40 Death of the Earl of Portland. Laud, Commissioner of the Treasury. [BOOK I. he could; which he was so far from effecting, that, \ of the bishop of London, a man so unknown, that as it usually falls out, when passion and malice his name was scarce heard of in the kingdom, who make accusation, by suggesting many particulars had been within two years before but a private which the king knew to be untrue, or believed to chaplain to the king, and the president of a poor be no faults, he rather confirmed his majesty's college in Oxford. This inflamed more men than judgment of him, and prejudiced his own reputa- were angry before, and no doubt did not only tion. His death caused no grief in the archbishop; sharpen the edge of envy and malice against the who was upon it made one of the commissioners of archbishop, (who was the known architect of this the treasury and revenue, which he had reason to new fabric,) but most unjustly indisposed many be sorry for, because it engaged him in civil busi- towards the church itself; which they looked upon ness and matters of state, in which he had little as the gulph ready to swallow all the great offices, experience, and which he had hitherto avoided. there being others in view, of that robe, who were But being obliged to it now by his trust, he entered ambitious enough to expect the rest. upon it with his natural earnestness and warmth, In the mean time the archbishop himself was inmaking it his principal care to advance and improve finitely pleased with what was done, and unhappily the king's revenue by all the ways which were believed he had provided a stronger support for the offered, and so hearkened to all informations and church; and never abated any thing of his severity propositions of that kind; and having not had ex- and rigour towards men of all conditions, or in the perience of that tribe of people who deal in that sharpness of his language and expressions, which traffick, (a confident, senseless, and for the most was so natural to him, that he could not debate any part a naughty people,) he was sometimes misled thing without some commotion, when the argument by them to think better of some projects than they was not of moment, nor bear contradiction in dedeserved: but when he was so entirely devoted to bate, even in the council, where all men are equally what would be beneficial to the king, that all pro- free, with that patience and temper that was necespositions and designs, which were for the profit sary; of which they who wished him not well took (only or principally) of particular persons how many advantages, and would therefore contradict great soever, were opposed and crossed, and very him, that he might be transported with some indeoften totally suppressed and stifled in their birth, cent passion; which, upon a short recollection, he by his power and authority; which created him was always sorry for, and most readily and heartily enemies enough in the court, and many of ability would make acknowledgment. No man so willto do mischief, who knew well how to recompense ingly made unkind use of all those occasions, as discourtesies, which they always called injúries. the lord Cottington, who being a master of temper,

And the revenue of too many of the court con- and of the most profound dissimulation, knew too sisted principally in enclosures, and improvements well how to lead him into a mistake, and then of that nature, which he still opposed passionately, drive him into choler, and then expose him upon except they were founded upon law; and then, if the matter, and the manner, to the judgment of it would bring profit to the king, how old and ob- the company; and he chose to do this most when solete soever the law was, he thought he might the king was present; and then he would dine justly advise the prosecution. And so he did a with him the next day. little too much countenance the commission for de The king, who was excessively affected to huntpopulation, which brought much charge and trou- ing and the sports of the field, had a great desire ble upon the people, which was likewise cast upon to make a great park for

red as well as fallow deer, his account.

between Richmond and Hampton court, where he He had observed, and knew it must be so, had large wastes of his own, and great parcels of that the principal officers of the revenue, who go- wood, which made it very fit for the use he deverned the affairs of money, had always access to signed it to : but as some parishes had common in the king, and spent more time with him in private those wastes, so many gentlemen and farmers had than any of his servants or counsellors, and had good houses and good farms intermingled with thereby frequent opportunities to do good or ill those wastes of their own inheritance, or for their offices to many men; of which he had had expe- lives, or years; and without taking in of them into rience, when the earl of Portland was treasurer, the park, it would not be of the largeness or for and the lord Cottington chancellor of the ex the use proposed. His majesty desired to purchase chequer ; neither of them being his friends; and those lands, and was very willing to buy them the latter still enjoying that place, and having his upon higher terms than the people could sell them former access, and so continuing a joint commis at to any body else, if they had occasion to part sioner of the treasury with him, and understanding with them; and thought it'no unreasonable thing, that province much better, he still opposed, and upon those terms, to expect from his subjects; commonly carried every thing against him: so that and so he employed his own surveyor, and other he was weary of the toil and vexation of that busi- of his officers, to treat with the owners, many ness; as all other men were, and still are of the whereof were his own tenants, whose terms would delays which are in all dispatches, whilst that office at last expire. is executed by commission.

The major part of the people were in a short The treasurer's is the greatest office of benefit in time prevailed with, but many very obstinately rethe kingdom, and the chief in precedence next the fused; and a gentleman, who had the best estate, archbishop's, and the great seal: so that the eyes with a convenient house and gardens, would by no of all men were at gaze who should have this great means part with it; and the king being as earnest office; and the greatest of the nobility, who were to compass it, it made a great noise, as if the king in the chiefest employments, looked upon it as the would take away men's estates at his own pleasure. prize of one of them; such offices commonly The bishop of London, who was treasurer, and making way for more removes and preferments : the lord Cottington, chancellor of the exchequer, when on a sudden the staff was put into the hands were, from the first entering upon it, very averse

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1636.] Quarrel between Archbishop Laud and the Lord Cottington.

from the design, not only for the murmur of the replied to him, “that he thought a man could not
people, but because the purchase of the land, and “ with a good conscience, hinder the king from
the making a brick-wall about so large a parcel of pursuing his resolutions, and that it could not
ground, (for it is not less than ten or twelve “ but proceed from want of affection to his person,
miles about,) would cost a greater sum of money “ and he was not sure that it might not be high
than they could easily provide, or than they thought “ treason.” The other, upon the wildness of his
ought to be sacrificed to such an occasion; and the discourse, in great anger asked him, “Why, from
lord Cottington (who was more solicited by the “ whence he had received that doctrine?" He said,
country people, and heard most of their murmurs) with the same temper, “ They, who did not wish
took the business most to heart, and endeavoured “the king's health, could not love him ; and they,
by all the ways he could, and by frequent impor “ who went about to hinder his taking recreation,
tunities, to divert his majesty from pursuing it, and “ which preserved his health, might be thought,
put all delays he could well do in the bargains “ for aught he knew, guilty of the highest crimes.'
which were to be made; till the king grew very Upon which the archbishop in great rage, and
angry with him, and told him, “he was resolved with many reproaches, left him, and either pre-
“ to go through with it, and had already caused sently, or upon the next opportunity, told the king,
“ brick to he burned, and inuch of the wall to be “ that he now knew who was his great counsellor
“ built upon his own land ;” upon which Cotting “ for making his park, and that he did not wonder
ton thought fit to acquiesce.

“ that men durst not represent any arguments to
The building the wall before people consented to “ the contrary, or let his majesty know how much
part with their land, or their common, looked to “ he suffered in it, when such principles in divinity
them as if by degrees they should be shut out from “ and law were laid down to terrify them;" and so
both, and increased the murmur and noise of the recounted to him the conference he had with the
people who were not concerned, as well as of them lord Cottington, bitterly inveighing against him
who were : and it was too near London not to be and his doctrine, mentioning him with all the sharp
the common discourse; and the archbishop (who reproaches imaginable, and beseeching his majesty,
desired exceedingly that the king should be pos " that his counsel might not prevail with him,
sessed as much of the hearts of the people as was taking some pains to make his conclusions appear
possible, at least that they should have no just very false and ridiculous.
cause to complain) meeting with it, resolved to The king said no more, but, “ My lord, you are
speak with the king of it; which he did, and re - deceived ; Cottington is too hard for you : upon
ceived such an answer from him, that he thought my word, he hath not only dissuaded me more,
his majesty rather not informed enough of the in “and given more reasons against this business,
conveniences and mischiefs of the thing, than posi “ than all the men in England have done, but
tively resolved not to desist from it. Whereupon “ hath really obstructed the work by not doing his
one day he took the lord Cottington aside, being duty, as I commanded him, for which I have
informed that he disliked it, and, according to his “ been very much displeased with him : you see
natural custom, spake with great warmth against “ how unjustly your passion hath transported
it,) and told him," he should do very well to give you.” By which reprehension he found how
“ the king good counsel, and to withdraw him from much he had been abused, and resented it accord-

a resolution, in which his honour and his justice ingly.

was so much called in question.”. Cottington Whatsoever was the cause of it, this excellent
answered him very gravely, “ that the thing de- man, who stood not upon the advantage ground

signed was very lawful, and he thought the king before, from the time of his promotion to the arch-
“ resolved very well, and since the place lay so bishopric, or rather from that of his being com-
“conveniently for his winter exercise, and that he missioner of the treasury, exceedingly provoked,
“ should by it not be compelled to make so long or underwent the envy, and reproach, and malice
“ journeys as he used to do, in that season of the of men of all qualities and conditions ; who agreed

year, for his sport, and that nobody ought to in nothing else : all which, though well enough
“ dissuade him from it."

known to him, were not enough considered by
The archbishop, instead of finding a concurrence him, who believed, the government to be so firmly
from him, as he expected, seeing himself reproached settled, that it could neither be shaken from within
upon the matter for his opinion, grew into much nor without, as most men did, and that less than a
passion, telling him, “such men as he would ruin general confusion of law and gospel could not hurt
" the king, and make him lose the affections of him; which was true too: but he did not foresee
“ his subjects; that for his own part, as he had how easily that confusion might be brought to

begun, so he would go on to dissuade the king pass, as it proved shortly to be. And with this “ from proceeding in so ill a counsel, and that he general observation of the outward visible pro

hoped it would appear who had been his coun- sperity, and the inward reserved disposition of the “ sellor.” Cottington, glad to see him so soon hot, people to murmur and unquietness, we concludo and resolved to inflame him more, very calmly 1 this first book.

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IT was towards the end of the year 1633, when It was full two years, or very near so much, be

the king returned from Scotland, having left it fore the bishops in Scotland had prepared any to the care of some of the bishops there to provide thing to offer to the king towards their intended such a liturgy, and such a book of canons, as might reformation; and then they inverted the proper best suit the nature and humour of the better sort method, and first presented a body of canons to of that people ; to which the rest would easily precede the liturgy, which was not yet ready, they submit : and that, as fast as they made them choosing to finish the shorter work first. The ready, they should transmit them to the archbishop king referred the consideration of the canons, as of Canterbury, to whose assistance the king joined he had before resolved to do, to the archbishop, the bishop of London, and doctor Wren, who, by and the other two bishops formerly named, the that time, was become bishop of Norwich; a man bishop of London, and the bishop of Norwich ; of a severe, sour nature, but very learned, and par- who, after their perusal of them, and some alteraticularly versed in the old liturgies of the Greek tions made with the consent of those bishops who and Latin churches. And after his majesty should brought them from Scotland, returned them to be this way certified of what was so sent, he would the king; and his majesty, impatient to see the recommend and enjoin the practice and use of both good work entered upon without any other cereto that his native kingdom. The bishops there had mony, (after having given his royal approbation) somewhat to do, before they went about the pre- issued out his proclamation for the due observation paring the canons and the liturgy; what had of them within his kingdom of Scotland. passed at the king's being there in parliament had It was a fatal inadvertency, that neither before left bitter inclinations and unruly spirits in many nor after these canons were sent to the king they of the most popular nobility ; who watched only were never seen by the assembly, or any convofor an opportunity to inflame the people, and cation of the clergy, which was so strictly obliged were well enough contented to see combustible to the observation of them; nor so much as commatter every day gathered together to contribute municated to the lords of the council of that kingto that fire.

dom; it being almost impossible that any new disThe promoting so many bishops to be of the cipline could be introduced into the church, which privy-council

, and to sit in the courts of justice, would not much concern the government of the seemed at first wonderfully to facilitate all that state, and even trench upon or refer to the municiwas in design, and to create an affection and pal laws of the kingdom. And, in this considerareverence towards the church, at least an applica- tion, the archbishop of Canterbury had always tion to and dependence upon the greatest church- declared to the bishops of Scotland,“ that it was

So that there seemed to be not only a good “their part to be sure, that nothing they should preparation made with the people, but a general “ propose to the king in the business of the church, expectation, and even a desire that they might “ should be contrary to the laws of the land, have a liturgy, and more decency observed in the which he could not be thought to understand ; church. And this temper was believed to be the “ and that they should never put any thing in more universal, because neither from any of the “ execution, without the consent and approbation nobility, nor of the clergy, who were thought most “ of the privy-council.” But it was the unhappy averse from it, there appeared any sign of contra- craft of those bishops to get it believed by the diction, nor that license of language against it, as king, that the work would be grateful to the most was natural to that nation ; but an entire acquies- considerable of the nobility, the clergy, and the cence in all the bishops thought fit to do ; which people, (which they could hardly believe,) in order was interpreted to proceed from a conversion in to the obtaining his majesty's approbation and their judgment, at least to a submission to the au- authority for the execution of that, which they did thority : whereas in truth, it appeared afterwards to really believe would not find opposition from the be from the observation they made from the temper nobility, clergy, or people, against his majesty's and indiscretion of those bishops in the greatest express power and will, which without doubt was authority, that they were like to have more ad- then in great veneration in that kingdom ; and so vantages administered to them by their ill man- they did not in truth dare to submit those canons agery, than they could raise by any contrivance of to any other examination, than what the king their own.

should direct in England.




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The Scottish Canons.

43 It was, in the next place, as strange, that those policy, than of religion; thwarted their laws and canons should be published before the liturgy was customs, which had been observed by them ; prepared, (which was not ready in a year after, or lessened, if not took away the credit of churchthereabouts,) when three or four of the canons men; and prohibited them from that liberty of were principally for the observation and punctual commerce in civil affairs, which the laws permitted compliance with the liturgy; which all the clergy to them; and reflected upon the interests of those were to be sworn to submit to, and to pay all obe- who had, or might have, a right to inherit from dience to what was enjoined by it, before they knew clergymen. T'hat none should receive the sawhat it contained. Whereas, if the liturgy had crament but upon their knees; that the clergy been first published with all due circumstances, it “ should have no private meetings for expoundis possible that it might have found a better recep "ing scripture, or for consulting upon matters tion, and the canons less examined.

“ ecclesiastical; that no man should cover his The Scotch nation, how capable soever it was of head in the time of divine service; and that being led by some great men, and misled by the no clergyman should conceive prayers ex temclergy, would have been corrupted by neither into pore, but be bound to pray only by the form a barefaced rebellion against their king, whose “prescribed in the liturgy,” (which, by the way, person they loved, and reverenced his government; was not seen nor framed,) - and that no man should nor could they have been wrought upon towards“ teach a public school, or in a private house, withthe lessening the one, or the other, by any other “ out a license first obtained from the archbishop suggestions or infusions, than such as should make “ of the province, or the bishop of the diocese.” them jealous or apprehensive of a design to intro All these were new, and things with which they duce popery; their whole religion consisting in an had not been acquainted ; and though they were entire detestation of popery, in believing the pope all to be commended to a regular and orderly to be Antichrist, and hating perfectly the persons people, piously disposed, yet it was too strong of all papists; and I doubt all others, who did not meat for infants in discipline, and too much nouhate them.

rishment to be administered at once to weak and The canons now published, besides (as hath been queasy stomachs, too much inclined to nauseate touched before) that they had passed no approba- what was most wholesome. But then, to apply tion of the clergy, or been communicated to the the old terms of the church, to mention “the council, appeared to be so many new laws imposed “ quatuor tempora, and restrain all ordinations to upon the whole kingdom by the king's sole au “ those four seasons of the year; to enjoin a font thority, and contrived by a few private men, of “to be prepared in every church for baptism, and whom they had no good opinion, and who were a decent table for the communion; and to direct strangers to the nation; so that it was no other “ and appoint the places where both font and than a subjection to England, by receiving laws “ table should stand, and decent ornaments for from thence, of which they were most jealous, and “ either; to restrain any excommunication from which they most passionately abhorred. Then being pronounced, or absolution from being given, they were so far from being confined to the church, “ without the approbation of the bishop; to menand the matters of religion, that they believed there “ tion any practice of confession,” (which they was no part of their civil government uninvaded looked upon as the strongest and most inseparable by them, and no persons of what quality soever limb of Antichrist,) and to enjoin, “ that no presunconcerned, and, as they thought, unhurt in " byter should reveal any thing he should receive them. And there were some things in some par “ in confession, except in such cases, where, by ticular canons, how rational 'soever in themselves, “ the law of the land, his own life should be forand how distant soever in the words and expres “ feited ;” were all such matters of innovation, sions from inclining to popery, which yet gave too and in their nature so suspicious, that they much advantage to those who maliciously watched thought they had reason to be jealous of the worst the occasion to persuade weak men, that it was that could follow; and the last canon of all provided, an approach and introduction to that religion, “ that no person should be received in holy orders, the very imagination whereof intoxicated all men, or suffered to preach or administer the sacraand deprived them of all faculties to examine and “ments, without first subscribing to these canons." judge.

It was now easy for them who had those incliThe first canon defined and determined such an nations, to suggest to men of all conditions, that unlimited « power and prerogative to be in the here was an entire new model of government in

king, according to the pattern” (in express church and state; the king might do what he terms)

“ of the kings of Israel, and such a full would upon them all, and the church was nothing supremacy in all causes ecclesiastical, as hath but what the bishops would have it be : which never been pretended to by their former kings, they every day infused into the minds of the

or submitted to by the clergy and laity of that people, with all the art and artifices which ad“nation ;” and which made impression upon men minister jealousies of all kinds to those who were of all tempers, humours, and inclinations. “ That liable to be disquieted with them: yet they would

no ecclesiastical person should become surety, not suffer (which shewed wonderful power and “ or bound for any man; that national or general wonderful dexterity) any disorder to break out “ assemblies should be called only by the king's upon all this occasion, but all was quiet, except

authority; that all bishops, and other eccle- spreading of libels against the bishops, and pro“siastical persons, who die without children, pagating that spirit as much as they could, by “ should be obliged to give a good part of their their correspondence in England; where they " estates to the church, and, though they should found too many every day transported by the “ have children, yet to leave somewhat to the same infusions, in expectation that these seeds of

church, and for advancement of learning;" jealousy from the canons would grow apace, and which seemed rather to be matter of state, and produce a proper reception for the liturgy.

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First Reading of the Scottish Liturgy. Its Reception. [BOOK 11. It was about the month of July, in the year sticks, and cudgels were thrown at the dean's 1637, that the liturgy (after it had been sent out of head. The bishop went up into the pulpit, and Scotland, and perused by the three bishops in from thence put them in mind of the sacredness England, and then approved and confirmed by the of the place, of their duty to God and the king : king) was published, and appointed to be read but he found no more reverence, nor was the in all the churches. And in this particular there clamour or disorder less than before. The chanwas the same affected and premeditated omission, cellor, from his seat, commanded the provost and as had been in the preparation and publication of magistrates of the city to descend from the gallery the canons; the clergy not at all consulted in it, in which they sat, and by their authority to supand, which was more strange, not all the bishops press the riot; which at last with great difficulty acquainted with it; which was less censured they did, by driving the rudest of those who made afterwards, when some of them renounced their the disturbance out of the church, and shutting function, and became ordinary presbyters, as soon the doors, which gave the dean occasion to proas they saw the current of the time. The privy- ceed in the reading of the liturgy, which was not council had no other notice of it, than all the at all attended or hearkened to by those who rekingdom had, the Sunday before, when it was mained within the church; and 'if it had, they declared, “ that the next Sunday the liturgy should who were turned out continued their barbarous “ be read;” by which they were the less concerned noise, broke the windows, and endeavoured to to foresee or prevent any obstructions which might break down the doors; so that it was not possible happen.

for any to follow their devotions. The proclamation had appointed it to be read When all was done that at that time could be the Easter before ; but the earl of Traquaire, high done there, and the council and magistrates went treasurer of Scotland, (who was the only counsellor out of the church to their houses, the rabble folor layman relied upon by the archbishop of Can- lowed the bishops with all the opprobrious lanterbury in that business,) persuaded the king to guage they could invent, of bringing in superstidefer it till July, that some good preparation might tion and popery into the kingdom, and making be made for the more cheerful reception of it. the people slaves; and were not content to use And as this pause gave the discontented party their tongues, but employed their hands too in more heart, and more time for their seditious throwing dirt and stones at them; and treated negociations, so the ill consequences of it, or the the bishop of Edinburgh, whom they looked upon actions which were subsequent to it, made him as most active that day, so rudely, that with suspected to be privy to all the conspiracy, and in difficulty he got into a house, after they had torn truth to be an enemy to the church; though, in his habit, and was from thence removed to his truth, there neither appeared then, nor in all the own, with great hazard of his life. As this was very unfortunate part of his life afterwards, any the reception it - had in the cathedral, so it fared just ground for that accusation and suspicion : not better in the other churches of the city, but but as he was exceedingly obliged to the archbi- was entertained with the same hollowing and outshop, so he was a man of great parts, and well cries, and threatening the men, whose office it was affected to the work in hand in his own judgment; to read it, with the same bitter execrations against and if he had been as much depended upon, to bishops and popery. have advised the bishops in the prosecution and Hitherto no person of condition or name apfor the conduct of it, as he was to assist them in peared, or seemed to countenance this seditious the carrying on whatsoever they proposed, it is confusion; it was the rabble, of which nobody very probable, that either so much would not was named, and, which is more strange, not one have been undertaken together, or that it would apprehended : and it seems the bishops thought it have succeeded better; for he was without doubt not of moment enough to desire or require any not inferior to any of that nation in wisdom and help or protection from the council; but without dexterity. And though he was often provoked, conferring with them, or applying themselves to by the insolence and petulance of some of the them, they dispatched away an express to the king, bishops, to a dislike of their overmuch fervour, with a full and particular information of all that and too little discretion, his integrity to the king had passed, and a desire that he would take that was without blemish, and his affection to the course he thought best for the carrying on his church so notorious, that he never deserted it, till service. both it and he were overrun, and trod under Until this advertisement arrived from Scotland, foot; and they who were the most notorious per there were very few in England who had heard of secutors of it never left persecuting him to the any disorders 'there, or of any thing done there, death.

which might produce any. The king himself had Nor was any thing done which he had proposed, been always so jealous of the privileges of that his for the better adjusting things in that time of that native kingdom, (as hath been touched before,) suspension, but every thing left in the same state and that it might not be dishonoured by a susof unconcernedness as it had been before; not so picion of having any dependence upon England, much as the council being better informed of it; that he never suffered any thing relating to that as if they had been sure that all men would have to be debated, or so much as communicated to his submitted to it for conscience sake.

privy-council in this, (though many of that nation On the Sunday morning appointed for the work, were, without distinction, counsellors of England,) the chancellor of Scotland and others of the coun- but handled all those affairs himself with two cil being present in the cathedral church, the dean or three Scotsmen, who always attended in the began to read the liturgy, which he had no sooner court for the business of that kingdom, which entered upon, but a noise and clamour was raised was upon the matter still dispatched by the sole throughout the church, that no voice could be advice and direction of the marquis of Hamilton. heard distinctly, and then a shower of stones, and And the truth is, there was so little curiosity

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