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1628.]
Character of tho Duke of Buckingham.

15 upon his memory, either of them aggravated by the end don Carlos went into the coach with circumstances very important

, and which ad- the favourite, and the duke and the earl of Bristol minister frequent occasions by their effects to be

went with the king and the prince; and so they remembered.

prosecuted their journey, and after dinner returned The first, his engaging his old unwilling master

in the same manner to Madrid. and the kingdom in the war with Spain, (not to This, with all the circumstances of it, adminismention the bold journey thither, or the breach tered wonderful occasion of discourse in the court of that match,) in a time when the crown was so and country, there having never been such a comet poor, and the people more inclined to a bold in

seen in that hemisphere; and their submiss requiry, how it came to be so, than dutifully to verence to their princes being a vital part of their provide for its supply: and this only upon per- religion. sonal animosities between him and the duke of

There were very few days passed afterwards, Olivarez, the sole favourite in that court, and in which there was not some manifestation of those animosities from very trivial provocations, the highest displeasure and hatred in the duke and flowed indeed from no other fountain, than against the other. And when the Conde duke that the nature and education of Spain restrained had some eclaircissement with the duke, in which men from that gaiety of humour, and from that he made all the protestations of his sincere affrolic humour, to which the prince's court was fection, and his desire to maintain a clear and more inclined. And Olivarez had been heard to faithful friendship with him, which he conceived censure very severely the duke's familiarity and might be, in some degree, useful to both their want of respect towards the prince, (a crime mon

masters ; the other received his protestations strous to the Spaniard,) and had said, that “if the with all contempt, and declared, with a very un"infanta did not, as soon as she was marriel, necessary frankness, “ that he would have no

suppress that license, she would herself quickly “ friendship with him.” "undergo the mischief of it:" which gave the first And the next day after the king returned from alarm to the duke to apprehend his own ruin in accompanying the prince towards the sea, where, that union, and accordingly to use all his en at parting, there were all possible demonstradeavours to break and prevent it: and from that tions of mutual affection between them; and the time he took all occasions to quarrel with and re- king caused a fair pillar to be erected in the proach the Conde duke.

place where they last embraced each other, with One morning the king desired the prince to take inscriptions of great honour to the prince; their the air, and to visit a little house of pleasure he being then in that court not the least suspicion, had (the Prado) four miles from Madrid, standing or imagination, that the marriage would not sucin a forest, where he used sometimes to hunt; ceed. Insomuch that afterwards, upon the news and the duke not being ready, the king and the from Rome, that the dispensation was granted, prince and the infante don Carlos went into the the prince having left the desponsorios in the coach, the king likewise calling the earl of Bristol | hands of the earl of Bristol, in which the infante into that coach to assist them in their conversation, don Carlos was constituted the prince's proxy to the prince then not speaking any Spanish ; and left marry the infanta

on his behalf, she was treated Olivarez to follow in the coach with the duke of as princess of Wales, the queen gave her place, Buckingham. When the duke came, they went and the English ambassador had frequent audiinto the coach, accompanied with others of both ences, as with his mistress, in which he would nations, and proceeded very cheerfully towards not be covered: yet, I say, the very next day after overtaking the king: but when upon the way he the prince's departure from the king, Mr. Clark, heard that the earl of Bristol was in the coach one of the prince's bedchamber, who had forwith the king, he broke out into great passion, merly served the duke, was sent back to Madrid, reviled the Conde duke as the contriver of the upon pretence that somewhat was forgotten there, affront, reproached the earl of Bristol for his pre- but in truth, with orders to the earl of Bristol sumption, in taking the place which in all respects not to deliver the desponsorios (which, by the belonged to him, who was joined with him as articles, he was obliged to do within fifteen days ambassador extraordinary, and came last from the after the arrival of the dispensation) until he should presence of their master, and resolved to go out receive further orders from the prince, or king, of the coach, and to return to Madrid. Olivarez after his return into England. easily discovered by the disorder, and the noise, Mr. Clark was not to deliver this letter to and the tone, that the duke was very angry, the ambassador, till he was sure the dispensawithout comprehending the cause of it;

only tion was come ; of which he could not be adverfound that the earl of Bristol was often named tised in the instant. But he lodging in the ambaswith such a tone, that he began to suspect what sador's house, and falling sick of a calenture, in truth might be the cause. And thereupon he which the physicians thought would prove mortal, commanded a gentleman, who was on horseback, he sent for the earl to come to his bedside, and with all speed to overtake the king's coach, and delivered him the letter before the arrival of the desire that it might stay; intimating, that the dispensation, though long after it was known to duke had taken some displeasure, the ground be granted; upon which all those ceremonies were whereof was not enough understood. Upon which performed to the infanta. the king's coach stayed; and when the other ap By these means, and by this method, this proached within distance, the Conde duke alighted, great affair, upon which

eyes of Christendom and acquainted the king with what he had observed, had been so long fixed, came to be dissolved, and what he conceived. The king himself alighted, without the least mixture with, or contributicu made great compliments to the duke, the earl from, those amours, which were afterwards so of Bristol excusing himself upon the king's com- confidently discoursed of. For though the duke mand, that he should serve as a trustman. In | was naturally carried violently to those passions,

16
Character of the Duke of Buckingham.

(BOOK 1. when there was any grace or beauty in the object; | intended to do, and was hindered by a very acciyet the duchess of Olivarez, of whom the talk dent, he came into her chamber in much passion, was, was then a woman so old, past children, and, after some expostulations rude enough, he of so abject a presence, in a word, so crooked told her, “ she should repent it.” And her maand deformed, that she could neither tempt his jesty answering with some quickness, he replied appetite, or magnify his revenge. And what- insolently to her," that there had been queens ever he did afterwards in England was but tueri “ in England who had lost their heads.” And opus, and to prosecute the design he had, upon the it was universally known, that, during his life, reasons and provocations aforesaid, so long before the queen never had any credit with the king, contrived during his abode in Spain.

with reference to any public affairs, and so could The other particular, by which he involved not divert the resolution of making a war with himself in so many fatal intricacies, from which he France. could never extricate himself, was, his running The war with Spain had found the nation in violently into the war with France, without any a surfeit of a long peace, and in a disposition inkind of provocation, and upon a particular passion clinable enough to war with that nation, which very unwarrantable. In his embassy in France, might put an end to an alliance the most unwhere his person and presence was wonderfully grateful to them, and which they most feared, and admired and esteemed, (and in truth it was a from whence no other damage had yet befallen wonder in the eyes of all men,) and in which he them, than a chargeable and unsuccessful voyage appeared with all the lustre the wealth of England by sea, without the loss of ships or men.

But a could adorn him with, and outshined all the bravery war with France must be carried on at another that court could dress itself in, and overacted the rate and expense. Besides, the nation was weary whole nation in their own most peculiar vanities; and surfeited with the first, before the second was he had the ambition to fix his eyes upon, and to entered upon; and it was very visible to wise men, dedicate his most violent affection to, a lady of that when the general trade of the kingdom, from a very sublime quality, and to pursue it with most whence the support of the crown principally reimportunate addresses: insomuch as when the sulted, should be utterly extinguished with France, king had brought the queen his sister as far as he as it was with Spain, and interrupted or obstructed meant to do, and delivered her into the hands of with all other places, (as it must be in a war, how the duke, to be by him conducted into England ; prosperously soever carried on,) the effects would the duke, in his journey, after his departure from be very sad, and involve the king in many perthat court, took a resolution once more to make a plexities; and it could not but fall out accordingly. visit to that great lady, which he believed he might Upon the return from Cales without success, do with great privacy. But it was so easily dis- though all the ships, and, upon the matter, all the covered, that provision was made for his reception; men were seen, (for though some had so surfeited and if he had pursued his attempt, he had been in the vineyards, and with the wines, that they had without doubt assassinated; of which he had only been left behind, the generosity of the Spaniards so much notice, as served him to decline the had sent them all home again ;) and though by danger. But he swore, in the instant, “ that he that fleet's putting in at Plymouth, near two hun“would see and speak with that lady, in spite dred miles from London, so that there could be “ of the strength and power of France.” And from very imperfect relations, and the news of yesterday the time that the queen arrived in England, he was contradicted the morrow; besides the expetook all the ways he could to undervalue and exas- dition had been undertaken by the advice of the perate that court and nation, by causing all those parliament, and with an universal approbation of who fled into England from the justice and dis- the people, so that nobody could reasonably speak pleasure of that king, to be received and enter- loudly against it; yet, notwithstanding all this, the tained here, not only with ceremony and security, ill success was heavily borne, and imputed to ill but with bounty and magnificence; and the more conduct; the principal officers of the fleet and extraordinary the persons were, and the more army divided amongst themselves, and all united notorious the king's displeasure was towards them, in their murmurs against the general, the lord vis(as in that time there were very many lords and count Wimbledon; who, though an old officer in ladies of that classis,) the more respectfully they Holland, was never thought equal to the enterwere received and esteemed. He omitted no prise, and had in truth little more of a Holland opportunity to incense the king against France, officer than the pride and formality. In a word, and to dispose him to assist the Hugonots, whom there was indisposition enough quickly discovered he likewise encouraged to give their king some against the war itself, that it was easily discerned trouble.

it would not be pursued with the vigour it was And, which was worse than all this, he took entered into, nor carried on by any cheerful congreat pains to lessen the king's affection towards tribution of money from the public. his young queen, being exceedingly

, jealous, lest But the running into this war with France (from her interest might be of force enough to cross his whence the queen was so newly and so joyfully other designs : and in this stratagem, he so far received) without any colour of reason, or so much swerved from the instinct of his nature and his as the formality of a declaration from the king, proper inclinations, that he, who was compounded containing the ground, and provocation, and end of all the elements of affability and courtesy to- of it, according to custom and obligation in the ward all kind of people, had brought himself to a like cases, (for it was observed that the declaration habit of neglect, and even of rudeness, towards the which was published was in the duke's own name, queen.

who went admiral and general of the expedition,) One day, when he unjustly apprehended that opened the mouths of all men to inveigh against it she had shewed some disrespect to his mother, with all bitterness, and the sudden ill effects of it, in not going to her lodging at an hour she had manifested in the return of the fleet to Portsmouth,

1628.]

An Account of a Prediction of the Duke's death. within such a distance of London, that nothing observation and experience he had, which had could be concealed of the loss sustained ; in which very much improved his understanding, with the most noble families found a son, or brother, or greatness of his spirit, and jealousy of his master's near kinsman wanting, without such circumstances honour, (to whom his fidelity was superior to any of their deaths which are usually the consolations temptation,) might have repaired many of the inand recompenses of such catastrophes. The re conveniences which he had introduced, and would treat had been a rout without an enemy, and the have prevented the mischiefs which were the natuFrench had their revenge by the disorder and cou- ral effects of those causes. fusion of the English themselves; in which great

t. There were many stories scattered abroad at that numbers of noble and ignoble were crowded to time, of several prophecies and predictions of the death, or drowned without the help of an enemy : duke's untimely and violent death.

Amongst the and as many thousands of the common men were rest there was one, which was upon a better founwanting, so few of those principal officers who had dation of credit than usually such discourses are attained to a name in war, and by whose courage founded upon. There was an officer in the king's and experience any war was to be conducted, wardrobe in Windsor castle, of a good reputation could be found.

for honesty and discretion, and then about the age The effects of this overthrow did not at first ap- of fifty years, or more. This man had, in his pear in whispers, murmurs, and invectives, as the youth, been bred in a school, in the parish where retirement from Cales had done; but produced sir George Villiers, the father of the duke, lived, such a general consternation over the face of the and had been much cherished and obliged, in that whole nation, as if all the armies of France and scason of his age, by the said sir George, whom Spain were united together, and had covered the afterwards he never saw. About six months before land: mutinies in the fleet and army, under pre- the miserable end of the duke of Buckingham, tence of their want of pay, (whereof no doubt about midnight, this man being in his bed at there was much due to them,) but in truth, out of Windsor, where his office was, and in very good detestation of the service, and the authority of the health, there appeared to him, on the side of his duke. The counties throughout the kingdom were bed, a man of a very venerable aspect, who drew so incensed, and their affections poisoned, that they the curtains of his bed, and, fixing his eyes upon refused to suffer the soldiers to be billeted upon him, asked him, if he knew him. 'i'he poor man, them; by which they often underwent greater in- half dead with fear and apprehension, being asked conveniences and mischiefs than they endeavoured the second time, whether he remembered him ; to prevent. The endeavour to raise new men for the and having in that time called to his memory the recruit of the army by pressing (the only method presence of sir George Villiers, and the very clothes that had ever been practised upon such occasions) he used to wear, in which at that time he seemed found opposition in many places; and the authority to be habited, he answered, “ that he thought him by which it was done not submitted to, as illegal;

" to be that person.' He replied, “ he was in the which produced a resort to martial law, by which right; that he was the same, and that he exmany were executed; which raised an asperity in pected a service from him; which was, that he the minds of more than of the common people, “ should go from him to his son the duke of BuckAnd this distemper was so universal, the least - ingham, and tell him, if he did not do somewhat spark still meeting with combustible matter enough “ to ingratiate himself to the people, or, at least, to to make a flame, that all wise men looked upon it “ abate the extreme malice they had against him, as the prediction of the destruction and dissolu “ he would be suffered to live a short time.” tion that would follow. Nor was there a serenity And after this discourse he disappeared; and the in the countenance of any man, who had age and poor man, if he had been at all waking, slept very experience enough to consider things to come; but well till morning, when he believed all this to be a only in those who wished the destruction of the dream, and considered it no otherwise. duke, and thought it could not be purchased at The next night, or shortly after, the same person too dear a price, and looked upon this flux of appeared to him again in the same place, and about humours as an inevitable way to bring it to pass. the same time of the night, with an aspect a little

And it cannot be denied, that from these two more severe than before, and asked him, whether wars so wretchedly entered into, and the circum- | he had done as he had required him: and perceivstances before mentioned, and which flowed from ing he had not, gave him very sharp reprehensions; thence, the duke's ruin took its date: and never told him," he expected more compliance from left pursuing him, till that execrable act upon his him; and that, if he did not perform his comperson; the malice whereof was contracted by “ mands, he should enjoy no peace of mind, but that sole evil spirit of the time, without any partner “ should be always pursued by him;" upon which, in the conspiracy. And the venom of that season he promised him to obey him. But the next increased and got vigour, until, from one license to morning waking out of a good sleep, though he another, it proceeded till the nation was corrupted was exceedingly perplexed with the lively repreto that monstrous degree, that it grew satiated, sentation of all particulars to his memory, he was and

weary of the government itself; under which willing still to persuade himself that he had only it had enjoyed a greater measure of felicity, than dreamed; and considered, that he was a person at any nation was ever possessed of; and which could such a distance from the duke, that he knew not never be continued to them, but under the same. how to find any admission to his presence, much And as these calamities originally sprung from the less had any hope to be believed in what he should inordinate appetite and passion of this young man, say. And so with great trouble and unquietness, under the too much easiness of two indulgent mas he spent some time in thinking what he should ters, and the concurrence of a thousand other ac- do, and in the end resolved to do nothing in the cidents; so that, if he had lived longer, (for he matter. was taken away at the age af thirty-six years,) the The same person appeared to him the third time,

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18 A prospect of the Court and Ministers after the Duke's death. [BOOK 1. with a terrible countenance, and bitterly reproach “ he said he durst not impart to him, the duke's ing him for not performing what he had promised “ colour changed, and he swore he could come to to do. The poor man had by this time recovered “ that knowledge only by the devil; for that those the courage to tell him, “ That in truth he had de

particulars were only known to himself, and to “ ferred the execution of his commands, upon con one person more, who, he was sure, would never “sidering, how difficult a thing it would be for him “ speak of it.” “ to get any access to the duke, having acquaint The duke pursued his purpose of hunting ; but

ance with no person about him; and if he could was observed to ride all the morning with great “ obtain admission to him, he should never be able pensiveness, and in deep thoughts, without any “ to persuade him, that he was sent in such a man- delight in the exercise he was upon; and before

ner; but he should at best be thought to be mad, the morning was spent, left the field, and alighted

or to be set on and employed, by his own or the at his mother's lodgings in Whitehall; with whom “ malice of other men, to abuse the duke; and so he was shut up for the space of two or three hours; “ he should be sure to be undone. The person the noise of their discourse frequently reaching the replied, as he had done before, “That he should ears of those who attended in the next rooms :

never find rest, till he should perform what he and when the duke left her, his countenance ap“ required; and therefore he were better to des- peared full of trouble, with a mixture of anger; a “ patch it: that the access to his son was known countenance that was never before observed in him, “to be very easy; and that few men waited long in any encounters with her : towards her he had “ for him: and for the gaining him credit, he ever a most profound reverence. And the countess “would tell him two or three particulars, which herself (for though she was married to a private “ he charged him never to mention to any person gentleman, sir Thomas Compton, she had been

living, but to the duke himself; and he should created countess of Buckingham, shortly after her

no sooner hear them, but he would believe all son had first assumed that title) was, at the duke's “ the rest he should say;" and so repeating his leaving her, found overwhelmed in tears, and in threats, he left him,

the highest agony imaginable. Whatever there And in the morning, the poor man, more con was of all this, it is a notorious truth, that when firmed by the last appearance, made his journey to the news of the duke's murder (which happened London; where the court then was. He was very within few months after) was brought to his well known to sir Ralph Freeman, one of the mas- mother, she seemed not in the least degree surters of requests, who had married a lady that was prised; but received it as if she had foreseen it; nearly allied to the duke, and was himself well nor did afterwards express such a degree of sorrow, received by him. To him this man went; and as was expected from such a mother, for the loss though he did not acquaint him with all par- of such a son. ticulars, he said enough to him to let him see there This digression, much longer than it was inwas somewhat extraordinary in it; and the know- tended, may not be thought altogether unnatural ledge he had of the sobriety and discretion of the in this discourse. For as the mention of his death man made the more impression in him. He de- was very pertinent, in the place, and upon the ocsired that “ by his means he might be brought to casion, it happened to be made ; so upon that oc“the duke ; to such a place, and in such a manner, casion it seemed the more reasonable to enlarge

as should be thought fit: that he had much to upon the nature, and character, and fortune of the say to him; and of such a nature, as would re- duke; as being the best mirror to discern the

quire much privacy, and some time and patience temper and spirit of that age, and the rather and “ in the hearing.” Sir Ralph promised “ he would because all the particulars before set down are to

speak first with the duke of him, and then he be found in the papers and memorials of the per“ should understand his pleasure :” and accord- son, whose life is the subject of this discourse, ingly, in the first opportunity, he did inform him who was frequently heard to relate the wonderful of the reputation and honesty of the man, and then concurrence of many fatal accidents, to disfigure what he desired, and of all he knew of the matter. the government of 'two excellent kings; under The duke, according to his usual openness and whom their kingdoms in general prospered excondescension, told him, “ That he was the next ceedingly, and enjoyed a longer peace, a greater “ day early to hunt with the king; that his horses plenty, and in fuller security, than had been in any “should attend him at Lambeth-bridge, where he former age ; and who was so far from any acrimony “ would land by five of the clock in the morning; to the memory of that great favourite, (whose “ and if the man attended him there at that hour, death he had ' lamented at that time, and en“ he would walk, and speak with him, as long as deavoured to vindicate him from some libels and « should be necessary.”

Sir Ralph carried the reproaches, which vented after his death,) that he man with him the next morning, and presented took delight in remembering his many virtues, and him to the duke at his landing, who received him to magnify his affability and most obliging nature; courteously; and walked aside in conference near and he kept the memorial of that prediction, an hour, none but his own servants being at that (though no man looked upon relations of that hour in that place; and they and sir Ralph at such nature with less reverence and consideration,) the a distance, that they could not hear a word, though substance of which (he said) was confirmed to him the duke sometimes spoke, and with great commo- by sir Ralph Freeman, and acknowledged by some tion; which sir Ralph the more easily observed, servants of the duke's, who had the nearest trust and perceived, because he kept his eyes always fixed with him, and who were informed of much of it upon the duke; having procured the conference, before the murder of the duke. upon somewhat he knew there was of extraordinary. And because there was so total a change of all And the man told him in his return over the water, counsels, and in the whole face of the court, upon “ That when he mentioned those particulars which the death of that omnipotent favourite ; all thoughts

were to gain him credit, the substance whereof of war being presently laid aside, (though there

1628.]
Character of Lord Keeper Coventry.

19 was a faint looking towards the relief of Rochelle grow every day more sturdy and inquisitive and by the fleet, that was ready under the command of impatient; and therefore naturally abhorred all the earl of Lindsey,) and the provisions for peace innovations which he foresaw would produce ruinand plenty taken to heart; it will not be unuseful ous effects. Yet many, who stood at a distance, nor unpleasant to enlarge the digression, before a thought that he was not active and stout enough return to the proper subject of the discourse, by a in the opposing those innovations. For though, prospect of the constitution of the court, after that by his place, he presided in all public councils, bright star was shot out of the horizon; who were and was most sharp-sighted in the consequence of the chief ministers, that had the principal manage- things; yet he was seldom known to speak in ment of public affairs in church and state; and matters of state, which, he well knew, were for how equal their faculties and qualifications were the most part concluded, before they were brought for those high transactions ; in which mention to that public agitation; never in foreign affairs, shall be only made of those who were then in the which the vigour of his judgment could well comhighest trust; there being at that time no ladies, prehend; nor indeed freely in any thing, but what who had disposed themselves to intermeddle in immediately and plainly concerned the justice of business: and hereafter, when that activity began, the kingdom; and in that, as much as he could, and made any progress, it will be again necessary he procured references to the judges. Though in to take a new survey of the court upon that alter- his nature he had not only a firm gravity, but a ation.

severity, and even some morosity, (which his chilSir Thomas Coventry was then lord keeper of dren and domestics had evidence enough of,) yet it the great seal of England, and newly made a was so happily tempered, and his courtesy and baron. He was a son of the robe, his father hav affability towards all men was so transcendent, so ing been a judge in the court of the common pleas; much without affectation, that it marvellously rewho took great care to breed his son, though his conciled to all men of all degrees, and he was first-born, in the study of the common law; by looked upon as

an excellent 'courtier, without which himself had been promoted to that degree ; receding from the native simplicity of his own and in which, in the society of the Inner Temple, manner. his son made a notable progress, by an early emi

He had, in the plain way of speaking and denence in practice and learning: insomuch as he livery, without much ornament of elocution, a is recorder of London, solicitor general, and strange power of making himself believed, the king's attorney, before he was forty years of age. only justifiable design of eloquence : so that a fare ascent! All which offices he discharged though he used very frankly to deny, and would with great abilities, and singular reputation of in

never suffer any man to depart from him with an tegrity. In the first year after the death of king opinion that he was inclined to gratify, when in James, he was advanced to be keeper of the great truth he was not, holding that dissimulation to be seal of England (the natural advancement from the worst of lying ; yet the manner of it was so the office of attorney general) upon the removal of gentle and obliging, and his condescension such, the bishop of Lincoln; who, though a man of to inform the persons whom he could not satisfy great wit and good scholastic learning, was gene- that few departed from him with ill will, and ííi rally thought so very unequal to the place, that his wishes. remove was the only recompense and satisfaction But then, this happy temper and these good that could be made for his promotion. And yet it faculties rather preserved him from having many was enough known, that the disgrace proceeded enemies, and supplied him with some well-wishers, only from the private displeasure of the duke of than furnished him with any fast and unshaken Buckingham. The lord Coventry enjoyed this friends; who are always procured in courts by place with an universal reputation (and sure justice more ardour, and more vehement professions and was never better administered) for the space of applications, than he would suffer himself to be about sixteen years, even to his death, some entangled with. So that he was a man rather months before he was sixty years of age; which exceedingly liked, than passionately loved ; inwas another important circumstance of his felicity, somuch that it never appeared, that he had any that great office being so slippery, that no man had one friend in the court, of quality enough to predied in it before for near the space of forty years. vent or divert any disadvantage he might be exNor had his successors, for some time after him, posed to. And therefore it is no wonder, nor to much better fortune. And he himself had use of | be imputed to him, that he retired within himself all his strength and skill (as he was an excellent as much as he could, and stood upon his defence Wrestler) to preserve himself from falling, in two without making desperate sallies against growing shocks : the one given him by the earl of Portland, mischiefs ; which, he knew well, he had no power lord high treasurer of England; the other by the to hinder, and which might probably begin in marquis of Hamilton, who had the greatest power his own ruin. To conclude; his security conover the affections of the king of any man of that sisted very much in the little credit he had with time.

the king; and he died in a season most opporHe was a man of wonderful gravity and wisdom; tune, and in which a wise man would have prayed and understood not only the whole science and to have finished his course, and which in truth mystery of the law, at least equally with any man crowned his other signal prosperity in the world. who had ever sate in that place; but had a clear

Sir Richard Weston had been advanced to the conception of the whole policy of the government white staff, to the office of lord high treasurer of both of church and state, whích, by the unskilful- England, some months before the death of the duke ness of some well-meaning men, justled each the of Buckingham; and had, in that short time, so other too much.

much disobliged him, at least disappointed his exHe knew the temper and disposition and genius pectation, that many, who were privy to the duke's of the kingdom most exactly; saw their spirits most secret purposes, did believe, that, if he had

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