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(BOOK I. outlived that voyage in which he was engaged, he | and lost it not with others, who desired the dewould have removed him, and made another trea- struction of those upon whom he most depended.
And it is very true, that great office too He was made lord treasurer in the manner and had been very slippery, and not fast to those who at the time mentioned before, upon the removal of had trusted themselves in it: insomuch as there the earl of Marlborough, and few months before were at that time five noble persons alive, who had the death of the duke. The former circumstance, all succeeded one another immediately in that un- which is often attended by compassion towards the steady charge, without any other person interven- degraded, and prejudice towards the promoted ing: the earl of Suffolk; the lord viscount Man- brought him no disadvantage: for besides the dedevile, afterwards earl of Manchester; the earl of light that season had in changes, there was little Middlesex; and the earl of Marlborough, who was reverence towards the person removed; and the removed under pretence of his age and disability extreme visible poverty of the exchequer sheltered for the work, (which had been a better reason that province from the envy it had frequently against his promotion, so few years before, that created, and opened a door for much applause to his infirmities were very little increased,) to make be the portion of a wise and provident minister. room for the present officer; who, though ad- For the other, of the duke's death, though some, vanced by the duke, may properly be said to be who knew the duke's passions and prejudice, established by his death,
(which often produced rather sudden indisposition, He was a gentleman of a very good and ancient than obstinate resolution,) believed he would have extraction by father and mother. His education been shortly cashiered, as so many had lately been; had been very good amongst books and men. and so that the death of his founder was a greater After some years study of the law in the Middle confirmation of him in the office, than the delivery Temple, he travelled into foreign parts, and at an of the white staff had been: many other wise men, age fit to make observations and reflections; out of who knew the treasurer's talent in removing prewhich, that which is commonly called experience judice, and reconciling himself to wavering and is constituted. After this he betook himself to doubtful affections, believed, that the loss of the the court, and lived there some years; at that dis- duke was very unseasonable; and that the awe or tance, and with that awe, as was agreeable to the apprehension of his power and displeasure was a modesty of the age, when men were seen some very necessary allay for the impetuosity of the new time before they were known; and well known officer's nature, which needed some restraint and before they were preferred, or durst pretend to be check, for some time, to his immoderate pretences preferred.
and appetite of power. He spent the best part of his fortune (a fair one, He did indeed appear on the sudden wonderfully that he inherited from his father) in his attendance elated, and so far threw off his old affectation to at court, and involved his friends in securities with please some very much, and to displease none, in him, who were willing to run his hopeful fortune, which art he had excelled, that in few months before he received the least fruit from it, but the after the duke's death he found himself to succeed countenance of great men and those in authority, him in the public displeasure, and in the malice of the most natural and most certain stairs to ascend his enemies, without succeeding him in his credit by:
at court, or in the affection of any considerable deHe was then sent ambassador to the archdukes, pendants. And yet, though he was not superior Albert and Isabella, into Flanders; and to the diet to all other men in the affection, or rather resignain Germany, to treat about the restitution of the tion, of the king, so that he might dispense favours palatinate; in which negotiation he behaved him and disfavours according to his own election, he self with great prudence, and with the concurrent had a full share in his master's esteem, who looked testimony of a wise man, from all those with whom upon him as a wise and able servant, and worthy he treated, princes and ambassadors, and upon of the trust he reposed in him, and received no his return was made a privy counsellor, and chan- other advice in the large business of his revenue; cellor of the exchequer, in the place of the lord nor was any man so much his superior, as to be Brooke, who was either persuaded, or put out of able to lessen him in the king's affection by his the place; which, being an office of honour and
So that he was in a post, in which he trust, is likewise an excellent stage for men of parts might have found much ease and delight, if he to tread, and expose themselves upon; and where could have contained himself within the verge of they have occasion of all natures to lay out and his own province, which was large enough, and of spread all their faculties and qualifications most for such an extent, that he might, at the same time, their advantage. He behaved himself very well have drawn a great dependence upon him of very in this function, and appeared equal to it; and car- considerable men, and appeared a very useful and ried himself so luckily in parliament, that he did profitable minister to the king; whose revenue his master much service, and preserved himself in had been very loosely managed during the late the good opinion and acceptation of the house ; 1 years, and might, by industry and order, have which is a blessing not indulged to many by those been easily improved and no man better underhigh powers. He did swim in those troubled and stood what method was necessary towards that boisterous waters, in which the duke of Bucking- good husbandry, than he. ham rode as admiral, with a good grace, when very But I know not by what frowardness in his many who were about him were drowned, or forced stars, he took more pains in examining and inon shore with shrewd hurts and bruises : which quiring into other men's offices, than in the disshewed he knew well how and when to use his charge of his own; and not so much joy in what limbs and strength to the best advantage; some- he had, as trouble and agony for what he had not. times only to avoid sinking, and sometimes to ad- The truth is, he had so vehement a desire to be yance and get ground: and by this dexterity he the sole favourite, that he had no relish of the kept his credit with those who could do him good, | power he had: and in that contention he had many
right and disposition of the six clerks' places; all No man had greater ambition to make his family which he had, for many years, upon any vacancy, great, or stronger designs to leave a great fortune bestowed to such persons as he thought fit. One to it. Yet his expenses were so prodigiously great, of those places was become void, and designed by especially in his house, that all the ways he used the old man to his son Robert Cæsar, a lawyer of for supply, which were all that occurred, could not a good name, and exceedingly beloved. The treaserve his turn; insomuch that he contracted so surer (as he was vigilant in such cases) had notice great debts, (the anxiety whereof, he pretended, of the clerk's expiration so soon, that he procured broke his mind, and restrained that intentness and the king to send a message to the master of the industry, which was necessary for the due execu- rolls, expressly forbidding him to dispose of that tion of his office,) that the king was pleased twice six-clerk's place, till his majesty's pleasure should
pay his debts; at least, towards it, to disburse be further made known to him. It was the first forty thousand pounds in ready money out of his command of that kind that had been heard of, and exchequer. Besides, his majesty gave him a whole was felt by the old man very sensibly. Hewas indeed forest (Chute forest in Hampshire) and much other very old, and had outlived most of his friends, so land belonging to the crown; which was the more that his age was an objection against him; many taken notice of, and murmured against, because, persons of quality being dead, who had, for recombeing the chief minister of the revenue, he was pense of services, procured the reversion of his office. particularly obliged, as much as in him lay, to pre- The treasurer found it no hard matter so far to vent, and even oppose, such disinherison; and be- terrify him, that (for the king's service, as was precause, under that obligation, he had, avowedly and tended) he admitted for a six-clerk a person resourly, crossed the pretences of other men, and commended by him, (Mr. Fern, a dependant upon restrained the king's bounty from being exercised him,) who paid six thousand pound ready money; almost to any. And he had that advantage, (if he which, poor man! he lived to repent in a gaol. had made the right use of it,) that his credit was This work being done at the charge of the
old ample enough (seconded by the king's own experi- man, who had been a privy-counsellor from the ence, and observation, and inclination) to retrench entrance of king James, had been chancellor of very much of the late unlimited expenses, and the exchequer, and served in other offices; the deespecially those of bounties; which from the priving him of his right made a great noise : and death of the duke ran in narrow channels, which the condition of his son, (his father being not like never so much overflowed as towards himself, who to live to have the disposal of another office in his stopped the current to other men.
power,) who, as was said before, was generally beHe was of an imperious nature, and nothing loved and esteemed, was argument of great comwary in disobliging and provoking other men, and passion, and was lively and successfully represented had too much courage in offending and incensing to the king himself; who was graciously pleased to them: but after having offended and incensed promise, that, “if the old man chanced to die
(BOOK 1. “ before any other of the six-clerks, that office, To conclude, all the honours the king conferred “ when it should fall, should be conferred on his upon him (as he made him a baron, then an earl,
son, whosoever should succeed him as master of and knight of the garter; and above this, gave a “the rolls:” which might well be provided for; and young beautiful lady nearly allied to him, and to the lord treasurer obliged himself (to expiate for the crown of Scotland, in marriage to his eldest the injury) to procure some declaration to that son) could not make him think himself great purpose, under his majesty's sign manual; which, enough. Nor could all the king's bounties, nor however easy to be done, he long forgot, or ne- his own large accessions, raise å fortune to his glected.
heir; but after six or eight years spent in outward One day the earl of Tullibardine, who was opulency, and inward murmur and trouble that it nearly allied to Mr. Cæsar, and much his friend, was no greater ; after vast sums of money and being with the treasurer, passionately asked him, great wealth gotten, and rather consumed than en- Whether he had done that business ?” To whom joyed, without any sense or delight in so great he answered with a seeming trouble, “That he had prosperity, with the agony that it was no greater ; “ forgotten it, for which he was heartily sorry; and he died unlamented by any; bitterly mentioned by “ if he would give him a little in writing, for a most who never pretended to love him, and se“ memorial, he would put it amongst those which verely censured and complained of by those who “ he would despatch with the king that afternoon." expected most from him, and deserved best of him; The earl presently writ in a little paper, Remember and left a numerous family, which was in a short Cæsar; and gave it to him ; and he put it into that time worn out, and yet outlived the fortune he left little pocket, where, he said, he kept all his memo- behind him. rials which were first to be transacted.
The next greatest counsellor of state was the Many days passed, and Cæsar never thought of. lord privy-seal, who was likewise of a noble exAt length, when he changed his clothes, and he traction, and of a family at that time very fortuwho waited on him in his chamber, according to nate. His grandfather had been lord chief justice, custom, brought him all the notes and papers and left by king Harry the Eighth one of the exwhich were left in those he had left off, which he ecutors of his last will. He was the younger son then commonly perused; when he found this little of his father, and brought up in the study of the billet, in which was only written, Remember Cæsar, law in the Middle Temple; and had passed through, and which he had never read before, he was ex- and, as it were, made a progress through all the ceedingly confounded, and knew not what to make eminent degrees of the law, and in the state. At or think of it. He sent for his bosom friends, the death of queen Elizabeth, or thereabouts, he with whom he most confidently consulted, and was recorder of London; then the king's sergeant shewed the paper to them, the contents whereof he at law; afterwards chief justice of the king's bench. could not conceive; but that it might probably Before the death of king James, by the favour of have been put into his hand (because it was found the duke of Buckingham, he was raised to the in that enclosure, wherein he put all things of mo- place of lord high treasurer of England; and within ment which were given him) when he was in mo- less than a year afterwards, by the withdrawing of tion, and in the privy lodgings in the court. After that favour, he was reduced to the empty title of a serious and melancholic deliberation, it was president of the council ; and, to allay the sense of agreed, that it was the advertisement from some the dishonour, created viscount Mandevile. He friend, who durst not own the discovery: that it bore the diminution very well, as he was a wise could signify nothing but that there was a conspi- man, and of an excellent temper, and quickly reracy against his life, by his many and mighty covered so much grace, that he was made lord enemies : and they all knew Cæsar's fate, by con- privy-seal, and earl of Manchester, and enjoyed temning or neglecting such animadversions. And that office to his death; whilst he saw many retherefore they concluded, that he should pretend moves and degradations in all the other offices of to be indisposed, that he might not stir abroad all which he had been possessed. that day, nor that any might be admitted to him, He was a man of great industry and sagacity in but persons of undoubted affections; that at night business, which he delighted in exceedingly; and the gate should be shut early, and the porter en- preserved so great a vigour of mind, even to his joined to open it to nobody, nor to go himself to death, (when he was very near eighty years of age,) bed till the morning; and that some servants should that some, who had known him in his younger watch with him, lest violence might be used at the years, did believe him to have much quicker parts gate ; and that they themselves, and some other in his age, than before.
His honours had grown gentlemen, would sit up all the night, and attend faster upon him than his fortunes ; which made the event. Such houses are always in the morning him too solicitous to advance the latter, by all the haunted by early suitors; but it was very late be- ways which offered themselves ; whereby he exfore any could now get admittance into the house, posed himself to some inconvenience, and many the porter having quitted some of that arrear of reproaches, and became less capable of serving the sleep, which he owed to himself for his night's public by his counsels and authority, which his watching ; which he excused to his acquaintance, known wisdom, long experience, and confessed by whispering to them, “That his lord should have gravity and ability, would have enabled him to “ been killed that night, which had kept all the have done ; most men considering more the person “ house from going to bed.” And shortly after, that speaks, than the things he says. And he was the earl of Tullibardine asking him, whether he unhappily too much used as a check upon the lord had remembered Cæsar; the treasurer quickly Coventry; and when the other perplexed their recollected the ground of his perturbation, and counsels and designs with inconvenient objections could not forbear imparting it to his friends, who in law, his authority, who had trod the same paths, likewise affected the communication, and so the was still called upon ; and he did too frequently whole jest came to be discovered.
gratify their unjustifiable designs and pretences: a
23 guilt and mischief, all men who are obnoxious, or disposed to vulgar delights, which indeed were who are thought to be so, are liable to, and can very despicable and childish. He was never sushardly preserve themselves from. But his virtues pected to love anybody, nor to have the least proso far weighed down his infirmities, that he main- pensity to justice, charity, or compassion, so that tained a good general reputation and credit with though he got all he could, and by all the ways he the whole nation and people; he being always could, and spent much more than he got or had ; looked upon as full of integrity and zeal to the he was never known to give any thing, nor in all protestant religion, as it was established by law, his employments (for he had employments of great and of unquestionable loyalty, duty, and fidelity to profit as well as honour, being sent ambassador the king; which two qualifications will ever gather extraordinary into Germany, for the treaty of that popular breath enough to fill the sails, if the vessel general peace, for which he had great appointments, be competently provided with ballast. He died in and in which he did nothing of the least importa lucky time, in the beginning of the rebellion, ance, and which is more wonderful, he was afterwhen neither religion, or loyalty, or law, or wisdom, wards made general of the army raised for Scotland, could have provided for any man's security. and received full pay as such; and in his own
The earl of Arundel was next to the officers of office of earl marshal, more money was drawn from state, who, in his own right and quality, preceded the people by his avidity and pretence of juristhe rest of the council. He was a man supercilious diction, than had ever been extorted by all the and proud, who lived always within himself, and to officers preceding,) yet, I say, in all his offices and himself, conversing little with any who were in employments, never man used or employed by common conversation; so that he seemed to live as him, ever got any fortune under him, nor did ever it were in another nation, his house being a place any man acknowledge any obligation to him. He to which all men resorted, who resorted to no was rather thought to be without religion, than other place; strangers, or such who affected to look to incline to this or that party of any; he would like strangers, and dressed themselves accordingly. have been a proper instrument for any tyranny, if He resorted sometimes to the court, because there he could have a man tyrant enough to have been only was a greater man than himself; and went advised by him, and had no other affection for thither the seldomer, because there was a greater the nation or the kingdom, than as he had a man than himself. He lived towards all favourites, great share in it, in which, like the great leviathan, and great officers, without any kind of condescen- he might sport himself; from which he withdrew sion; and rather suffered himself to be ill treated himself, as soon as he discerned the repose
thereof by their power and authority (for he was always in was like to be disturbed, and died in Italy, under disgrace, and once or twice prisoner in the Tower) the same doubtful character of religion in which than to descend in making any application to he lived. them.
William earl of Pembroke was next, a man of And upon these occasions he spent a great inter- another mould and making, and of another fame val of his time in several journeys into foreign and reputation with all men, being the most uniparts, and, with his wife and family, had lived versally loved and esteemed of any man of that some years in Italy, the humour and manners of age; and, having a great office in the court, he which nation he seemed most to like and approve, made the court itself better esteemed, and more and affected to imitate. He had a good fortune by reverenced in the country. And as he had a great descent, and a much greater from his wife, who number of friends of the best men, so no man was the sole daughter upon the matter (for neither had ever the wickedness to avow himself to be his of the two sisters left any issue) of the great house enemy. He was a man very well bred, and of of Shrewsbury: but his expenses were without excellent parts, and a graceful speaker upon any any measure, and always exceeded very much his subject, having a good proportion of learning, and
He was willing to be thought a scholar, a ready wit to apply it, and enlarge upon it; of a and to understand the most mysterious parts of pleasant and facetious humour, and a disposition antiquity, because he made a wonderful and costly affable, generous, and magnificent. He was master purchase of excellent statues, whilst he was in of a great fortune from his ancestors, and had a Italy and in Rome, (some whereof he could never great addition by his wife, another daughter and obtain permission to remove from Rome, though he heir of the earl of Shrewsbury, which he enjoyed had paid for them,) and had a rare collection of the during his life, she outliving him : but all served most curious medals; whereas in truth he was only not his expense, which was only limited by his able to buy them, never to understand them; and great mind, and occasions to use it nobly, as to all parts of learning he was almost illiterate, He lived many years about the court, before in and thought no other part of history considerable, it; and never by it; being rather regarded and but what related to his own family; in which, no esteemed by king James, than loved and favoured. doubt, there had been some very memorable per- After the foul fall of the earl of Somerset, he was
It cannot be denied that he had in his made lord chamberlain of the king's house, more person, in his aspect, and countenance, the appear- for the court's sake than his own ; and the court ance of a great man, which he preserved in his appeared with the more lustre, because he had the gait and motion. He wore and affected a habit government of that province. As he spent and very different from that of the time, such as men lived upon his own fortune, so he stood upon his had only beheld in the pictures of the most con own feet, without any other support than of his siderable men; all which drew the eyes of most, proper virtue and merit; and lived towards the and the reverence of many, towards him, as the favourites with that decency, as would not suffer image and representative of the primitive nobility, them to censure or reproach his master's judgment and native gravity of the nobles, when they had and election, but as with men of his own rank. been most venerable : but this was only his out. He was exceedingly beloved in the court, because side, his nature and true humour being so much he never desired to get that for himself, which
[BOOK 1. others laboured for, but was still ready to promote them said, “ that he believed his lord was at that the pretences of worthy men. And he was equally “ time very merry, for he had now outlived the celebrated in the country, for having received no day, which his tutor Sandford had prognosobligations from the court which might corrupt or “ ticated upon his nativity he would not outlive ; sway his affections and judgment; so that all who “ which he had done now, for that was his birthwere displeased and unsatisfied in the court, or day, which had completed his age to fifty years." with the court, were always inclined to put them- The next morning, by the time they came to Coleselves under his banner, if he would have admitted brook, they met with the news of his death. them; and yet he did not so reject them, as to He died exceedingly lamented by all qualities of make them choose another shelter, but so far to men, and left many of his servants and dependants depend on him, that he could restrain them from owners of good estates, raised out of his employbreaking out beyond private resentments and ments and bounty. Nor had his heir cause to
complain : for though his expenses had been very He was a great lover of his country, and of magnificent, (and it may be the less considered, the religion and justice, which he believed could and his providence the less, because he had no only support it; and his friendships were only child to inherit,) insomuch as he left a great debt with men of those principles. And as his conversa- charged upon the estate ; yet considering the tion was most with men of the most pregnant parts wealth he left in jewels, plate, and furniture, and and understanding, so towards any, who needed the estate his brother enjoyed in the right of his support or encouragement, though unknown, if wife (who was not fit to manage it herself) during fairly recommended to him, he was very liberal. her long life, he may be justly said to have inherAnd sure never man was planted in a court, that ited as good an estate from him, as he had from was fitter for that soil, or brought better qualities his father, which was one of the best in England. with him to purify that air.
The earl of Montgomery, who was then lord Yet his memory must not be so flattered, that chamberlain of the household, and now earl of his virtues and good inclinations may be believed Pembroke, and the earl of Dorset, were likewise without some allay of vice, and without being of the privy-council; men of very different talents clouded with great infirmities, which he had in too and qualifications. The former being a young exorbitant a proportion. He indulged to himself man, scarce of age at the entrance of king James, the pleasures of all kinds, almost in all excesses. had the good fortune, by the comeliness of his To women, whether out of his natural constitution, person, his skill, and indefatigable industry in or for want of his domestic content and delight, hunting, to be the first who drew the king's eyes (in which he was most unhappy, for he paid much towards him with affection ; which was quickly so too dear for his wife's fortune, by taking her per- far improved, that he had the reputation of a son into the bargain,) he was immoderately given favourite. And before the end of the first or up. But therein he likewise retained such a second year, he was made gentleman of the king's power and jurisdiction over his very appetite, that bedchamber, and earl of Montgomery, which did he was not so much transported with beauty and the king no harm : for besides that he received outward allurements, as with those advantages of the king's bounty with more moderation than the mind, as manifested an extraordinary wit, and other men, who succeeded him, he was generally spirit, and knowledge, and administered great known, and as generally esteemed; being the son pleasure in the conversation. To these he sacri- and younger brother to the earl of Pembroke, ficed himself, his precious time, and much of his who liberally supplied his expense, beyond what fortune. And some, who were nearest his trust his annuity from his father would bear. and friendship, were not without apprehension, that He pretended to no other qualifications, than to his natural vivacity and vigour of mind began to understand horses and dogs very well, which his lessen and decline by those excessive indulgences. master loved him the better for, (being, at his
About the time of the death of king James, first coming into England, very jealous of those or presently after, he was made lord steward of who had the reputation of great parts,) and to be his majesty's house, that the staff of chamberlain believed honest and generous, which made him might be put into the hands of his brother, the many friends, and left him no enemy. He had earl of Montgomery, upon a new contract of friend- not sat many years in that sunshine, when a new ship with the duke of Buckingham; after whose comet appeared in court, Robert Carr, a Scotsdeath, he had likewise such offices
man, quickly after favourite: upon whom he most affected, of honour and command; none the king no sooner fixed his eyes, but the earl, of profit, which he cared not for; and within two without the least murmur or indisposition, left all years after, he died himself of an apoplexy, after a doors open for his entrance; (a rare temper ! full and cheerful supper.
and could proceed from nothing, but his great A short story may not be unfitly inserted, it be perfection in loving field sports ;) which the king ing very frequently mentioned by the person received as so great an obligation, that he always whose character is here undertaken to be set down, after loved him in the second place, and comand who, at that time, being on his way to London, mended him to his son at his death, as a man met at Maidenhead some persons of quality, of to be relied on in point of honesty and fidelity ; relation or dependance upon the earl of Pem though it appeared afterwards, that he was not broke, sir Charles Morgan, commonly called Gene- strongly built, nor had sufficient ballast to endure ral Morgan, who had commanded an army in a storm; of nich more will be said hereafter. Germany, and defended Stoad; Dr. Feild, then The other, the earl of Dorset, was, to all intents, bishop of Saint David's; and Dr. Chafin, the principles, and purposes, another man;
his earl's then chaplain in his house, and much in his beautiful, and graceful, and vigorous; his wit favour. At supper one of them drank a health pleasant, sparkling, and sublime; and his other to the lord steward : upon which another of parts of learning, and language, of that lustre,