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Reasons for the king's continuance near the parliament. [BOOK IV. and positive; though, as it is set down above, (in together to draw up a petition disavowing the forwhich words it passed, and was delivered to the mer, and to desire, «s that the settled laws might be king, it was thought by standers-by to be very “observed ;" of which the lord Say having notice, unagreeable to the gravity of a wise court, and to he procured the chief gentlemen to be sent for as the duty of subjects.

delinquents, and so suppressed that address : and But in this particular, in oppressing all those this was the measure of their justice in many other who were of different opinions from them, their particulars of the same nature, receiving and checarriage was so notorious and terrible, that spies rishing all mutinous and seditious petitions, and were set upon. and inquiries made upon all private, discountenancing such as besought the continuance light, casual discourses, which fell from those who and vindication of the so long celebrated and were not gracious to them : as one Mr. Trelawny, happy government in church and state; the prime a member of the house of commons, and a mer- leaders of that faction not blushing, in public dechant of great reputation, was expelled the house, bates in the house, to aver, “that no men ought to and committed to prison, for having said, in a pri petition for the government established by law, vate discourse in the city, to a friend,“ that the “because he had already his wish; but they that “house could not appoint a guard for themselves “ desired an alteration, could not otherwise bave “ without the king's consent, under pain of high “ their desires known; and therefore were to be “ treason :" which was proved by a fellow, who countenanced.” pretended to overhear him; when the person him The committee, which presented the declaration self , with whom the conference was held, declared, to the king at Newmarket

, presented likewise addi“ that he said, it might be imputed to them for tional reasons, as they called them, for his ma“ treason :” and it was confessed on all parts, that jesty's return, and continuance near the parliament; the words were spoken long before the discovery, as a matter, in their apprehension, of so great neand some days before the house had resolved, cessity and importance towards the preservation of

that they would have a guard.” And afterwards, his person, and his kingdom: and they said, upon

the old stock of their dislike, when the war They could not think they discharged their began to break out, they again imprisoned this “ duties in the single expression of their desire, poor gentleman; seized upon all his estate, which “ unless they added some further reasons to back was very good; and suffered him to die in prison “it with. 1. His majesty's absence would cause for want of ordinary relief and refreshment.

men to believe, that it was out of design to disAnd in this very time we speak of, and in the

courage the undertakers, and hinder the other very business of the militia, when every day very “provisions for raising money for defence of great multitudes with petitions from most of the

“ Ireland.

2. It would very much hearten the counties of England, and from the city of London,“ rebels there, and disaffected persons in this were presented to both houses, to desire them to be

kingdom, as being an evidence, and effect of the put into a posture of defence; and that they would jealousy and division between his majesty and cause the ordinance for the militia to be speedily “his people. 3. That it would much weaken and executed, which was alleged to be an instance of “ withdraw the affection of the subject from his the people's desire throughout the kingdom, and “ majesty; without which, a prince is deprived of the chief ground of their proceeding; the most “ his chiefest strength and lustre, and left naked substantial citizens of London, both in reputation to the greatest dangers and miseries that can be and estate, finding that the militia of that city, imagined. 4. That it would invite and encouwith which by their charter, and constant practice, rage the enemies of our religion and the state in the lord mayor had been always intrusted, was now “foreign parts, to the attempting, and acting of with a most extravagant power to be committed to “ their evil designs and intentions towards us. a nunber of factious persons of the city, the major 5. That it did cause a great interruption in the part of whom consisted of men of no fortune, or proceedings of parliament. Those considerations reputation, resolved to petition both houses "not" they said, threatened so great danger to his per “ to alter their original constitution and right of son, and to all his dominions, that, as his grea “ their city:" and, to that purpose, a petition was “council, they held it necessary to represent to hir signed by some hundreds, and very probably would “ that their faithful advice, that so, whatsoeve in few days have been subscribed by all, or most of " should follow, they might be excused before Go the substantial citizens of London. The house “ and man. had notice of this petition, which they called an Whilst that declaration was reading, his majes other conspiracy and plot against the parliament, expressed some passion upon particular expre and immediately employed a member of their own sions; and once, when that passage was read, tl to procure a sight of it; who, under a trust of re- takes notice “ of the transportation of Mr. Jerm delivering it, got it into his hands, and brought it by his majesty's own warrant, after he had giv to the house of commons; upon which, some prin “ his word, that he had commanded that none cipal citizens, who had subscribed it, were exa “ his servants should depart from court,” int mined, and committed to prison ; and a direction rupted the earl of Holland, who read it, ands given, that a charge and impeachment should be “ 'That's false;" and when he was told, “it prepared against the recorder of London, who, “ lated not to the date, but the execution of they heard, had been of council in the drawing up warrant,” his majesty said, “ It might have and preparing that petition, and, they knew, was “ better expressed

then : it is a high thing to opposite to their tumultuary proceedings. So when a king with breach of promise." But after the chief gentlemen of Oxfordshire heard, that a the declaration and reasons were read, the petition had been delivered to the house of com- after a short pause, said to them, mons in their name, and the name of that county, “ I am confident that you expect not I sh against the established government of the church, give you a speedy answer to this strange and for the exercise of the militia, they assembled unexpected declaration; and I am sorry,

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1642.] The king's reply. His message to both houses while on his way to York. 181
“ distraction of this kingdom, you should think this ported what answer they had received, and in what

way of address to be more convenient, than that disposition and temper they found and left the
propounded, by my message of the twentieth of king; it was ordered, that their declaration, which
January last, to both houses. As concerning the they had sent to him, should be speedily printed,

grounds of your fears and jealousies, I will take and carefully dispersed throughout the kingdom, “ time to answer [them] particularly; and doubt that the people might see upon what terms they “ not but I shall do it to the satisfaction of all the stood; and all other possible courses were taken “ world. God, in his good time, will, I hope, to poison the hearts and affections of the subjects, “ discover the secrets and bottoms of all plots and and to suppress all those, who, in any degree, “ treasons; and then I shall stand right in the eyes seemed to dislike their high proceedings. Above “ of all my people. In the mean time I must tell all, care was taken to place such preachers and

you, that I rather expected a vindication for the lecturers in the most populous towns and parishes,

imputation laid on me in Mr. Pym's speech, than as were well known to abhor the present govern“ that any more general rumours and discourses ment, and temperature of church and state ; many “ should get credit with you. For my fears and of whom were recommended, and positively en“ doubts, I did not think they should have been joined, and imposed upon parishes, by the house

thought so trivial and groundless, whilst so many of commons; and others, by such factious mem“ seditious pamphlets and sermons are looked bers, whose reputation was most current: and all upon, and so great tumults are remembered, canonical clergymen, and orthodox divines, were, unpunished, uninquired into. I still confess with equal industry, discountenanced, imprisoned, my fears, and call God to witness, that they are or forced to a long attendance upon committees, greater for the true protestant profession, my or the house, (which was worse than imprisonpeople and laws, than for my own rights, or ment,) under the notion and imputation of scan

safety; though I must tell you, I conceive none dalous ministers. Which charge and reproach “ of these are free from danger. What would you reached all men, whose inclinations they liked not, “ have? Have I violated your laws ? Have I or whose opinions they suspected. And that they “ denied to pass any one bill for the ease and might be sure to be as strong and absolute at sea, security of my subjects ? I do not ask

you

what as at land, they appointed the lord admiral to send you have done for me. Are my people trans- the names of all those captains of ships, who were

ported with fears and apprehensions? I have to attend the fleet for that summer service, to “Offered as free and general a pardon as your them, to the end they might have such men, in “selves can devise. There is a judgment from whom they might confide; which his lordship “ heaven upon this nation, if these distractions most punctually observed. By which they helped “ continue. God so deal with me, and mine, as to free him of those officers whom he could not “all my thoughts, and intentions, are upright for plausibly have discharged ; and struck out the “ the maintenance of the true protestant profes- names of those, whose affections or relations they “sion, and for the observation and preservation thought themselves not secure in. “ of the laws of the land: and I hope God will The king thought it now time, according to his “ bless and assist those laws for my preservation.” former resolution, which he had not communicated

This being suddenly, and with some vehemence, to many, to remove to York, which was a place of spoken by his majesty, and he having taken further good receipt and conveniency, for those who were time to answer the declaration, and the reasons, willing to attend him ; and, to the end that there the committee besought him, “since they were to might be public notice of it, he sent from Huntingcarry

back with them no other answer, that his ton, when he was upon his journey, a message to majesty would vouchsafe to give them what he both houses : * That, being then in his remove to “ had spoken in writing;” which, the next morn his city of York, where he intended to make his ing, he did : and then the earl of Holland again “ residence for some time, he thought fit to send desired him, “ that he would reside nearer his par “ that message to them, and very earnestly to de“ liament;" whereunto the king shortly answered, “ sire them, that they would use all possible in“ I would you had given me cause; but I am sure dustry in expediting the business of Ireland; " this declaration is not the way to it.” Then being in which they should find so cheerful a conasked by the earl of Pembroke, whether the militia “ currence from his majesty, that no inconvenience might not be granted, as was desired by the parlia “ should happen to that service by his absence, he ment, for a time? he answered, “By God, not for having all that passion for the reducing that

an hour. You have asked that of me in this, kingdom, which he had expressed in his former

was never asked of a king, and with which I will messages, and being, by words, unable to mani“ not trust my wife and children.” He told them, “ fest more affection to it, than he had endeavoured “ he could not have believed the parliament would “ to do by those messages : having likewise done “ have sent him such a declaration, if he had not “ all such acts, as he had been moved unto by his

seen it brought by such persons: and said he parliament. Therefore, if the misfortunes and was sorry for the parliament, but glad he had it ; “ calamities of his poor protestant subjects there

for by that he doubted not to satisfy his people. “ should grow upon them, (though he should be “ He said they spake of ill councils ; but he was “ deeply concerned in, and sensible of their sufferconfident they had worse informations, than he “ings, he said, he should wash his hands before “ had councils. He told them, the business of “ all the world from the least imputation of slack“ Ireland would never be done in the way they ness in that most necessary and pious work.

were in; four hundred would never do that “ And, that he might leave no way unattempted, “ work; it must be put into the hands of one: “ which might beget a good understanding between “ and, he said, if he were trusted with it, he would “ him and his parliament, he said, he thought it pawn his head to end that work.”

necessary to declare, that, as he had been so As soon as the committee returned, and re “ tender of the privilege of parliament, that he

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182

The king's message received with choler and rage. [BOOK iv. “ had been ready and forward to retract any act obeyed by the fundamental laws of the kingdom; “ of his own, which he had been informed had “ and that such persons, as should be nominated “ trenched upon their privileges; so he expected deputy lieutenants, and approved of by both “ an equal tenderness in them of his known and “ houses, should receive the commands of both

unquestionable prerogatives, which are the pri- “ houses, to take upon them to execute their ofvileges of the kingdom ; amongst which, he was “ fices.” All which resolutions were ordered, the assured, it was a fundamental one, that his sub- same night, to be printed and published. So that, jects could not be obliged to obey any act, order, when the king's message from Huntington was

or injunction, to which he had not given his read the next morning, and seemed to be against “ consent.

their votes of the day before, they concluded, “ And, therefore, he thought it necessary to pub “ that it could not be sent from the king, but that “ lish, that he expected, and thereby required, “ it had been inserted in blanks left in the town “ obedience from all his loving subjects to the “ for such purposes;” and immediately made a “ laws established ; and that they presumed not committee, to find out by whom that message

upon any pretence of order, or ordinance, to was framed.” But when they remembered, that “ which his majesty was no party, concerning the they had voted as much a week before, and had “ militia, or any other thing, to do, or execute examined the gentleman who brought it, and had “ what was not warrantable by those laws ; he received it from the king's own hand, they pro

being resolved to keep the laws himself, and to ceeded no further in that inquisition; but satisfied require obedience to them from all his subjects, themselves with a new vote, “ that those persons,

“ And he once more recommended unto them the “ who advised his majesty to absent himself from “ substance of his message of the twentieth of Ja- “ the parliament, and those that advised him to

nuary last; that they would compose, and digest “that message, were enemies to the peace of the “ with all speed, such acts as they should think fit kingdom, and justly to be suspected to be favour“ for their present and future establishment of “ ers of the rebellion in Ireland.” And for the “ their privileges, the free and quiet enjoying their matter itself they resolved to insist upon their “ estates and fortunes, the liberties of their persons, former votes; and withal declared, “that when “ the security of the true religion then professed in “ the lords and commons in parliament, which is “ the church of England, the maintaining his regal“ the supreme court of judicature in the kingdom, “ and just authority, and settling his revenue; he “ should declare what the law of the land is, to

being most desirous to take all fitting and just “ have that not only questioned and controverted,

ways, which might beget a happy understanding “ but contradicted, and a command that it should “ between him and his parliament, in which he “ not be obeyed, was a high breach of the privilege conceived his greatest power and riches did of parliament." « consist.”

And this likewise they caused to be speedily I have not known both houses in more choler ' printed ; lest the king should be able to persuade and rage, than upon the receiving this message, the subjects, that an order of theirs, without his which came early to them on Wednesday the six- consent, was no law to compel their obedience. teenth of March. Now the day before had been And from this last resolution, by which the law of spent in preparing all things ready for the execu- the land, and consequently the liberty of the subject, tion of the ordinance of the militia; they had was resolved into a vote of the two houses, which voted, and resolved, “ that it was not any way passed without any dispute or hesitation, all sober

against the oath of allegiance, that all the com men discerned the fatal period of both, and saw “ missions to lieutenants under the great seal were a foundation laid for all the anarchy and confusion

illegal and void; and that whosoever should that hath followed. “ execute any power over the militia by colour of It was now known, that the king was - gone

any commission of lieutenancy, without consent to York, which made them apprehend their prinof both houses of parliament, should be accounted cipality of Hull might be in danger; and therefore “ a disturber of the peace of the kingdom.” Then they immediately resolve, “ that no forces wbatthey agreed upon this proposition, “ That the

soever shall be admitted in that town, without kingdom had been of late, and still was, in so the immediate consent of both houses :" which “ evident and imminent danger, both from enemies order was sent thither by an express. And having

· abroad, and a popish and discontented party at prepared the people to be ready for the militia, by “ home, that there was an urgent and inevitable publishing, “that, in case of extreme danger, they

necessity of putting his majesty's subjects into a were to obey that ordinance ;” they were, in the posture of defence, for the safeguard both of the next place, to find the danger to be extreme; and, king and his people; and that the lords and to that purpose, they produced letters without any

commons, apprehending that danger, and being name, pretended to be written from Amsterdam, “ sensible of their own duty to provide a suitable signifying, “ that they had intelligence there, that

prevention, had, in several petitions, addressed “ there was an army ready in Denmark to be trans“ themselves to his majesty for the ordering and ported into England, and was to be landed at

disposing the militia of the kingdom in such a “ Hull; which, they said, had been confirmed to way, as was agreed upon, by the wisdom of both “ them by a person of reputation, from Newmarket, houses, to be most proper for the present exi “ who confirmed the intelligence of Denmark: and

gence of the kingdom: yet they could not ob added, that there [were) likewise forces ready “tain it; but his majesty did several times refuse o in France to be likewise landed at Hull.” “ to give his royal assent thereunto.”

Upon this

And of this, how gross and ridiculous soever it proposition, they resolved, “ that in that case of appeared to wise men, they made a double use, * extreme danger, and of his majesty's refusal, the (besides the general impression in the people,) the “ ordinance agreed on by both houses for the one to colour and countenance their orders to their “ militia did oblige the people, and ought to be governor there ; the other, to make the king's

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1642.] Reports of danger from foreign forces and from papists.

183 residence in those parts suspected and grievous, as“ positions ;" which, having passed both houses, if he came thither only to bring in foreign forces were presented to the king, who it being about upon them. With these alarums of foreign forces, the beginning of February, when the breach of they mingled other intelligence of the papists in their privileges rang in all men's ears) answered, England, “ that they had a purpose of making an " that as he had offered, and was still ready to “insurrection ;” and therefore they proceeded in “ venture, his own person for the recovery of that preparing a bill to secure the persons of those of kingdom, if his parliament should advise him the best quality, and greatest interest, and enjoin “ thereunto; so he would not deny to contribute ing the oath of supremacy to be taken with great any other assistance he could to that service, by rigour; and, amongst other stratagems they had to parting with any profit or advantage of his own humble the papists, I remember, upon an informa “ there; and therefore, relying upon the wisdom tion that they used their protestant tenants worse " of his parliament, he did consent to every proin the raising their rents, than they did those of position, now made to him, without taking time their own religion, there was an order, “that they to consider and examine, whether that course “ should not raise the rents of their tenants, above might not retard the reducing that kingdom, by “ the rates that the protestant landlords adjoining exasperating the rebels, and rendering them “ received from their tenants :" by virtue of wbich, “ desperate of being received into grace, if they in some places, they undertook to determine what “ should return to their obedience. And, he said, rents their tenants should pay to them. But, in “ he would be ready to give his royal assent to this zeal against the papists, they could not endure “such bills, as should be tendered to him by his that the king should have any 'share; and there parliament for the confirmation of those profore, when they found, that his majesty had pub “ positions.” lished a proclamation in his journey towards York, Which answer, together with their propositions,

commanding all the judges and justices of peace, they caused forthwith to be printed; made their “ and other officers, to put in due execution all the committees, in all places, to solicit subscriptions, “ laws and statutes of the kingdom, against popish and to receive the monies, the principal and most

recusants, without favour or connivance,” they active persons subscribing first, for the example of presently sent for the sheriffs of London to the others; and delayed the framing and presenting house of commons, and examined them, “why the bill to the king, till they had received great

seven priests, who were in Newgate, and had sums of money, and procured very many persons “ been long condemned, were not executed ?" the of all conditions to subscribe, many coming in out reason whereof they well knew : and when they of pure covetousness to raise great fortunes; five said, “that they had received a reprieve for them hundred acres of land being assigned for one hun“ under the king's hand,” they published that with dred pound in some counties, and not much under great care in their prints, to take off the credit of that proportion in others; some out of pure fear, the new proclamation ; and appointed their mes- and to win credit with the powerful party, which sengers, whom they were then sending to the king made this new project a measure of men's affecwith a new declaration, to move his majesty,“ that tions, and a trial how far they might be trusted,

he would take off his reprieve, and suffer those and relied on.
seven condemned priests to be executed, accord Then they sent those propositions digested into
ing to the judgments they had received.” a bill to the king, with such clauses of power to

They proceeded now to provide all necessary them, and diminution of his own, that, upon the
means for the raising great sums of money, by the matter, he put the making a peace with the rebels
diligent collection of what was granted by former there out of his own power, though upon the most
acts, and by a new bill for the raising of four hun- advantageous terms; which he was likewise ne-
dred thousand pounds for the payment of the great cessitated to pass.
debts of the kingdom, (by which they meant the But notwithstanding all these preparations on
remainder of the three hundred thousand pounds, this side the sea, the relief and provision was very
they had bountifully given to their brethren of slowly supplied to the other side: where the rebels
Scotland,) and the support of the war of Ireland : still increased in strength, and by the fame of these
all which monies were to be received and disposed propositions enlarged their power, very many per-
as the two houses should direct; of which though sons of honour and fortune, who till then had sat
the king saw the danger, that might, and after did still, and either were, or seemed to be, averse to
ensue to them, yet he thought that probable incon- the rebellion, joining with the as being des-
venience and mischief to be less, than that, which perate, and conceiving the utter suppressing their
the scandal of denying any thing, upon which the religion, and the very extirpation of their nation,
recovery of Ireland seemed to depend, would in- to be decreed against them. And, without doubt,
evitably bring upon him; and so ratified whatsoever the great reformers here were willing enough to
they brought to him of that kind.

drive them to any extremity, both out of revenge Amongst other expedients for raising of money and contempt, as a people easy to be rooted out, for the war of Ireland, about this time, they made and that the war might be kept still up; since certain propositions to encourage men to be adven- they feared an union in that kingdom might much turers in that traffick, thus : they concluded “ that, prejudice their designs in this, both as it might “ in so general a rebellion, very much land must supply the king with power, and take away much “escheat to the crown by the forfeiture of treason, of theirs ; whereas now they had opportunity, with " and that, out of such forfeitures, satisfaction reference to Ireland, to raise both men and money,

might be given to those, who should disburse which they might be able to employ upon more money towards the suppression of the rebels ; so pressing occasions, as they will be found aftermany' acres of land to be allowed for so much wards to have done. Neither was it out of their

money, according to the value of the lands in the expectation and view, that, by the king's consent“ several provinces, which was specified in the pro- ing to that severe decree, he might very probably

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184

The king's reception at York from the gentry of the county. [BOOK v. discourage his catholic subjects, in his other do-whole business of Ireland to be managed by comminions, from any extraordinary acts of duty and mission under the great seal of England, by four affection : at least, that it would render him less lords and eight commoners, whom they recomconsidered by the most catholic princes. And they mended to the king, and who were always to reknew well what use to make of any diminution of ceive instructions from themselves. And in this his interest or reputation. These matters thus state and disposition were the affairs of Ireland, settled, for the ease of the two houses, who were when the king went to York, where let us now now like to have much to do, they appointed the resort to him.

END OF THE FOURTH BOOK.

THE

HISTORY OF THE REBELLION,

&c.

BOOK V.

A

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S soon as the king came to York, which was they would make a law without him, and impose

“it upon his people,) would not think that sudden reception there to be equal to his expectation, the answer could be excepted to. He said, he had gentry, and men of ability of that

popu “ little encouragement to replies of that nature, lous county, (some very few excepted,) expressing “ when he was told of how little value his words great alacrity for his majesty's being with them, were like to be with them, though they came and no less sense of the insolent proceedings of “ accompanied with all the actions of love and the parliament; whereupon he resolved to treat “justice, (where there was room for actions to with the two houses in another manner than he accompany them ;) yet he could not but disavow had done, and to let them clearly know," that as “ the having any such evil counsel, or counsellors “ he would deny them nothing that was fit for “ about him, to his knowledge, as were mentioned “ them to ask, so he would yield to nothing that “ by them; and, if any such should be discovered,

was unreasonable for him to grant; and that he “ he would leave them to the censure and judg“ would have nothing extorted from him, that he “ment of his parliament. In the mean time he

was not very well inclined to consent to.” So, “ could wish, that his own immediate actions, within few days after his coming thither, he sent a “ which he did avow, and his own honour, might declaration (which he caused to be printed, and, “ not be so roughly censured and wounded, under in the frontispiece, recommended to the considera “ that common style of evil counsellors. For his tion of all his loving subjects) to them, in answer “ faithful and zealous affection to the true proto that presented to him at Newmarket some days “ testant profession, and his resolution to concur before : he told them,

“ with his parliament in any possible course for That, though that declaration, presented to “ the propagation of it, and the suppression of “ him at Newmarket from both houses of parlia popery, he said he could say no more than he

ment, [was] of so strange a nature, in respect of “had already expressed in his declaration to all “ what he expected, (after so many acts of grace “ his loving subjects, published in January last, “and favour to his people,) and some expressions “ by the advice of his privy council; in which he “ in it so different from the usual language to “ endeavoured to make as lively a confession of

princes, that he might well take a very long time “ himself in that point as he was able, being most " to consider it; yet the clearness and uprightness“ assured, that the constant practice of his life “ of his conscience to God, and love to his sub “ had been answerable thereunto : and therefore

jects, had supplied him with a speedy answer ; “ he did rather expect a testimony, and acknow“and his unalterable affection to his people pre “ ledgment of such his zeal and piety, than those “ vailed with him to suppress that passion, which expressions he met with in that declaration of

might well enough become him upon such an any design of altering religion in this kingdom. “ invitation. He said, he had considered his an “ And he said, he did, out of the innocency of his

swer of the first of that month at Theobalds, “ soul, wish, that the judgments of Heaven might “ which was said to have given just cause of sor “ be manifested upon those, who have or had any “ row to his subjects : but, he said, whoever looked “ such design.

over that message, (which was in effect to tell “ As for the Scots' troubles, he told them, he “ him, that if he would not join with them in an “ had thought, that those unhappy differences had

act, which he conceived might prove prejudicial “ been wrapped up in perpetual silence by the act " and dangerous to him, and the whole kingdom, of oblivion; which, being solemnly passed in the

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