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310 Death of the earl of Lindsey, who had been wounded and taken prisoner. [BOOK VI. order, the body of horse facing the enemy upon prisoner, and the taking the standard, which was the field where they had fought.
likewise recovered, were on the other. Of the Towards noon the king resolved to try that ex- king's the principal persons, who were lost, were pedient, which was prepared for the day before; the earl of Lindsey, general of the army, the lord and sent sir William le Neve, Clarencieux king at George Stewart, lord Aubigney, son to the duke of arms, to the enemy, with his proclamation of par- Lenox, and brother to the then duke of Richmond don to such as would lay down arms; believing, and Lenox, sir Edmund Verney, knight marshal though he expected then little benefit by the pro- of the king's horse, and standardbearer, and some clamation, that he should, by that means, receive others of less name, though of great virtue, and some advertisement of the condition of the army, good quality. and what prisoners they had taken, (for many The earl of Lindsey was a man of very noble persons of command and quality were wanting,) extraction, and inherited a great fortune from his giving him order likewise to desire to speak with ancestors ; which though he did not manage with the earl of Lindsey, who was known to be in their so great care, as if he desired much to improve, hands. Before sir William came to the army, he yet he left it in a very fair condition to his family, was received by the out-guards, and conducted, which more intended the increase of it. He was with strictness, (that he might say or publish no a man of great honour, and spent his youth and thing amongst the soldiers,) to the earl of Essex; vigour of his age in military actions and commands who, when he offered to read the proclamation abroad; and albeit he indulged to himself great aloud, and to deliver the effect of it, that he might liberties of life, yet he still preserved a very good be heard by those who were present, rebuked him, reputation with all men, and a very great interest with some roughness, and charged him, “as he in his country, as appeared by the supplies he and “ loved his life, not to presume to speak a word his son brought to the king's army; the several “ to the soldiers ;” and, after some few questions, companies of his own regiment of foot being comsent him presently back well guarded through the manded by the principal knights and gentlemen of army, without any answer at all. At his return Lincolnshire, who engaged themselves in the service he had so great and feeling a sense of the danger principally out of their personal affection to him. he had passed, that he made little observation of He was of a very generous nature, and punctual in the posture or numbers of the enemy. Only he what he undertook, and in exacting what was due seemed to have seen, or apprehended so much trou- to him; which made him bear that restriction so ble and disorder in the faces of the earl of Essex, heavily, which was put upon him by the commisand the principal officers about him, and so much sion granted to prince Rupert, and by the king's dejection in the common soldiers, that they looked preferring the prince's opinion, in all matters relatlike men who had no farther ambition, than to ing to the war, before his. Nor did he conceal his keep what they had left. He brought word of the resentment: the day before the battle, he said to death of the earl of Lindsey; who, being carried some friends, with whom he had used freedom, out of the field a prisoner, into a barn of the next “ that he did not look upon himself as general ; village, for want of a surgeon, and such accommo “ and therefore he was resolved, when the day of dations as were necessary, within few hours died “ battle should come, that he would be in the head with the loss of blood, his wound not being other “ of his regiment as a private colonel, where he wise mortal or dangerous. This was imputed to “ would die.” He was carried out of the field to the inhumanity of the earl of Essex, as if he had the next village ; and if he could then have propurposely neglected, or inhibited the performing cured surgeons, it was thought his wound would any necessary offices to him, out of the insolence not have proved mortal. And it was imputed to of his nature, and in revenge of some former un- the earl of Essex's too well remembering former kindnesses, (which] had passed between them. grudges, that he never sent any surgeon to him, But, I presume, it may be with more justice attri nor performed any other offices of respect towards buted to the hurry and distraction of that season, him; but it is most certain that the disorder the earl when, being so unsecure of their friends, they had of Essex himself was in at that time, by the running no thoughts vacant for their enemies. For it is away of the horse, and the confusion he saw the not to be denied at the time when the earl of Lind- army in, and the plundering the carriages in the sey was taken prisoner, the earl of Essex thought town where the surgeons were to attend, was the himself in more danger; and among his faults cause of all the omissions of that kind. And as want of civility and courtesy was none.
soon as they were composed by the coming on of The number of the slain, by the testimony of the the night, about midnight, he sent sir William minister, and others of the next parish, who took Balfour, and some other officers, to see him, and care for the burying of the dead, and which was to offer him all offices, and meant himself to have the only computation that could be made, amounted visited him. They found him upon a little straw in to above five thousand; whereof two parts were a poor house, where they had laid him in his blood, conceived to be of those of the parliament party, which had run from him in great abundance, no and not above a third of the king's. Indeed the surgeon having been yet with him ; only he had loss of both sides was so great, and so little of great vivacity in his looks; and told them," he was triumph appeared in either, that the victory could sorry to see so many gentlemen, some whereof scarce be imputed to the one or the other. Yet the were his old friends, engaged in so foul a rebelking's keeping the field, and having the spoil of it, “ lion:” and principally directed his discourse to sir by which many persons of quality, who had lain William Balfour, whom he put in mind of “the wounded in the field, were preserved, his pursuing great obligations he had to the king; how much afterwards the same design he had when he was “his majesty had disobliged the whole English diverted to the battle, and succeeding in it, (as “ nation by putting him into the command of the shall be touched anon,) were greater ensigns of “ Tower; and that it was the most odious ingrativictory on that side, than the taking the general “ tude in him to make him that return. He
1642.] Character of lord St. John, who was killed at Edgc-hill.
311 wished them to tell my lord Essex, “that he ought worthy persons from their engagements : besides “ to cast himself at the king's feet to beg his par “ that the times being like to be troublesome, the “ don; which if he did not speedily do, his memory king might be sure of a faithful servant, who “ would be odious to the nation;" and continued " would always advance his service in that house." this kind of discourse with so much vehemence, But the king had very ill fortune in conferring that the officers by degrees withdrew themselves those graces, nor was his service more passionately and prevented the visit the earl of Essex intended and insolently opposed by any men in that house him, who only sent the best surgeons to him; who than by those, who upon those professions were in the very opening of his wounds died before the redeemed by him from the condition of commoners. morning, only upon the loss of blood. He had And this gentleman, from the first hour of his very many friends, and very few enemies; and died sitting in that house by the king's so extraordinary generally lamented.
grace, was never known to concur in any one vote The lord Aubigney was a gentleman of great for the king's service, that received any opposition: hopes, of a gentle and winning disposition, and of and, as soon as it was in his power, he received a very clear courage: he was killed in the first charge commission with the first to command a troop of with the horse; where, there being so little resist- horse against him, in which he behaved himself so ance, gave occasion to suspect that it was done by ill, that he received some wounds in running away; his own lieutenant, who being a Dutchman, had and being taken prisoner, died before the next not been so punctual in his duty, but that he re- morning, without any other signs of repentance, ceived some reprehension from his captain, which than the canting words, " that he did not intend he murmured at. His body was brought off, and to be against the king, but wished him all hapburied at Christ-church in Oxford; his two younger piness :” so great an influence the first seeds of brothers, the lord John and the lord Bernard Stew- his birth and mutinous family had upon his nature, art, were in the same battle, and were both killed that how long soever they were concealed, and afterwards in the war, and his only son is now seemed even buried in a very different breeding and duke of Richmond. Sir Edmund Verney hath been conversation, they sprung up, and bore the same mentioned before upon his discourse at Notting- fruit upon the first occasion.
And it was an ob-
Of the parliament party that perished, the lord impulsion of religion out of fear of popery; and,
312 Ruthen made the king's general ; the king takes Banbury castle. [BOOK VI. of horse, and was taken prisoner after he had re- | ous, undiscerned, and so by festering destroyed a ceived some hurts, of which he died the next day. body very hopefully recovered of those which On the field was slain, colonel Charles Essex, the were only thought mortal. The surgeons were soldier of whom they had the best opinion, and of opinion, that both these gentlemen owed their who had always, till this last action, preserved a lives to the inhumanity of those who stripped good reputation in the world, which was now the them, and to the coldness of the nights, which worse, over and above the guilt of rebellion, by his stopped their blood, better tha all their skill and having sworn to the queen of Bohemia, by whose medicaments could have done; and that, if they intercession he procured leave from the prince of had been brought off within any reasonable disOrange to go into England, “ that he would never tance of time after their wounds, they had un“serve against the king :” and inany other of doubtedly perished. obscure names, though officers of good command. On Wednesday morning, the king drew his army There were a good number of their officers, espe- to a rendezvous, where he found his numbers cially of horse, taken prisoners, but (save that greater than he expected; for, in the night after some of them were parliament men) of mean the battle, very many of the common soldiers, out quality in the world, except only sir William Essex, of cold and hunger, had found their old quarters. the father of the colonel
, whose wants, from having So that it was really believed upon this view, when wasted a very great fortune, and his son's invita- this little rest had recovered a strange cheerfulness tion, led him into that company; where he was a into all men, that there were not in that battle lost private captain of his regiment.
above three hundred men at the most. There the When the arnies had thus only looked one upon king declared general Ruthen general of his army another the whole day, and it being discerned that in the place of the earl of Lindsey; and then the enemy had drawn off his carriages, the king marched to Ayno, a little village two miles distant directed all his army to retire into their old quar- from Banbury, of which his majesty that day took ters, presuming (as it proved) that many of those a view, and meant to attempt it the next day folwho were wanting would be found there. And so lowing. There was at that time in Banbury castle himself with his two sons went to Edgecot, where a regiment of eight hundred foot, and a troop of he lay the night before the battle, resolving to horse, which, with spirits proportionable, had been rest the next day, both for the refreshing his wea- enough to have kept so strong a place from an army ried, and even tired men, and to be informed of the better prepared to have assaulted it, than the king's motion and condition of the enemy, upon which then was, and at a season of the year more commodisome troops of the king's horse attended. The ous for a siege. And therefore many were of opinion, earl of Essex retired with his to Warwick castle, that the king should have marched by it, without whither he had sent all his prisoners ; so that, on taking notice of it, and that the engaging before it the Tuesday morning, the king was informed, that might prove very prejudicial to him. That which the enemy was gone, and that some of his horse prevailed with him to stay there, besides the courage had attended the rear of the enemy almost to of his soldiers, who had again recovered their appeWarwick, and that they had left many of their tite to action, was that he could not well resolve whicarriages, and very many of their wounded soldiers, ther to go; for till he was informed what the earl of at the village next the field; by which it appeared Essex did, he knew not how to direct his march ; that their remove was in haste, and not without and if the enemy advanced upon him, he could not apprehension.
fight in a place of more advantage. And therefore, After the horse had marched almost to Warwick, having sent a trumpet to summon the castle, and and found the coast clear from the enemy, they re- having first taken the lord Say's house at Broughturned to the field to view the dead bodies, many ton, where there was some show of resistance, and going to inquire after their friends who were miss- in it a troop of horse, and some good arms,
the ing, where they found many not yet dead of their cannon were planted against the castle, and the army wounds, but lying stripped among the dead; among drawn out before it; but, upon the first shot made, whom, with others, young Mr. Scroop brought off the castle sent to treat, and, upon leave to go away his father, sir Gervas Scroop; who, being an old without their arms, they fairly and kindly delivered gentleman of great fortune in Lincolnshire, had the place; and half the common soldiers at the raised a foot company among his tenants, and least readily took conditions, and put themselves brought them into the earl of Lindsey's regiment, into the king's army; the rest of the arms came out of devotion and respect to his lordship, as well very seasonably to supply many soldiers of every as duty to the king; and had, about the time that regiment, who either never had any before, or had the general was taken, fallen with sixteen wounds lost them at the battle. in his body and head; and had lain stripped among This last success declared where the victory was the dead, from that time, which was about three before at Edgehill ; for, though the routing of their of the clock in the afternoon on Sunday, all that horse, the having killed more on the place, and cold night, all Monday, and Monday night, and till taken more prisoners, the number of the colours Tuesday evening, for it was so late before his son won from the enemy, (which were near forty in found him; whom with great piety he carried to a number,) without the loss of above three or four, warm lodging, and afterwards in the march to and lastly the taking four pieces of their cannon Oxford ; where he wonderfully recovered. The the next morning after the battle, were so many next morning after, being Wednesday, there was arguments that the victory inclined to the king : another gentleman, one Bellingham, of an ancient on the other side, the loss of the general himself, extraction in Sussex, and the only son of his father, and so many men of name either killed or taken found among the dead, and brought off by his prisoners, who were generally known over the friends, with twenty wounds; who, after ten days, kingdom, (whereas, besides the lord Saint-John's, died at Oxford, by the negligence of his surgeons, and colonel Essex, the names of the rest of that who left a wound in his thigh, of itself not danger- party were so obscure, that neither the one side
1642.] The state of the earl of Essex's army.-Consternation in London. 313
of the battle, and presented all those lamentable
:” so that the whole city was, the Monday, ginning, more stayed away than returned ; and, full of the defeat; and though there was an express, which was worse, they who run fastest and farthest from the earl of Essex himself, of the contrary, told such lamentable stories of the defeat, and many there was not courage enough left to believe it, and of them shewed such hurts, that the terror thereof every hour produced somewhat to contradict the was even ready to make the people revolt to their reports of the last. Monday in the afternoon, the allegiance in all places. Many of those who had earl of Holland produced a letter in the house of stood their ground, and behaved themselves well in peers, which was written the night before by the the battle, either with remorse of conscience, horror earl of Essex, in which all particulars of the day of what they had done, and seen, or weariness of were set down, and “ the impression that had in the duty and danger, withdrew themselves from “the beginning been made upon his horse, but their colours, and some from their commands. “ that the conclusion was prosperous.” Whilst And it is certain many engaged themselves first in this was reading, and every man greedily digesting that service, out of an opinion, that an army would the good news, the lord Hastings, who had a comprocure a peace without fighting; others out of a mand of horse in the service, entered the house desire to serve the king, and resolving to go away with frighted and ghastly looks, and positively themselves, and to carry others with them, as soon declared “ all to be lost, against whatsoever they as they should find themselves within a secure « believed or flattered themselves with.” And distance to do it; both these being, contrary to though it was evident enough that he had run away their expectation, brought to fight, the latter not from the beginning, and only lost his way thither, knowing how to get to the king's
army in the battle, most men looked upon him as the last messenger, discharged themselves of the service as soon as and even shut their ears against any possible comthey came to Warwick ; some with leave, and some fort; so that without doubt very many, in the without. But that which no doubt most troubled horror and consternation of eight and forty hours, his excellency, was the temper and constitutions of paid and underwent a full penance and mortificahis new masters; who, he knew, expected no less tion for the hopes and insolence of three months from him than a victory complete, by his bringing ) before. At the last, on Wednesday morning, the the person of the king alive or dead to them; and lord Wharton, and Mr. William Strode, the one a would consider what was now fallen out, as it was member of the house of lords, the other of the so much less than they looked for, not as it was commons, arrived from the army, and made so more than any body else could have done for full a relation of the battle, “ of the great numbers them. However, he gave them a glorious account “ slain on the king's part, without any considerable of what had passed, and made as if his stay at “ loss on their side, of the miserable and weak Warwick were rather to receive new orders and “ condition the king's army was in, and of the commands from them, than out of any weakness rs earl of Essex's resolution to pursue him,” that or inability to pursue the old, and that he attended they were not now content to be savers, but voted the king's motion as well as if he had been within " that their army had the victory;" and appointed seven miles of him.
a day for a solemn thanksgiving to God for the It is certain the consternation was very great at same; and, that so great a joy might not be enLondon, and in the two houses, from the time that joyed only within those walls, they appointed those they heard, that the king marched from Shrews two trusty messengers to communicate the whole
314 The managers of the parliamentary party affect to wish peace. relation with all circumstances to the city ; which “must expect such a peace, as the mercy of those was convened together at the guildhall to receive “ whom they had provoked would consent to. But the same.
But by this time, so many persons, if they would steadily pursue those counsels as who were present at the action, came to the town “would make their strength formidable, they of both sides, (for there was yet a free intercourse might then expect such moderate conditions, as with all quarters,) and some discourses were pub they might, with their own, and the kingdom's lished, how little either of these two messengers safety, securely submit to. That therefore the had seen themselves of that day's business, that proposition of sending into Scotland was very the city seemed not so much exalted at their rela “ seasonable; not that it could be hoped, or was tions, as the houses had [been]; the king's taking desired, that they should bring an army into Banbury, and marching afterwards to Oxford, England, of which there was not like to be any and the reports from those quarters of his power, “ need; but that that kingdom might make such with the earl of Essex's lying still at Warwick, a declaration of their affections, and readiness gave great argument of discourse; which grew “ to assist the parliament, that the king might the greater by the commitment of several persons, “ look upon them with the more consideration, as for reporting, “ that the king had the better of the a body not easily to be oppressed, if he should “ field;" which men thought would not have been, “ insist upon too high conditions." if the success had been contrary; and therefore By this artifice, whilst they who pressed a treaty there was nothing so generally spoken of, or thought, that, that being once consented to, a peace wished for, as peace.
would inevitably be concluded, the same day that a They who were really affected to the king, and committee was appointed, “ to prepare heads of an from the beginning opposed all the extravagances, “ humble address unto his majesty, for composing for of such there were many in both houses, who “ the present differences and distractions, and setcould not yet find in their hearts to leave the “ tling the peace of the kingdom,” (which was a company, spake now aloud, “ that an humble great condescension,) they made no scruple to de“ address to the king for the removal of all mis- clare, “ that the preparations of forces, and all “ understandings, was both in duty necessary, and “ other necessary means for defence, should be “ in policy convenient." The half-hearted and half prosecuted with all vigour ;” and thereupon rewitted people, which made much the major part of quired “ all those officers and soldiers, who had both houses, plainly discerned there must be a war, " left their general, of which the town was then and that the king at least would be able to make “ full, upon pain of death, to return to him ;” and, resistance, which they had been promised he could for his better recruit, solemnly declared, “ that, in not do, and so were equally passionate to make any “ such times of common danger and necessity, the overtures for accommodation. They only who had “interest of private persons ought to give way to contrived the mischief, and already had digested a “ the public; and therefore they ordained, that full change and alteration of government, and knew “such apprentices, as would be listed to serve as well, that all their arts would be discovered, and “ soldiers, for the defence of the kingdom, the their persons odious, though they might be secured, parliament, and city, (with their other usual exviolently opposed all motions of this kind. These “pressions of religion, and the king's person,) men pressed earnestly “ to send an express to their “ their sureties, and such as stood engaged for “ brethren of Scotland, to invite and conjure them "them, should be secured against their masters;
to come to their assistance, and to leave no way “ and that their masters should receive them again, “unthought of for suppressing, and totally de at the end of their service, without imputing any
stroying, all those who had presumed to side “ loss of time to them, but the same should be “ with the king.” This overture of calling the “ reckoned as well spent, according to their indenScots in again was as unpopular a thing, as could tures, as if they had been still in their shops." be mentioned; besides that it implied a great and And by this means many children were engaged in absolute diffidence in their own strength, and an that service, not only against the consent, but acknowledgment that the people of England stood against the persons, of their fathers, and the earl not so generally affected to their desires, which received a notable supply thereby. they had hitherto published, and urged, as the best Then, for their consent that a formal and perargument to justify those desires. Therefore the functory message should be sent to his majesty, wise managers of that party, by whose conduct whereby they thought a treaty would be entered they had been principally governed, seemed fully upon, they procured at the same time, and as an to concur with those who desired peace, “ and to expedient for peace, this material and full declara“ send an humble address to the king, which they tion of both houses to the subjects of Scotland, “confessed to be due from them as subjects, and which they caused with all expedition to be sent “ the only way to procure happiness for the king- into that kingdom. “ dom.” And having hereby rendered themselves “ We the lords and commons, assembled in the gracious, and gained credit, they advised them “parliament of England, considering with what " so to endeavour peace, that they might not be “ wisdom, and public affection, our brethren of
disappointed of it,” and wished them “ to con “ the kingdom of Scotland did concur with the “sider that the king's party were high upon the “ endeavours of this parliament, and the desires of
success of having an army, (of which they had “ the whole kingdom, in procuring and establishing “ reasonably before despaired,) though not upon a firm peace and amity between the two nations, any thing that
yet done. That it was “and how lovingly they have since invited us to a apparent, the king had ministers stirring for him nearer and higher degree of union in matters “ in the north, and in the west, though hitherto concerning religion and church-government, “ with little effect; and therefore if they should “ which we have most willingly and affectionately “ make such an application for peace, as might “ embraced, and intend to pursue, cannot doubt “imply the giving over the thoughts of war, they “ but they will, with as much forwardness and