon a day, (that was named,) when, what they said made the more impression; and she said, her husband had sent lier word, that in they were frequent speakers. The lord Falkland the house of commons they were together by the was wonderfully beloved by all who knew him, as ears, and that the worser party was like to get the a man of excellent parts, of a wit so sharp, and a better of the good party; and therefore her hus- nature so sincere, that nothing could be more band desired his friends to come with their arms to lovely. The other was generally esteemed as a Westminster, to help the good party; and that good speaker, being a man of an universal underthereupon very many in a short time went thither: standing, a quick comprehension, a wonderful they, who offered to make proof of the same, were memory, who commonly spake at the end of appointed to attend many days; but, notwithstand the debate; when he would recollect all that ing all the importunity that could be used, were had been said of weight on all sides with great never admitted to be heard.

exactness, and express his own sense with much All this time the king (who had been with great clearness, and such an application to the house, solemnity invited from [by] the city of London, that no man more gathered a general concurrence and desired to make his residence nearer to them to his opinion than he; which was the more notthan Hampton-court) was at Whitehall, where, be- able, because his person, and manner of speaking, sides his ordinary retinue, and menial servants, were ungracious enough ; so that he prevailed only many officers of the late disbanded army, who so- by the strength of his reason, which was enforced licited their remainder of pay from the two houses, with confidence enough. His infirmities were which was secured to them by act of parliament, known only to his nearest friends, or those who and expected some farther employment in the war were admitted into his most intimate converwith Ireland, upon observation, and view of the sation. insolence of the tumults, and the danger, that they The king knew them to be of good esteem in might possibly bring to the court, offered them the house, and good affections to his service, and selves for a guard to his majesty's person; and the quiet of the kingdom; and was more easily were with more formality and ceremony entertained persuaded to bestow those preferments upon them, by him, than, upon a júst computation of all dis- than the lord Falkland was to accept that which tempers, was by many conceived seasonable. And was designed to him. No man could be more from these officers, warm with indignation at the surprised than he was, when the first insinuation insolences of that vile rabble, which every day was made to him of the king's purpose : he had passed by the court, first words of great contempt

, never proposed any such thing to himself, nor had and then, those words commonly finding a return any veneration for the court, but only such a loyalty of equal scorn, blows were fastened upon some of to the person of the king as the law required from the most pragmatical of the crew. This was looked him. And he had naturally a wonderful reverence upon by the house of commons like a levying war for parliaments, as believing them most solicitous by the king, and much pity expressed by them, for justice, the violation whereof, in the least degree, that the poor people should be so used, who came he could not forgive any mortal power: and it was to them with petitions, (for some few of them had only his

observation of the uningenuity and want of received some cuts and slashes, that had drawn integrity in this (parliament], which lessened that blood,) and that made a great argument for rein- reverence to it, and which had disposed him to cross forcing their numbers. And from those contesta- and oppose their designs : he was so totally unactions, the two terms of roundhead and cavalier grew quainted with

business, and the forms of it, that he to be received in discourse, and were afterwards did believe really he could not execute the office with continued for the most succinct distinction of af- any sufficiency. But there were two considerations fections throughout the quarrel : they who were that made most impression upon him ; the one, lest looked upon as servants to the king being then the world should believe, that his own ambition had called cavaliers ; and the other of the rabble con- procured this promotions and that he had theretemned, and despised, under the names of round- fore appeared signally in the house to oppose those heads. The house of commons being at this time with gracious to the court: the other, lest the king should

proceedings, that he might thereby render himself out any member, who, having relation to the king's expect such a submission, and resignation

of himservice, would express any zeal for it, and could self, and his own reason, and judgment, to his com:

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1641.]
Mr. Hyde refuses to take office.

137 mands, as he should never give, or pretend to another officer, who did disserve him notoriously, give; for he was so severe an adorer of truth, that and to prefer Mr. Hyde to that place; with which he could as easily have given himself leave to steal his gracious intentions his majesty acquainted him; as to dissemble; or to suffer any man to think but he positively refused it, and assured him, that he would do any thing, which he resolved not “ That he should be able to do much more service to do ; which he thought a more mischievous kind “ in the condition he was in, than he should be, if of lying, than a positive averring what could be “ that were improved by any preferment, that could most easily contradicted.

“ be conferred upon him at that time;" and he It was a very difficult task to Mr. Hyde, who added, " that he had the honour to have much had most credit with him, to persuade him to sub friendship with the two persons, who were very mit to this purpose of the king cheerfully, and “seasonably advanced by his majesty, when his with a just sense of the obligation, by promising, majesty's service in the house of commons did, in that in those parts of the office, which required most truth, want some countenance and support; and drudgery, he would help him the best he could, and by his conversation with them, he should be so would quickly inform him of all the necessary forms. “well instructed by them, that he should be more But, above all, he prevailed with him, by enforcing “useful to his majesty, than if he were under a the ill consequence of his refusal to take the office, nearer relation and dependence.” The king, which would be interpreted to his dislike of the with a very gracious countenance, told him, “ that court, and his opinion, that more would be required "he perceived he must, for some time, defer the from him than he could honestly comply with, which laying any obligation upon him : but hade him would bring great prejudice to the king : on the o be assured he would find both a proper time, other hand, the great benefit that probably would “and a suitable preferment for him, wbich he redound to the king, and the kingdom, by his ac “ should not refuse. In the mean time, he said, cepting such a trust in such a general defection, “ he knew well the friendship that was between by which he would have opportunity to give the “the two persons, whom he had taken to his king a truer information of his own condition, and “ council, and him; which was not the least the state of the kingdom, than it might be pre “ motive to him to make that choice; and that he sumed had been given to him, and to prevent any “would depend as much at least upon his advice, counsels, or practice, which might more alienate as upon either of theirs; and therefore wished the affections of the people from the government; “ that all three would confer together, how to and then, that by this relation he would be more “ conduct his service in the house, and to advise able to do the king service in the house, where he his friends how to carry themselves most to the was too well known to have it believed, that he advantage of it, and to give him constant adverattained to it by any unworthy means or applica “ tisement of what had passed, and counsel when tion. And in the end, he was persuaded to sub “it was fit for him to do any thing; and declared, mit to the king's good pleasure, though he could “ that he would do nothing, that in any degree not prevail upon himself to do it with so good a “ concerned, or related to, his service in the house grace, as might raise in the king any notable ex “ of commons, without their joint advice, and pectation of his departing from the severity of his " exact communication to them of all his own conown nature.

ceptions;" which, without doubt, his majesty And so they [he and Colepepper] were both did at that time steadfastly resolve, (though in invested in those ices, to the no small displea- very few days he did very fatally swerve from it,) sure of the governing party, which could not dis- and so giving him the liberty to repair to either of semble their indignation, that any of their mem- their majesties in the same place, whenever he bers should presume to receive those preferments, thought fit, he was very graciously dismissed. which they had designed otherwise to have disposed By what hath been said before, it appears, that of. They took all opportunities to express their the lord Digby was much trusted by the king, and dislike of them, and to oppose any thing they pro- he was of great familiarity and friendship with the posed to them. And within few days there came other three, at least with two of them; for he was a letter out in print, pretended to be intercepted, not a man of that exactness, as to be in the entire as written from a Roman catholic to another of confidence of the lord Falkland, who looked upon the same profession, in which he gives an account, his infirmities with more severity than the other “ That they had at last, by the interest of their two did; and he lived with more frankness towards

friends, procured those two noble persons” (who those two, than he did towards the other: yet beare mentioned before) “to be preferred to those tween those two there was a free conversation and

offices, and that they were well assured that they kindness to each other. He was a man of very “ would be ready to do them, and all their friends, extraordinary parts by nature and art, and had “ all good offices.” Sir John Colepepper thought surely as good and excellent an education as any fit to take notice of it in the house, and to make man of that age in any country : a graceful and those professions of his religion, which he thought beautiful person; of great eloquence and benecessary. But the lord Falkland chose rather to comingness in his discourse, (save that sometimes contemn it, without taking any notice of the libel, he seemed a little affected,) and of so universal a well knowing that he was superior to those calum- knowledge, that he never wanted subject for a disnies, as indeed he was; all of that profession know-course: he was equal to a very good part in the ing that he was most irreconcilable to their doctrine, greatest affair, but the unfittest man alive to conthough he was always civil to their persons. How- duct it, having an ambition and vanity superior to ever grievous this preferment was to the angry all his other parts, and a confidence peculiar to part of the house, it was very grateful to all those, himself, which sometimes intoxicated, and transboth within and without the house, who wished ported, and exposed him. He had from his youth, well to the king and to the kingdom.

by the disobligations his family had undergone The king at the same time resolved to remove / from the duke of Buckingham, and the great men

T

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198
Remarks on IVilliams, archbishop of York.

(BOOK IV. who succeeded him, and some sharp reprehension / amazed when they were entered upon. And himself had met with, which obliged him to a from this unhappy composition in the one, and country life, contracted a prejudice and ill-will to the other, a very unhappy counsel was entered the court; and so had in the beginning of the upon, and resolution taken, without the least comparliament engaged himself with that party which munication with either of the three, [who] had discovered most aversion from it, with a passion been so lately admitted to an entire trust. and animosity equal to their own, and therefore The bishops, who were, in this manner [before very acceptable to them. But when he was weary spoken of], driven and kept from the house of of their violent counsels, and withdrew himself peers, and not very secure in their own, could not from them with some circumstances which enough have the patience to attend the dissolution of this provoked them, and made a reconciliation, and storm, which in wisdom they ought to have done : mutual confidence each other for the future, but considering right and reason too abstractly, manifestly impossible; he made private and secret and what in justice was due, not what in prudence offers of his service to the king, to whom, in so was to be expected, suffered themselves implicitly general a defection of his servants, it could not but to be guided by the archbishop of York, who was be very agreeable: and so his majesty being sa- of a proud, restless, overweening spirit, to such an tisfied, both in the discoveries he made of what act of indiscretion, and disadvantage to themhad passed, and in his professions for the future, selves, that all their enemies could not have removed him from the house of commons, where brought upon them. This bishop, as is said, was he had rendered himself marvellously ungracious, a man of a very imperious and fiery temper, Dr. and called him by writ to the house of peers, Williams, who had been bishop of Lincoln, and where he did visibly advance the king's service, keeper of the great seal of England in the time of and quickly rendered himself grateful to all those king James. After his removal from that charge, who had not thought too well of him before, when he had lived splendidly in his diocese, and made he deserved less ; and men were not only pleased himself very popular amongst those who had no with the assistance he gave upon all debates, by reverence for the court; of which he would frehis judgment and vivacity, but looked upon him as quently, and in the presence of many, speak with one, who could derive the king's pleasure to them, too much freedom, and tell many stories of things and make a lively representation of their good de- and persons upon his own former experience; in meanour to the king, which he was very luxuriant which, being a man of great pride and vanity, he in promising to do, and officious enough in doing did not always confine himself to a precise veas much as was just.

racity; and did often presume, in those unwary He had been instrumental in promoting the discourses, to mention the person of the king three persons above mentioned to the king's fa- with too little reverence. He did affect to be vour ; and had himself, in truth, so great an thought an enemy to the archbishop of Canteresteem of them, that he did very frequently, upon bury; whose person he seemed exceedingly to conference together, depart from his own inclina- contemn, and to be much displeased with those tions and opinions, and concurred in theirs ; and ceremonies and innovations, as they were then very few men of so great parts are, upon all occa- called, which were countenanced by the other ; sions, more counsellable than he; so that he would and had himself written and published in his own seldom be in danger of running into great errors, name, and by his own authority, a book against if he would communicate and expose all his own the using those ceremonies, in which there was thoughts and inclinations to such a disquisition ; much good learning, and too little gravity for nor is he uninclinable in his nature to such an

a bishop. His passion and his levity gave every entire communication in all things which he con- day great advantages to those who did not love ceived to be difficult. But his fatal infirmity is, him; and he provoked too many, not to have that he too often thinks difficult things very easy; those advantages made use of : so that, after seveand doth not consider possible consequences, when ral informations against him in the star-chamber

, the proposition administers somewhat that is de- he was sentenced for no less crimes than for lightful to his fancy, and by pursuing whereof he perjury and subornation of perjury, and fined imagines he shall reap some glory to himself, of in a great sum of money to the king, and comwhich he is immoderately ambitious; so that, if mitted prisoner to the Tower, without the pity or the consultation be upon any action to be done, no compassion of any, but those, who, out of hatred man more implicitly enters into that debate, or

to the government, were sorry that they were more cheerfully resigns his own conceptions to a without so useful a champion ; for he appeared to joint determination : but when it is once affirma- be a man of a very corrupt nature, whose passions tively resolved, (besides that he may possibly re- could have transported him into the most unjusserve some impertinent circumstance, as he thinks, tifiable actions. the imparting whereof would change the nature He had a faculty of making relations of thing of the thing, if his fancy suggests to him any done in his own presence, and discourses made t particular, which himself might perform in that himself

, or in his own hearing, with all the circum action, upon the imagination that every body stances of answers and replies, and upon argu would approve it, if it were proposed to them, he ments of great moment; all which, upon

examina chooses rather to do it, than to communicate, that he tion, were still found to have nothing in them th: may have some signal part to himself in the trans

was real, but to be the pure effect of his ow action, in which no other person can claim a share. invention. After he was sentenced in the sta

And by this unhappy temper he did often in- chamber, some of his friends resorted to hit volve himself in very unprosperous attempts. to lament and condole with him for his misfo The king himself was the unfittest person alive tune; and some of them seemed to wonder th to be served by such a counsellor, being too in an affair of such a nature, he had not fou easily inclined to sudden enterprises, and as easily means to have made some submission and co

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1641.)
The archbishop sent to the Tower.

139 position, that might have prevented the public" unquestionably declared innocent; there being hearing, which proved so much to his prejudice no crime or misdemeanour proved against him in point of reputation, as well as profit. He “ in such a manner, as could make him liable to answered them with all the formality imaginable, censure: they all commended his resolution of

that they had reason indeed to wonder at him “ submitting to the king, as soon as he had made

upon the event; but when they should know “his innocence to appear; and they all advised “ how he had governed himself, he believed they “ him to pursue that method. This, he said, had “ would cease to think him worthy of blame.” swayed him; and made him decline the other And then related to them, “ that as soon as publi expedient, that had been proposed to him.” “ cation had passed in his cause, and the books This relation wrought upon those to whom it

were taken out, he had desired his council was made, to raise a prejudice in them against the

(who were all able men, and some of them very justice of the cause, or the reputation of the “ eminent) in the vacation time, and they at most council, as they were most inclined; whereas leisure, to meet together, and carefully to look there was not indeed the least shadow of truth

peruse all the evidence that was taken in the whole relation ; except that there was such on both sides ; and that then they would all a meeting and conference, as was mentioned, and attend him such a morning, which he appointed,

which had been consented to by the bishop, upon upon their consent, at his own house at West- the joint desire and importunity of all the council; “minster: that they came at the time appointed; who, at that conference, unanimously advised and and being then shut up in a room together, he desired him, “ to use all the means and friends “ asked them, whether they had sufficiently pe he could, that the cause might not be brought “ rused all the books, and were throughly in “ to hearing; but that he should purchase his

formed of his case? To which they all answered, peace at any price; for that, if it were heard, " that they had not only read them all over to “ he would be sentenced very grievously, and gether, but had severally, every man by him

" that there were many things proved against self, perused [them] again, and they believed him, which would so much reflect upon his

they were all well informed of the whole. That “ honour and reputation, and the more for being “ he then told them, he had desired this con a bishop, that all his friends would abandon “ference with them, not only as his council, by “ him, and be ever after ashamed to appear on his “whose opinion he meant to govern himself, but

behalf.” Which advice, with great passion and as his particular friends, who, he was sure, reproaches upon the several persons for their pre“ would give him their best advice, and persuade sumption and ignorance in matters so much above “ him to do every thing as they would do them them, he utterly and scornfully rejected. Nor

selves, if they were in his condition. That he indeed was it possible, at that time, for him to

was now offered to make his peace at court, by have made his peace; for though, upon some “such an humble submission to the king, as he former addresses and importunity on his behalf,

was most inclined and ready to make ; and by some persons of power, and place in the court, “ which he would make the next day after his in which the queen herself had endeavoured to

cause was heard, though he should be declared have done him good offices, the king was inclined

to be innocent, of which he could make no to have saved him, being a bishop, from the in“ doubt: but that which troubled him for the famy he must undergo by a public trial; yet the

present was, that the infamousness of the charge bishop's vanity had, in those conjunctures, so far against him, which had been often exposed, and transported him, that he had done all he could to

enlarged upon in several motions, had been so have it insinuated, “ that the court was ashamed “ much taken notice of through the kingdom, that of what they had done; and had prevailed with

it could not consist with his honour to divert some of his powerful friends to persuade him “ the hearing, which would be imputed to his “ to that composition :” upon which the king

want of confidence in his innocence, since men would never hear more any person, who moved on “ did not suspect his courage, if he durst rely his behalf.

upon the other; but that he was resolved, as he It had been once mentioned to him, whether “ said before, the next day after he should be vin- by authority, or no, was not known, “that his “ dicated from those odious aspersions, he would peace

should be made, if he would resign his cast himself at the king's feet, with all the hu bishopric, and deanery of Westminster," (for mility and submission, which the most guilty he held that in commendam,)“ and take a good man could make profession of. It was in this bishopric in Ireland;” which he positively re

point he desired their advice, to which he would, fused; and said, “ he had much to do to defend “ without adhering to his own inclination, en “ himself against the archbishop here: but if he

tirely conform himself; and therefore desired “ were in Ireland, there was a man (meaning the them, singlyin order, to give him their advice. He “ earl of Strafford) who would cut off his head repeated the several and distinct discourse every " within one month.”

man had made, in which he was so punctual, This bishop had been for some years in the " that he applied those phrases, and expressions, Tower, by the sentence of the star-chamber, be“ and manner of speech to the several men, which fore this parliament met; when the lords, who

they were all taken notice of frequently to use ; were the most active and powerful, presently reas many men have some peculiar words in dis- solved to have him at liberty. Some had much course, which they are most delighted with, or kindness for him, not only as a known enemy to by custom most addicted to: and in conclu- the archbishop of Canterbury, but as a supporter sion, that they were unanimous in their judg- of those opinions, and those persons, which were ments, that he could not, with the preservation against the church itself. And he was no sooner ' of his honour, and the opinion of his integrity, at liberty, and brought into the house, but, [as “ decline the public hearing; where he must be ) has been before mentioned,] he defended and

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