« ForrigeFortsett »
66 and was,
The marquis of Hertford appointed governor to the prince. [BOOK IV. “ information, and advertisement, as they implied themselves inclined upon the king's denial, or their “ in their answer, without the name of any par- so particular and positive affirmation. “ ticular person, was ground enough for such a These proceedings of the parliament made a deep “ direct and positive affirmation, as was made in impression upon all noble and generous persons, " that speech; which, in respect of the place and who found that their pride and ambition was so
person, and being now acknowledged to be ac- great, that they resolved to remove all persons out cording to the sense of the house, was of that of their way, who were like to stand in their way,
authority, that his majesty might suffer in the by opposing anything they desired, or by filling any “affections of many of his good subjects, and fall place, or office, which they designed should be exe“ under a possible construction, considering many cuted by some other person, in whom they could “ scandalous pamphlets to such a purpose, of not confide. The earl of Newcastle, who was governor
being sensible enough of that rebellion, so horrid to the prince, knew very well in what prejudice he “and odious to all Christians; by which, in that stood with the earls of Essex and Holland, (two
distraction, such a danger might possibly ensue very powerful persons,) upon the account of the " to his majesty's person and estate, as he was well challenge formerly mentioned to be sent by him to “ assured they would endeavour to prevent. And the latter of the two, who would be glad of any " therefore he thought it very necessary, and ex- opportunity to expose him to an affront; and that
pected that they should name those persons who they would find opportunities enough upon the “ had passed by his license, and were then in the account of his known affections to the king's ser“ head of the rebels: or if, upon their reexamina- vice, from which it was not possible to remove or
tion, they did not find particular evidence to startle him. He knew they liked not that he prove that assertion, (as he was most confident should have the government of the prince, as one,
they never could,) as that affirmation, which re- who would infuse such principles into him, as “ flected upon his majesty, was very public, so they would not be agreeable to their designs, and would “ would publish such a declaration, whereby that dispose him to no kindness to their persons, and “ mistake might be discovered; he being the more that they would not rest, till they saw another “tender in that particular which had reference to man in that province; in order to which, they would Ireland, as being most assured that he had been, pick all quarrels they could, and load him with all
from his soul, resolved to discharge his reproaches, which might blast him with the people, duty, for the relief of
poor protestant sub- with whom he had a very good reputation. Upon jects, and the utter rooting out that rebellion ; those considerations, and some other imaginations so that service had not suffered for the want of upon the prospect of affairs, he very wisely resolved any thing proposed to him, and within his power to retire from the court, where he had 'expended to grant.
much of his own fortune, and only made himself He said, “ in this matter he had diligently exa- obnoxious to the malice and envy of other pre“ mined his own memory, and the notes of his tenders; and desired the king to approve of this “secretaries;" and then named allthe Irish persons his reasonable inclination, and to put the prince to whom he had given any licenses to go into that under the tuition of some person of honour of unkingdom, since the beginning of the rebellion ; questionable fidelity to him, and above the reach and said, “ he was well assured, none of them of popular disapprobation; and at the same time
were with the rebels; and though some of them mentioned the marquis of Hertford, who was inmight be papists, yet he had no reason to dis- deed superior to any temptations. The king could
cover any suspicion of them, in respect of their not dislike the earl's judgment upon his own " alliance with persons of great honour and power interest and concernment ; and did foresee likewise “ in that kingdom, of whose fidelity to him he that he might probably have occasion to use his “ had good assurance; and the lords justices service under another qualification ; and therefore “ themselves having declared, that they were was well contented to dismiss him from the prince.
so far from owning a jealousy of all papists The marquis of Hertford was a man of great “ there, that they had put arms into the hands of honour, great interest in fortune and estate, and of “ divers noblemen of that religion, within the pale, an universal esteem over the kingdom; and though “ which the parliament had well approved of. he had received many and continued disobli“ And therefore, unless the first affirmation of gations from the court, from the time of this king's “ the house of commons could be made good by coming to the crown, as well as during the reign
some particulars, he expected a vindication by of king James, in both which seasons, more than "such a declaration as he had proposed; which, ordinary care had been taken to discountenance " he said, was, in duty and justice, due to him.” and lessen his interest; yet he had carried himself
But this, and any thing else could be said, was with notable steadiness, from the beginning of the so far from procuring any reparation, or his majesty parliament, in the support and defence of the from receiving any, that when they perceived the king's power and dignity, notwithstanding all his king still pressed for that justice, and apprehended allies, and those with whom he had the greatest that many would believe it due to him, and that the familiarity, and friendship, were of the opposite prejudice they had raised to him for Ireland would party; and never concurred with them against the be removed thereby, they confidently published earl of Strafford, whom he was known not to love, another declaration of several persons' names, to nor in any other extravagancy. whom they said the king had granted passes, and And then, he was not to be shaken in his affecwere then commanders in the rebels' army, of tion to the government of the church; though it whose names his majesty had never before heard, was enough known that he was in no degree biassed to whom no passes had been granted, neither did by any great inclination to the person of any he believe that there were such men in nature; churchman. And with all this, that party carried and so left the people to believe as they found themselves towards him with profound respect,
1642.] The king pressed to pass the bill against the bishops' votes.
171 not presuming to venture their own credit in to persuade him to join with them in this, because, endeavouring to lessen his.
that being done, he should be able to deny them It is very true, in many respects he wanted nothing. some of those qualities, which might have been However those of greatest trust about the king, wished to be in a person to be trusted in the edu- and who were very faithful to his service, though cation of a great and a hopeful prince, and in the in this particular exceedingly deceived in their forming of his mind and manners in so tender an judgments, and not sufficiently acquainted with the age. He was of an age not fit for much activity constitution of the kingdom, persuaded him “that and fatigue, and loved, and was even wedded so “ the passing this bill was the only way to preserve much to his ease, that he loved his book above all “ the church, there being so united a combination exercises; and had even contracted such a lazi “ in this particular, that he would not be able to ness of mind, that he had no delight in an open “ withstand it. Whereas, by the passing this bill, and liberal conversation; and cared not to dis- “ so many persons in both houses would be fully course, and argue on those points, which he under satisfied, that they would join in no further alterstood very well, only for the trouble of contending ; “ ation: but, on the other hand, if they were and could never impose upon himself the pain that “ crossed in this, they would violently endeavour was necessary to be undergone in such a perpetual “ an extirpation of bishops, and a demolishing of attendance: but then those lesser duties might be “ the whole fabric of the church. otherwise provided for, and he could well support “ They alleged that he was, upon the matter, the dignity of a governor, and exact that diligence deprived of their votes already, they being not from others, which he could not exercise himself; “ suffered to come to the house, and the major part and his honour was so unblemished, that none “ in prison under an accusation of high treason, of durst murmur against the designation; and there " which there was not like to be
any reformation, fore his majesty thought him very worthy of the “ till these present distempers were composed; and high trust, against which there was no other ex “ then that by his power, and the memory of the ception, but that he was not ambitious of it, nor • indirect means that had been used against them, in truth willing to receive and undergo the charge, “ it would be easier to bring them in again, than to so contrary to his natural constitution. But [in] keep them in now. They told him, there were his pure zeal and affection for the crown, and the “ two matters of great importance pressed upon conscience, that in this conjuncture his submission him for his royal assent, but they were not of might advance the king's service, and that the equal consequence and concernment to his soverefusing it might prove disadvantageous to his
reign power; the first, that bill for the bishops' majesty, he very cheerfully undertook the province,
the other, the whole militia of the kingto the general satisfaction and public joy of the dom, the granting of which would absolutely whole kingdom; and to the no little honour and “ divest him of all regal power ; that he would not credit of the court, that so important and beloved be able to deny both; but by the granting the a person would attach himself to it under such a former, in which he parted with no matter of relation, when so many, who had scarce ever eaten “ moment, he would, it may be, not be pressed in any bread but the king's, detached themselves “ the second; or if he were, that as he could not from their dependence, that they might without “ have a more popular quarrel to take up arms, him, and against him, preserve and improve those “ than to defend himself, and preserve that power fortunes, which they had procured and gotten “ in his hands, which the law had vested in him, under him, and by his bounty.
“and without which he could not be a king ; 80 The bill for the taking away the votes of bishops “ he could not have a more unpopular argument out of the house of peers, which was called a bill “ for that contention, than the preservation of the for taking away all temporal jurisdiction from those bishops in the house of peers, which few men in holy orders, was no sooner passed the house of thought essential, and most men believed prepeers, than the king was earnestly desired “ to “ judicial, to the peace and happiness of the “ give his royal assent to it.” The king returned, “ kingdom.” " that it was a matter of great concernment; and These arguments, though used by men whom he “therefore he would take time to advise, and most trusted, and whom he knew to have opposed “ would return an answer in convenient time.” that bill in its passage, and to be cordially friends But this delay pleased not their appetite; they to the church of England in discipline and doctrine, could not attempt their perfect reformation in prevailed not so much with his majesty, as the perchurch and state, till those votes were utterly suasions of the queen; who was not only persuaded abolished; therefore they sent the same day again to think those reasons valid, and that indeed the to the king, who was yet at Windsor, and gave church could be only that way preserved, (and there him reasons to persuade him “immediately to are that believe that infusion to have been made in “consent to it; one of which was the grievances her by her own priests, by instructions from France, " the subjects suffered by their exercising of tem- and for reasons in state of that kingdom,) but that “poral jurisdiction, and their making a party in her own safety very much depended upon the king's “the lords' house: a second, the great content of consent to that bíll; and that, if he should refuse “all sorts by the happy conjunction of both it, her journey into Holland would be crossed by
houses in their absence: and a third, that the the parliament, and possibly her person in danger " passing of that bill would be a comfortable either by the tumults, which might easily be brought “pledge of his majesty's gracious assent to the to Windsor from Westminster, or by the insurrec“ future remedies of those evils, which were to be tion of the countries in her passage from thence to “ presented to him, this once being passed.” Dover, where she intended to take shipping.
Reasons sufficient to have converted him, if he Whereas by her intercession with the king to do it, had the least inclination or propensity to have con- she would say a most seasonable and popular oblicurred with them. For it was, upon the matter, gation upon the whole nation, and leave a pleasant
The king presses the bill against the bishops' votes. (BOOK IV. odour of her grace and favour to the people behind That which was above, or equal to all this, (was,] her, which would prove much to her advantage in that, by his majesty's enacting those two bills, he her absence; and she should have the thanks for had, upon the matter, approved the circumstances that act, as acquired by her goodness, which other of their passage, which had been by direct violence, wise would be extorted from the king, when she and force of arms; in which case, he ought not to
have confirmed the most politic, or the most pious These insinuations and discourses so far satisfied constitutions : Male posita est lex, quæ tumultuarie the queen, and she the king, that, contrary to his posita est, was one of those positions of Aristotle, most positive resolution, the king consented, and which hath never been since contradicted; and was sent a commission for the enacting both that bill, an advantage, that, being well managed, and stoutly and the other for pressing; which was done accord- insisted upon, would, in spite of all their machinaingly, to the great triumph of the boutefeus, the tions, which were not yet firmly and solidly formed, king sending the same day that he passed those have brought them to a temper of being treated bills, which was the fourteenth of February, a mes- with. But I have some cause to believe, that even sage to both houses; “ That he was assured his this argument, which was unanswerable for the
having passed those two bills, being of so great rejecting that bill, was applied for the confirming “importance, so suddenly, would serve to assure it; and an opinion that the violence and force, used “ his parliament, that he desired nothing more in procuring it, rendered it absolutely invalid and “ than the satisfaction of his kingdom.” For Ire- void, made the confirmation of it less considered, land, he said, he had concurred in all proposi- as not being of strength to make that act good, “tions made for that service by his parliament, so which was in itself null. And I doubt this logic “ he was resolved to leave nothing undone for had an influence upon other acts of no less moment “ their relief, which should fall within his possible than these : but it was an erroneous and unskilful
power, nor would refuse to venture his own per- suggestion ; for an act of parliament, what circum« son in that war, if the parliament should think it stances soever concurred in the contriving and
convenient, for the reduction of that miserable framing it, will be always of too great reputation “ kingdom.”
to be avoided, or to be declared yoid, by the sole The passing that bill for taking away the bishops' authority of any private persons, [or] the single votes, exceedingly weakened the king's party ; not power of the king himself. And though the wisonly as it perpetually swept away so considerable a dom, sobriety, and power, of a future parliament, number out of the house of peers, which were con- if God shall ever bless the kingdom with another stantly devoted to him ; but as it made impression regularly constituted, may find cause to declare this on others, whose minds were in suspense, and or that act of parliament void; yet there will be shaken, as when foundations are dissolved. Be- the same temper requisite to such a declaration, as sides, they that were best acquainted with the would serve to repeal it. And it may be then, king's nature, opinions, and resolutions, had rea
many men, who abhorred the thing when it was son to believe, that no exigence could have done, for the manner of doing it, will be of the wrought upon him to have consented to so anti- civilian's opinion, fieri non debuit, factum valet; monarchical an act; and therefore never after re- and never consent to the altering of that, which tained any confidence, that he would deny what they would never have consented to the establishwas importunately asked ; and so, either abso- ing: neither will that single precedent of the lutely withdrew themselves from those consulta- judges in the case of king Henry the Seventh, tions, thereby avoiding the envy, and the danger when they declared the act of attainder to be of opposing them, or quietly suffered themselves void by the accession of the crown,) though if to be carried by the stream, and consent to any he had in truth been the person, upon whom thing that was boldly and lustily attempted. the crown had lineally and rightfully descended,
And then it was so far from dividing the other it was good law,) find, or make, the judges of party, that I do not remember one man, who another age parallel to them, till the king hat
: furiously insisted on, or indeed heartily wished, as strong a sword in his hand, and the people the passing of that bill, that ever deserted them, as much at his devotion and disposal ; and thei till the kingdom was in a fame: but, on the con- the making, and declaring law, will be of equa trary, very many, who cordially and constantly facility, though, it may be, not of equal justice opposed that act, as friends rather to monarchy How much soever the king's friends were, fc than religion, after that bill, never considered or the reasons aforesaid, dejected upon the passir resisted any attempt, or further alteration, in the those two acts, it is certain, they who thoug church, looking upon the bishops as useless to they got whatever he lost, were mightily exalte sovereignty, and so not of importance enough and thought themselves now superior to aj to defend by the sword. And I have heard the opposition: and what returns of duty and a same men, who urged before, “ that their places knowledgment they made to the king for t] “ in that house had no relation to the discipline grace and favour," is to be remembered in 1 “ of the church, and their spiritual jurisdiction, next place. " and therefore ought to be sacrificed to the pre The same day those two acts were by his i “ servation of the other, upon which the peace jesty's commission confirmed, and as soon a «s and unity of religion so much depended,” since very short message of thanks for that favour argue,
" that since their power in that house, much importing the safety of both kingdoms which was a good outwork to defend the king's England and Ireland, was consented to, an « from invasion, was taken away, any other form nance for the settling the militia was consente « of government would be equally advantageous to by both houses, and, together with a list of “ his majesty; and therefore, that he ought not to names of such persons as for the present « insist on it, with the least inconvenience to his meant to confide in, was immediately, sent to vs condition.
king for his approhation; the which, being
1642.] The ordinance agreed on by both houses for settling the militia. 173 most avowed foundation of all the miseries that ( tion in the passing those bills, was the opening a have followed, will be here necessary to be in letter they intercepted, which was directed to her serted in the very terms and form it was agreed majesty herself. The lord Digby, after their maupon, and presented; and was as followeth. jesties going to Windsor, when he found in what
umbrage he stood with the powerful and prevailing An ordinance of both houses of parliament for the party, and that they were able to improve his going
ordering of the militia of the kingdom of England, through a town in a coach and six horses to a warand dominion of Wales.
like appearance, and so to expose him to the fury
of the people, at least to the power of the coun“Whereas there hath been of late a most dan- ties, to be suppressed, as they had done by their gerous and desperate design upon the house of order, or proclamation of the twelfth of January,
commons, which we have just cause to believe to before remembered, and appointed to be read in all “ be the effect of the bloody counsels of the papists, market towns throughout England; concluded for “ and other ill affected persons, who have already his own security, and to free the king's councils “ raised a rebellion in the kingdom of Ireland, and, from the imputation of his evil influence, to re
á by reason of many discoveries, we cannot but move himself into some parts beyond the seas : and “ fear they will proceed, not only to stir up the like so, with the king's leave, and by his license, was “rebellion and insurrections in this kingdom of transported into Holland, from whence he writ
England, but also to back them with forces from some letters to his friends at London, to give them abroad; for the safety therefore of his majesty's an account where he was, and for supplying himself
person, the parliament, and kingdom, in this time with those accommodations as he stood in need of. “ of imminent danger, it is ordained by the king, Amongst these letters there was one to his brother “the lords, and commons, now in parliament as- [brother-in-law] sir Lewis Dives, which, by the sembled, That
shall have power to as- treachery of that person, to whose care it was in“ semble, and call together, all and singular his trusted for conveyance, was brought to the house majesty's subjects within the county of of commons: and it being averred,
or that it came as well within liberties, as without, that are meet “ from the lord Digby," whom they looked upon “and fit for the wars, and them to train, exercise, as a fugitive, they made no scruple of opening it; " and put in readiness, and them, after their abili- and finding another in it directed to the queen,
ties, and faculties, well and sufficiently, from time after a very little pause they did the like ; for
to time, to cause to be arrayed and weaponed, which they made no other excuse, (when upon a “and to take the muster of them in places most message from the king they sent her the transcript, « fit for that purpose.
shall have for the original they still kept) than," that having power within the said county to nominate and “ opened the other letters, and finding in them appoint such persons of quality, as to him shall sundry expressions full of asperity, and malignity seem meet, to be his deputy lieutenants to be “ to the parliament, they thought it very probable,
approved of by both houses of parliament: and “ that the like might be contained in that to her “that any one, or more of the said deputies, so majesty; and that it would have been dishonour
assigned and approved of, shall in the absence, “ able to her majesty, and dangerous to the kingor by the command of the said
have - dom, if it should not have been opened : and power and authority to do and execute within “ they besought the king to persuade her majesty, “ the county
all such powers and au she would not vouchsafe any countenance thorities, before in this present ordinance con “ to, or correspondence with, the lord Digby, or “ tained ; and shall have power to make colonels, “ any other of the fugitives or traitors, whose of“ and captains, and other officers, and to remove “fences depended under the examination and
out of their places, and to make others from * judgment of parliament.”
his deputies, colonels, and “ If the king betake himself to a safe place, where. captains, and other officers, shall have further “ he may avow and protect his servants, from rage power and authority to lead, conduct, and em (I mean) and violence, for from justice I will ploy, the persons aforesaid, arrayed and wea never implore it; I shall then live in impatience, poned, as well within the county of
“ and in misery, till I wait upon you. But if, after “ within any other part of this realm of England, « all he hath done of late, he shall betake himself
or dominion of Wales, for the suppression of all “ to the easiest and compliantest ways of accoma “ rebellions, insurrections, and invasions, that may modation, I am confident, that then I shall serve happen, according as they, from time to time, “ him more by my absence, than by all my
indus“ shall receive directions by his majesty's author try.” And in that to sir Lewis Dives were these “ity, signified unto them by the lords and com- words : “God knows, I have not a thought to
mons, assembled in parliament. And it is further “ make me blush towards my country, much less “ ordained, that such persons as shall not obey in “ criminal; but where traitors have so great a sway, any of the premises, shall answer their neglect
- the honestest thoughts may prove most treason“ and contempt to the lords and commons, in a « able.” Which gave those, that thought them
parliamentary way, and not otherwise, nor else- selves concerned, so great offence, that, within two “ where : and that every the powers, granted as days after, they accused him of high treason; and “ aforesaid, shall continue, until it shall be other- finding no words in the letters would amount to “ wise ordered, or declared by both houses of par- that offence, they accused him of levying war
liament, and no longer. This to go also against the king; which could have relation to no “ to the dominion of Wales.”
act of his, but what was before mentioned at KingA second act of the same day, and the only way ston upon Thames, when, to the terror of the they took to return their thanks and acknowledg- king's subjects, he was seen there in a coach with ment to the queen for her intercession, and media- six horses. Though this extravagancy of theirs
of the the entire
174 The lords bail the twelve bishops. The commons recommit them. (BOOK IV. seems to be directed against a particular person, I “ which they had in so great a measure effected in could not omit it in this place, being accompanied “ Ireland; from whence, as they were informed, with those circumstances. And it may be, poste they intended to invade this kingdom, with the rity may look upon the severe persecution of a “ assistance of the papists here. They said, noyoung man of admirable parts, and eminent hopes, thing could prevent those evils, nor enable them in so implacable a manner, as a most pertinent in to suppress the rebellion in Ireland, and secure stance of the tyranny and injustice of that time, themselves, but the instant granting of that not possible to end, but in so much wickedness as “their petition; which, they hoped, bis majesty it hath since practised.
“s would not deny to those, who must, in the A third act of that day was the carrying up an "discharge of their duty to his majesty and the impeachment to the lords against the king's attor commonwealth, represent unto him, what they ney general," for maliciously advising and con “ found so absolutely necessary for the preserva
triving the articles upon which the lord Kimbol “ tion of both; which the laws of God and man ton, Mr. Hollis, Mr. Pym, Mr. Hambden, Mr. enjoined them to see put in execution, as
Strode, and sir Arthur Haslerig, had been ac “ several counties by their daily petitions de“cused by his majesty of high treason;" it being “sired them to do, and in some places began not thought security and reparation enough, that “ already to do it of themselves." Notwiththe king had waved any further proceeding against standing all that importunity, the king made them, except they left such a monument of their no other answer than formerly he had done, power, that, upon what occasion or provocation “ that he would give a full answer at his return soever, no man should presume to obey the king “ from Dover.” in the like command : so that the same fourteenth In the mean time, the house of commons, to of February, that was celebrated for the king's whom every day petitions are directed by the condescension to that act for the putting the bi- several counties of England, professing all allegishops out of the house of peers, is famous likewise ance to them, govern absolutely, the lords confor those three unparalleled acts of contempt upon curring, or rather submitting, to whatsoever is prothe sovereign power; the demand of the sole posed; insomuch as when they had bailed the power over all the militia of the kingdom; the twelve bishops, who were in the Tower for the opening letters directed to the sacred person of the treason of their protestation, which they did the queen;
and the impeaching the attorney general, next day after the bill was passed for taking away for performing the duty of his place, by his their votes, the house of commons in great indigmaster's command. All which were very ill in- nation expostulated with them, and caused them stances of that application and compliance his immediately again to be recommitted to the Tower. majesty had reason to expect, and some men had So they gave their private intimations to their corpromised him he should receive.
respondents in the counties, that they should make Though the king was resolved in no degree to small entries upon the militia ; which was done in consent to the proposition for the militia, yet he many places, the people choosing their officers, and thought not the time seasonable for his positive listing themselves, and so training and exercising denial, the queen retaining still her fears of being under the names of volunteers ; whereby they had stopped in her journey. Therefore, for the present, opportunity to unite themselves, to know their conhe returned answer, is that his dearest consort the federates, observe those who were of other opinions,
queen, and his dear daughter the princess Mary, and to provide arms and ammunition against they
being then upon their departure for Holland, he should have occasion. The Tower of London was
as that was ; therefore he would respite the same reprehended, for having said, “ that they ought « till his return :" the king intending to accompany “ not to have soldiers billeted upon them by the the queen to Dover, and, as soon as she was em
petition of right, and for refusing to submit that barked, to return. They received this answer with “ town, which was his charge, to the government their usual impatience, and the next day sent mes “of Mr. Hotham ;” and after a tedious and sengers to him, with that which they called an chargeable attendance, without being brought to humble petition; in which they told him, “ that a public hearing, he was persuaded to submit they had, with a great deal of grief, received his and so was discharged. answer to their just and necessary petition con Then they fell to raising of monies under pretenc cerning the militia of the kingdom; which, by a of the relief of Ireland, and, for that purpose, pre
gracious message formerly sent unto them, he pared one act " for the payment of four hundre " had been pleased to promise should be put into " thousand pounds to such persons as were nom “such hands, as his parliament should approve of,“ nated by themselves, and to be disbursed ar “ the extent of their power, and the time of their “ issued in such manner, and to such uses, as t “continuance, being likewise declared ; the which “ two houses should direct,” which the king co
being now done, and the persons nominated, his firmed accordingly; whereby they had a stock majesty nevertheless reserved his resolution to a credit to raise monies, whensoever they fou
longer and a very uncertain time; which, they themselves put to it: and this could not be p “ said, was as unsatisfactory and destructive as an vented; for the king having committed the car « absolute denial. Therefore
they once again being on the war of Ireland to them, and they be sought him to take their desire into his royal engaged both for the payment of the arrears to
thoughts, and to give them such an answer, as officers of the northern army disbanded the sum “ might raise in them a confidence, that they before, and of the three hundred thousand pou « should not be exposed to the practices of those to the Scots, his majesty was necessitated
to cs who thirst after the ruin of this kingdom, and the act
with such general clauses, that it migh« the kindling of that combustion in England, in their power to divert the money to other