The King erects the Bishopric of Edinburgh.

35 season, than the bishop did, and believed he could upon the bishop out of lands purchased by his better compose and reduce them in a little time, majesty himself from the duke of Lenox, who and at a distance, than at the present, and whilst sold it much the cheaper, that it might be consehe was amongst them. Besides he was in his crated to so pious an end; and placed a very eminature too much inclined to the Scots nation, hav- nent scholar of a good family in the kingdom, who ing been born amongst them, and as jealous as any had been educated in the university of Cambridge, one of them could be that their liberties and privi- to be the first bishop in that his new city; and leges might not be invaded by the English, who, made another person, of good fame and learning, he knew, had no reverence for them: and therefore his first dean of his new cathedral, upon whom the objection, “that it would look like an imposi- likewise he settled a proper maintenance; hoping “ tion from England, if a form, settled in parlia- by this means the better to prepare the people of "ment at Westminster, should without any altera- | the place, who were the most numerous and richest "tion be tendered (though by himself) to be sub- of the kingdom, to have a due reverence to order "mitted to, and observed in Scotland,” made a and government, and at least to discountenance, if deep impression in his majesty.

not suppress, the factious spirit of presbytery, which In a word, he committed the framing and com had so long ruled there. But this application little posing such a liturgy as would most probably be contributed thereunto: and the people generally acceptable to that people, to a select number of the thought, that they had too many bishops before, bishops there, who were very able and willing to and so the increasing the number was not like to undertake it, and so his majesty, returned into be very grateful to them. England, at the time proposed to himself, without The bishops had indeed very little interest in having ever, proposed, or made the least approach the affection of that nation, and less authority over in public towards any alteration in the church. it; they had not power to reform or regulate their It had been very happy, if there had been then own cathedrals, and very rarely shewed

themselves nothing done indeed, that had any reference to in the habit and robes of bishops; and durst not that affair, and that, since it was not ready to pro- contest with the general assembly in matters of mote it, nothing had been transacted, which acci- jurisdiction : so that there was little more than the dentally alienated the affections of the people from name of episcopacy preserved in that church. To it; and this was imputed to the bishop of London, redeem them from that contempt, and to shew that who was like enough to be guilty of it, since he they should be considerable in the state, how little did naturally believe, that nothing more contri- authority soever they were permitted to have in the buted to the benefit and advancement of the church, the king made the archbishop of saint Anchurch, than the promotion of churchmen to places drew's, a learned, wise, and pious man, and of long of the greatest honour, and offices of the highest experience, chancellor of the kingdom, (the greattrust: and this opinion and the prosecution of it est office, and which had never been in the hands (though his integrity was unquestionable, and his of a churchman since the reformation of religion, zeal as great for the good and honour of the state, and suppressing the pope's authority,) and four or as for the advancement and security of the church) five other bishops of the privy-council, or lords of was the unhappy foundation of his own ruin, and the session; which his majesty presumed, by their of the prejudice towards, and malice against, and power in the civil government, and in the judicaalmost destruction of the church.

tories of the kingdom, would render them so much During the king's stay in Scotland, when he the more reverenced, and the better enable them found the conjuncture not yet ripe for perfecting to settle the affairs of the church: which fell out that good order which he intended in the church, otherwise too; and it had been better that envious he resolved to leave a monument behind him of his promotion had been suspended, till by their grave own affection and esteem of it. Edinburgh, though and pious deportment they had wrought upon

their the metropolis of the kingdom, and the chief seat clergy to be better disposed to obey them, and of the king's own residence, and the place where upon the people to like order and discipline; and the council of state and the courts of justice still till by these means the liturgy had been settled, remained, was but a borough town within the dio- and received amongst them; and then the advanccese of the archbishop of saint Andrew's, and ing some of them to greater honour might have governed in all church affairs by the preachers of done well. the town; who, being chosen by the citizens from But this unseasonable accumulation of so many the time of Mr. Knox, (who had a principal hand honours upon them, to which their functions did not in the suppression of popery, with circumstances entitle them, (no bishop having been so much as a not very commendable to this day,) had been the privy-councillor in very many years,) exposed them most turbulent and seditious ministers of confusion to the universal envy of the whole nobility, many that could be found in the kingdom ; of which king whereof wished them well, as to all their ecclesiastiJames had so sad experience, after he came to age, cal qualifications, but could not endure to see them as well as in his minority, that he would often say, possessed of those offices and employments, which " that his access to the crown of England was the they looked upon as naturally belonging to them ; "more valuable to him, as it redeemed him from and then the number of them was thought too great, “the subjection to their ill manners and insolent so that they overbalanced many debates; and some " practices, which he could never shake off before.” of them, by want of temper, or want of breeding, The king, before his return from thence, with the did not behave themselves with that decency in their full consent and approbation of the archbishop of debates, towards the greatest men of the kingdom, saint Andrew's, erected Edinburgh into a bishop- as in discretion they ought to have done, and as the ric, assigned it a good and convenient jurisdiction others reasonably expected from them : so that, inout of the nearest limits of the diocese of saint stead of bringing any advantage to the church, or Andrew's, appointed the fairest church in the town facilitating the good intentions of the king in settling to be the cathedral, settled a competent revenue order and government, it produced a more general


Death of Archbishop Abbot.-Laud made Archbishop. [BOOK I. prejudice to it; though forthe present there appeared remissness, and prevented it in their own dioceses no sign of discontent, or ill-will to them; and the as much as they could, and gave all their counteking left Scotland, as he believed, full of affection nance to men of other parts and other principles ; and duty to him, and well inclined to receive a and though the bishop of London, Dr. Laud, from liturgy, when he should think it seasonable to the time of his authority and credit with the king, commend it to them.

had applied all the remedies he could to those It was about the end of August in the year defections, and, from the time of his being chan1633, when the king returned from Scotland to cellor of Oxford, had much discountenanced and Greenwich, where the queen kept her court; and almost suppressed that spirit, by encouraging the first accident of moment, that happened after another kind of learning and practice in that unihis coming thither, was the death of Abbot, arch-versity, which was indeed according to the docbishop of Canterbury; who had sat too many trine of the church of England ; yet that temper in years in that see, and had too great a jurisdiction the archbishop, whose house was a sanctuary to over the church, though he was without any credit the most eminent of that factious party, and who in the court from the death of king James, and licensed their most pernicious writings, left his suchad not much in many years before. He had cessor a very difficult work to do, to reform and been head or master of one of the poorest colleges reduce a church into order, that had been so long in Oxford, and had learning sufficient for that pro- neglected, and that was so ill inhabited by many vince. He was a man of very morose manners, weak, and more wilful churchmen. and a very sour aspect, which, in that time, was It was within one week after the king's return called gravity; and under the opinion of that from Scotland, that Abbot died at his house at virtue, and by the recommendation of the earl of Lambeth. And the king took very little time to Dunbar, the king's first Scotch favourite, he was consider who should be his successor, but the very preferred by king James to the bishopric of Coven- next time the bishop of London (who was longer try and Litchfield, and presently after to London, upon his way home than the king had been) came before he had been parson, vicar, or curate of any to him, his majesty entertained him very cheerparish-church in England, or dean or prebend ofany fully with this compellation, My lord's grace of cathedral church; and was in truth totally igno- Canterbury, you are very welcome, and gave order rant of the true constitution of the church of Eng- the same day for the dispatch of all the necessary land, and the state and interest of the clergy; as forms for the translation : so that within a month sufficiently appeared throughout the whole course or thereabouts after the death of the other archof his life afterward.

bishop, he was completely invested in that high He had scarce performed any part of the office dignity, and settled in his palace at Lambeth. This of a bishop in the diocese of London, when he was great prelate had been before in great favour with snatched from thence, and promoted to Canter- the duke of Buckingham, whose great confidant bury, upon the never enough lamented death of he was, and by him recommended to the king, as Dr. Bancroft, that metropolitan, who understood fittest to be trusted in the conferring all ecclesiasthe church excellently, and had almost rescued it tical preferments, when he was but bishop of St. out of the hands of the Calvinian party, and very David's, or newly preferred to Bath and Wells; much subdued the unruly spirit of the noncon- and from that time he entirely governed that proformists, by and after the conference at Hampton- vince without a rival : so that his promotion to court; countenanced men of the greatest parts in Canterbury was long foreseen and expected; nor learning, and disposed the clergy to a more solid was it attended with any increase of envy or dislike. course of study, than they had been accustomed He was a man of great parts, and very exemplary to; and, if he had lived, would quickly have ex- virtues, allayed and discredited by some unpopular tinguished all that fire in England, which had been natural infirmities; the greatest of which was, kindled at Geneva; or if he had been succeeded by (besides a hasty, sharp way of expressing himbishop Andrews, bishop Overal, or any man who self,) that he believed innocence of heart, and inunderstood and loved the church, that infection tegrity of manners, was a guard strong enough to would easily have been kept out, which could not secure any man in his voyage through this world, afterwards be so easily expelled.

in what company soever he travelled, and through But Abbot brought none of this antidote with what ways soever he was to pass : and sure never him, and considered Christian religion no other- any man was better supplied with that provision. wise, than as it abhorred and reviled popery, and He was born of honest parents, who were well valued those men most, who did that most furi- able to provide for his education in the schools of ously. For the strict observation of the discipline learning, from whence they sent him to St. John's of the church or the conformity to the articles or college in Oxford, the worst endowed at that time canons established, he made little inquiry, and took of any in that famous university. From a scholar less care; and having himself made a very little he became a fellow, and then the president of that progress in the ancient and solid study of divinity, college, after he had received all the graces and he adhered wholly to the doctrine of Calvin, and, degrees (the proctorship and the doctorship) for his sake, did not think so ill of the discipline could be obtained there. He was always maligned as he ought to have done. But if men prudently and persecuted by those who were of the Calvinian forbore a public reviling and railing at the hier- faction, which was then very powerful, and who, archy and ecclesiastical government, let their according to their useful maxim and practice, cali opinions and private practice be what it would, every man they do not love, papist; and under they were not only secure from any inquisition of this senseless appellation they created him many his, but acceptable to him, and at least equally troubles and vexations; and so far suppressed preferred by him. And though many other bishops him, that though he was the king's chaplain, and plainly discerned the mischiefs, which daily broke taken notice of for an excellent preacher, and a in to the prejudice of religion, by his defects and scholar of the most sublime parts, he had not any

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1633.] Juron, Bishop of London. Contentions on Points called Arminian. 37 preferment to invite him to leave his poor college, as he could. They had been fellows together in which only gave him bread, till the vigour of his one college in Oxford, and, when he was first age was past: and when he was promoted by made bishop of saint David's, he made him preking James, it was but to a poor bishopric in sident of that college: when he could no longer Wales, which was not so good a support for keep the deanery of the chapel royal, he made him a bishop, as his college was for a private scholar, his successor in that near attendance upon

the though a doctor.

king : and now he was raised to be archbishop, Parliaments in that time were frequent, and he easily prevailed with the king to make the grew very busy; and the party under which he other, bishop of London, before, or very soon had suffered a continual persecution, appeared after, he had been consecrated bishop of Herevery powerful, and full of design, and they who ford, if he were more than elect of that church. had the courage to oppose them, began to be It was now a time of great ease and tranquillity; taken notice of with approbation and countenance: the king (as hath been said before) had made himand under this style he came to be first cherished self superior to all those difficulties and straits he by the duke of Buckingham, after he had made had to contend with the four first years he came some experiments of the temper and spirit of the to the crown at home; and was now reverenced other people, nothing to his satisfaction. From by all his neighbours, who all needed his friendthis time he prospered at the rate of his own ship, and desired to have it; the wealth of the wishes, and being transplanted out of his cold kingdom notorious to all the world, and the general barren diocese of St. David's, into a warmer cli- temper and humour of it little inclined to the pamate, he was left, as was said before, by that om- pists, and less to the puritan. There were some nipotent favourite in that great trust with the king, late taxes and impositions introduced, which rather who was sufficiently indisposed towards the per- angered than grieved the people, who were more sons or the principles of Mr. Calvin's disciples. than repaired by the quiet, peace, and prosperity

When he came into great authority, it may be, they enjoyed; and the murmur and discontent that he retained too keen a memory of those who had so was, appeared to be against the excess of power unjustly and uncharitably persecuted him before ; exercised by the crown, and supported by the and, I doubt, was so far transported with the same judges in Westminster-hall. The church was not passions he had reason to complain of in his adver- repined at, nor the least inclination to alter the saries, that, as they accused him of popery, because government and discipline thereof, or to change he had some doctrinal opinions which they liked the doctrine. Nor was there at that time any connot, though they were nothing allied to popery ; siderable number of persons of any valuable conso he entertained too much prejudice to some per- dition throughout the kingdom, who did wish sons, as if they were enemies to the discipline of either; and the cause of so prodigious a change in the church, because they concurred with Calvin in so few years after was too visible from the effects. some doctrinal points; when they abhorred his The archbishop's heart was set upon the advancediscipline, and reverenced the government of the ment of the church, in which he well knew he had church, and prayed for the peace of it with as the king's full concurrence, which he thought would much zeal and fervency as any in the kingdom; as be too powerful for any opposition; and that he they made manifest in their lives, and in their suf- should need no other assistance. ferings with it, and for it. He had, from his first Though the nation generally, as was said before, entrance into the world, without any disguise or dis was without any ill talent to the church, either in simulation, declared his own opinion of that classis the point of the doctrine, or the discipline, yet they of men; and, as soon as it was in his power, he were not without a jealousy that popery was not did all he could to hinder the growth and increase enough discountenanced, and were very averse of that faction, and to restrain those who were in- from admitting any thing they had not been used clined to it, from doing the mischief they desired to, which they called innovation, and were easily to do. But his power at court could not enough persuaded, that any thing of that kind was but to qualify him to go through with that difficult re- please the papists. Some doctrinal points in conformation, whilst he had a superior in the church, troversy had been, in the late years, agitated in the who, having the reins in his hand, could slacken pulpits with more warmth and reflections, than had them according to his own humour and indiscre- used to be; and thence the heat and animosity intion; and was thought to be the more remiss, to creased in books pro and con upon the same arguirritate his choleric disposition. But when he had ments : most of the popular preachers, who had now the primacy in his own hand, the king being not looked into the ancient learning, took Calvin's inspired with the same zeal, he thought he should word for it, and did all they could to propagate his be to blame, and have much to answer, if he did opinions in those points : they who had studied not make haste to apply remedies to those diseases, more, and were better versed in the antiquities of which he saw would grow apace.

the church, the fathers, the councils, and the · In the end of September of the year 1633, he ecclesiastical histories, with the same heat and was invested in the title, power, and jurisdiction of passion in preaching and writing defended the archbishop of Canterbury, and entirely in posses- contrary. sion of the revenue thereof, without a rival in But because, in the late dispute in the Dutch church or state; that is, no man professed to op: churches, those opinions were supported by Jacobus pose his greatness; and he had never interposed Arminius, the divinity professor in the university of or appeared in matter of state to this time. His Leyden in Holland, the latter men, we mentioned, first care was, that the place he was removed from were called Arminians; though many of them had might be supplied with a man who would be vigi- never read a word written by Arminius. Either lant to pull up those weeds, which the London side defended and maintained their different opinions soil was too apt to nourish, and so drew his old as the doctrine of the church of England, as the friend and companion Dr. Juxon as near to him two great orders in the church of Rome, the Do

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Archbishop Laud's Character continued.

[BOOK 1. minicans and Franciscans, did at the same time, , for revenge; so the fines imposed there were the and had many hundred years before, with more more questioned, and repined against, because vehemence and uncharitableness, maintained the they were assigned to the rebuilding and repairing same opinions one against the other; either party St. Paul's church ; and thought therefore to be professing to adhere to the doctrine of the catholic the more severely imposed, and the less compaschurch, which had been ever wiser than to deter- sionately reduced and excused; which likewise mine the controversy. And yet that party here, made the jurisdiction and rigour of the starwhich could least support themselves with reason, chamber more felt, and murmured against, which were very solicitous, according to the ingenuity sharpened many men's humours against the bithey always practise to advance any of their pre- shops, before they had any ill intention towards tences, to have the people believe, that they who the church. held with Arminius did intend to introduce popery ; There were three persons most notorious for and truly the other side was no less willing to have their declared malice against the government of it thought, that all, who adhered to Calvin in those the church by bishops, in their several books and controversies, did in their hearts likewise adhere to writings, which they had published to corrupt him with reference to the discipline, and desired to the people, with circumstances very scandalous, change the government of the church, destroy the and in language very scurrilous, and impudent; bishops, and so set up the discipline that he had which all men thought deserved very exemplary established at Geneva; and so both sides found punishment: they were of three several professions such reception generally with the people, as they which had the most influence upon the people, a were inclined to the persons ; whereas, in truth, divine, a common lawyer, and a doctor of physic; none of the one side were at all inclined to popery, none of them of interest, or any esteem with the and very many of the other were most affectionate worthy part of their several professions, having to the peace and prosperity of the church, and very been formerly all looked upon under characters of pious and learned men.

reproach: yet when they were all sentenced, and The archbishop had, all his life, eminently op- for the execution of that sentence brought out posed Calvin's doctrine in those controversies, to be punished as common and signal rogues, exbefore the name of Arminius was taken notice of, or posed upon scaffolds to have their ears cut off, his opinions heard of; and thereupon, for want of and their faces and foreheads branded with hot another name, they had called him a papist, which irons, (as the poorest and most mechanic malefacnobody believed him to be, and he had more tors used to be, when they were not able to manifested the contrary in his disputations and redeem themselves by any fine for their trespasses, writings, than most men had done; and it may be or to satisfy any damages for the scandals they the other found the more severe and rigorous had raised against the good name and reputation usage from him, for their propagating that calumny of others,) men began no more to consider their against him. He was a man of great courage and manners, but the men; and every profession, with resolution, and being most assured within himself

, anger and indignation enough, thought their eduthat he proposed no end in all his actions or de- cation, and degrees, and quality, would have signs, than what was pious and just, (as sure no secured them from such infamous judgments, and man had ever a heart more entire to the king, the treasured up wrath for the time to come. church, or his country,) he never studied the The remissness of Abbot, and of other bishops best ways to those ends; he thought, it may be, by his example, had introduced, or at least conthat any art or industry that way would discredit, nived at, a negligence, that gave great scandal to at least make the integrity of the end suspected, the church, and no doubt offended very many let the cause be what it will. He did court per- pious men. The people took so little care of the sons too little; nor cared to make his designs and churches, and the parsons as little of the chancels, purposes appear as candid as they were, by shew- that, instead of beautifying or adorning them in


other dress than their own natural any degree, they rarely provided for their stability beauty and roughness; and did not consider and against the very falling of very many of their enough what men said, or were like to say of churches; and suffered them at least to be kept so him. If the faults and vices were fit to be looked indecently and slovenly, that they would not have into, and discovered, let the persons be who they endured it in the ordinary offices of their own would that were guilty of them, they were sure to houses; the rain and the wind to infest them, and find no con ivance or favour from him. He in- | the sacraments themselves to be administered where tended the discipline of the church should be felt, the people had most mind to receive them. This as well as spoken of, and that it should be applied profane liberty and uncleanliness the archbishop to the greatest and most splendid transgressors, as resolved to reform with all expedition, requiring well as to the punishment of smaller offences, and the other bishops to concur with him in so pious a meaner offenders; and thereupon called for or work; and the work sure was very grateful to all cherished the discovery of those who were not men of devotion: yet, I know not how, the prosecareful to cover their own iniquities, thinking cution of it with too much affectation of expense, they were above the reach of other men’s, or their it may be, or with too much passion between the power or will to chastise. Persons of honour and ministers and the parishioners, raised an evil spirit great quality, of the court, and of the country, towards the church, which the enemies of it took were every day cited into the high-commission much advantage of, as soon as they had opportucourt, upon the fame of their incontinence, or other nity to make the worst use of it. scandal in their lives, and were there prosecuted The removing the communion table out of the to their shame and punishment : and as the shame body of the church, where it had used to stand, (which they called an insolent triumph upon their and used to be applied to all uses, and fixing it to degree and quality, and levelling them with the one place in the upper end of the chancel, which common people) was never forgotten, but watched / frequently made the buying a new table to be ne

ing them in

1635.] Williams, Bishop of Lincoln, his opposition to Laud.

39 cessary; the inclosing, it with a rail of joiner’s | having faults enough to be ashamed of, the punishwork, and thereby fencingʻit from the approach of ment whereof threatened him every day, he was dogs, and all servile uses; the obliging all persons very willing to change the scene, and to be brought to come up to those rails to receive the sacrament, upon the stage for opposing these innovations (as how acceptable soever to grave and intelligent he called them) in religion. It was an unlucky persons, who loved order and decency, (for accept- word, and cozened very many honest men into apable it was to such,) yet introduced first murmur- prehensions very prejudicial to the king and to the ings amongst the people, upon the very charge and church. He published a discourse and treatise expense of it; and if the minister were not a man against the matter and manner of the prosecution of discretion and reputation to compose and recon- of that matter; a book so full of good learning, cile those indispositions, (as too frequently he was and that learning so close and solidly applied, not, and rather inflamed and increased the dis- (though it abounded with too many light exprestemper,) it begat suits and appeals at law. The sions,) that it gained him reputation enough to be opinion that there was no necessity of doing any able to do hurt; and shewed that, in his retirething, and the complaint that there was too much ment, he had spent his time with his books very done, brought the power and jurisdiction to im- profitably. He used all the wit and all the malice pose the doing of it, to be called in question, con- he could, to awaken the people to a jealousy of tradicted, and opposed. Then the manner, and these agitations and innovations in the exercise of gesture, and posture, in the celebration of it, religion ; not without insinuations that it aimed at brought in new disputes, and administered new greater alterations, for which he knew the people subjects of offence, according to the custom of the would quickly find a name; and he was ambitious place, and humour of the people; and those dis- to have it believed that the archbishop was his putes brought in new words and terms (altar, greatest enemy, for his having constantly opposed and adoration, and genuflexion, and other expres- his rising to any government in the church, as a sions) for the more perspicuous carrying on those man whose hot and hasty spirit he had long disputations. New books were written for and known. against this new practice, with the same earnest Though there were other books written with ness and contention for victory, as if the life of good learning, and which sufficiently answered the Christianity had been at stake. There was not an bishop's book, and to men of equal and dispasequal concurrence, in the prosecution of this mat- sionate inclinations fully vindicated the proceedings ter, amongst the bishops themselves ; some of them which had been, and were still,

very fervently proceeding more remissly in it, and some not only carried on; yet it was done by men whose names neglecting to direct any thing to be done towards were not much reverenced by many men, and who it, but restraining those who had a mind to it, were taken notice of, with great insolence and from meddling in it. And this again produced as asperity to undertake the defence of all things inconvenient disputes, when the subordinate clergy which the people generally were displeased with, would take upon them, not only without the direc- and who did not affect to be much cared for by tion of, but expressly against the diocesan's injunc- those of their own order. So that from this untions, to make those alterations and reformations happy subject, not in itself of that important value themselves, and by their own authority.

to be either entered upon with that resolution, or The archbishop, guided purely by his zeal, and to be carried on with that passion, proceeded upon reverence for the place of God's service, and by the matter a schism amongst the bishops themthe canons and injunctions of the church, with the selves, and a world of uncharitableness in the custom observed in the king's chapel, and in most learned and moderate clergy, towards one another : cathedral churches, without considering the long which, though it could not increase the malice, intermission and discontinuance in many other added very much to the ability and power of the places, prosecuted this affair more passionately than enemies of the church to do it hurt, and added to was fit for the season; and had prejudice against the number of them. For without doubt, many those, who, out of fear or foresight, or not under- who loved the established government of the church, standing the thing, had not the same warmth to and the exercise of religion as it was used, and depromote it. The bishops who had been preferred sired not a change in either, nor did dislike the by his favour, or hoped to be so, were at least as order and decency, which they saw mended, yet solicitous to bring it to pass in their several dio- they liked not any novelties, and so were liable to ceses; and some of them with more passion and entertain jealousies that more was intended than less circumspection, than they had his example for, was hitherto proposed; especially when those inor than he approved ; prosecuting those who op- fusions proceeded from men unsuspected to have posed them very fiercely, and sometimes unwar- any inclinations to change, and from known asrantably, which was kept in remembrance. Whilst sertors of the government both in church and state. other bishops, not so many in number, or so valu- They did observe the inferior clergy took more upon able in weight, who had not been beholding to them than they had used to do, and did not live him, nor had hope of being so, were enough con- towards their neighbours of quality, or their patrons tented to give perfunctory orders for the doing it, themselves, with that civility and condescension and to see the execution of those orders not in- | they had used to do; which disposed them likewise tended; and not the less pleased to find, that the to a withdrawing their good countenance and good prejudice of that whole transaction reflected solely neighbourhood from them. upon the archbishop.

The archbishop had not been long at Canterbury, The bishop of Lincoln (Williams) who had been when there was another great alteration in the heretofore lord keeper of the great seal of Eng- court by the death of the earl of Portland, high land, and the most generally abominated whilst he treasurer of England; a man so jealous of the had been so, was, since his disgrace at court, and archbishop's credit with the king, that he always prosecution from thence, become very popular; and I endeavoured to lessen it by all the arts and ways

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