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few with all the reproaches imaginable, made war had the courage to do any thing in opposition upon the bishops, as introducers of popery and to them, or to concur in the prosecution of any superstition, against which they avowed themselves regal act against them; and did in some respects to be irreconcilable enemies : and their husbands more advance their designs, than if they had did not long defer the owning the same spirit ; in- manifestly joined with them.
For these men, somuch as within few days the bishops durst not many of whom were of the council, by all their appear in the streets, nor in any courts or houses, letters into England, exceedingly undervalued but were in danger of their lives; and such of the the disorder, as being very easy to be suplords as durst be in their company, or seemed pressed in a short time, when the people's eyes to desire to rescue them from violence, had their “ should be opened; and that the removing coaches torn in pieces, and their persons assaulted, “ the courts to some other place, and a gracious insomuch as they were glad to send for some of “ condescension in the king in offering pardon those great men, who did indeed govern the “ for what was past, would suddenly subdue rabble, though they appeared not in it, who " them, and every body would return to his duty :" readily came and redeemed them out of their and the city of Edinburgh itself writ an humble hands : so that by the time new orders came from letter to the archbishop of Canterbury, excusing England, there was scarce a bishop left in Edin- the disorders which had been raised by the ignoburgh, and not a minister who durst read the rance and rudeness of the meanest of the people, liturgy in any church.
besought him “ to intercede with his majesty for All the kingdom flocked to Edinburgh, as in a “the suspension of his prejudice to them, till general cause that concerned their salvation, and they should manifest their duty to him, by inresolved themselves into a method of government, flicting exemplary punishment upon the chief erected several tables, in which deputies sat for “offenders, and causing the liturgy to be rethe nobility, the gentlemen, the clergy, and the “ ceived and submitted to in all their churches ;" burgesses ; out of either of which tables a council which they professed they would in a shor time was elected to conduct their affairs, and a petition bring to pass. So that by this means, and the indrawn up in the names of the nobility, lairds, terposition of all those of that nation who atclergy, and hurgesses, to the king, complaining of tended upon his majesty in his bedchamber, and the introduction of popery, and many other griev- in several offices at court, who all undertook to
And if the lords of the council issued out know by their intelligences that all was quiet, or any order against them, or if the king himself sent would speedily be so; his majesty (who well a proclamation for their repair to their houses, and knew that they who appeared most active in for the preservation of the peace, presently some this confederacy were much inferior to those nobleman deputed by the tables published a pro- who did not appear, and who professed great zeal testation against those orders and proclamations, for his service) hardly prevailed with himself to with the same confidence, and with as much for- believe that he could receive any disturbance from mality, as if the government were regularly in thence, till he found all his condescensions had their hands.
raised their insolence, all his offers rejected, and They called a general assembly, whither they his proclamation of pardon slighted and consummoned the bishops to appear before them, and temned; and that they were listing men towards for not appearing, excommunicated thein; and the raising an army, under the obligation of their
[BOOK II. covenant, and had already chosen colonel Lesley, of the army, the most popular man of the kingdom, a soldier of that nation of long experience and and the darling of the sword-men ; who, between a eminent command under the king of Sweden hatred and a contempt of the Scots, had nothing in Germany, to be their general; who being like an affection for any one man of the nation; and lately disobliged (as they called it) by the king, therefore was so well pleased with his promotion, that is, denied somewhat he had a mind to have, that he begun to love the king the better for conwhich to that people was always the highest ferring it upon him, and entered upon the province injury, had accepted of the command. Then with great fidelity and alacrity, and was capable at last the king thought it time to resort to from that hour of any impression the king would other counsels, and to provide force to chastise have fixed upon him. them, who had so much despised all the gentler The earl of Holland was general of the horse; remedies.
who, besides the obligations he had to the queen, He could now no longer defer the acquainting (who vouchsafed to own a particular trust in him,) his council-board, and the whole kingdom of Eng- was not liable to the least suspicion of want of land, with the indignities he had sustained in Scot- affection and zeal for the king's service. land;
which he did by proclamations and declara In the beginning of the spring, which was in the tions at large, setting out the whole proceedings year 1639, an army was drawn together of near six which had been; and in the end of the year 1638 thousand horse, and about that number in foot, all declared his resolution to raise an army to suppress very well disciplined men, under as good and expetheir rebellion, for which he gave present order. rienced officers, as were to be found in any army
And this was the first alarm England received in Christendom. And with this army, abundantly towards any trouble, after it had enjoyed for so supplied with a train of artillery, and all other many years the most uninterrupted prosperity, in a provisions necessary, the king advanced in the full and plentiful peace, that any nation could be beginning of the summer towards the borders of blessed with : and as there was no apprehension of Scotland. trouble from within, so it was secured from without This was not all the strength that was provided by a stronger fleet at sea than the nation had ever for the suppressing that rebellion, but the king had been acquainted with, which drew reverence from likewise provided a good feet for the sea, and had all the neighbour princes. The revenue had been caused a body of three thousand foot to be embarked so well improved, and so warily managed, that there on those ships; all which were put under the comwas money in the exchequer proportionable for the mand of the marquis of Hamilton, who was to infest undertaking any noble enterprise : nor did this first his country by sea to hinder their trade, and to noise of war and approach towards action seem to make a descent upon the land, and join with such make any impression upon the minds of men, the forces as the loyal party of that nation should draw Scots being in no degree either loved or feared by together to assist the king's, which his own interest the people; and most men hoped, that this would (as was believed) would give great life to, his family free the court from being henceforth troubled with being numerous in the nobility, and united in an those vermin; and so seemed to embrace the occa- entire dependence upon him. sion with notable alacrity : and there is no doubt, Upon the first march of the army northwards, but if that whole nation had been entirely united the earl of Essex was sent with a party of horse in the rebellion, and all who stayed in the court and foot, to use all possible expedition to possess had marched in their army, and publicly owned the himself of Berwick, which the king had been advercovenant, which in their hearts they adored, neither tised the Scots would speedily be masters of. The king nor kingdom could have sustained any earl lost no time, but marched day and night with damage by them; but the monument of their pre- great order and diligence; and every day met sevesumption and their shame would have been raised ral Scotsmen of quality well known to him, and together, and no other memory preserved of their sent expressly to the king, all who severally made rebellion but in their memorable and infamous him very particular relations of the strength of the defeat.
Scots army, the excellent discipline that was obGod Almighty would not suffer this dicserning served in it, the goodness of the men, and that they spirit of wisdom to govern at this time: the king were by that time possessed of Berwick ; and when thought it unjust to condemn a nation for the trans- he was within one day's march of it, a person of gression of a part of it, and still hoped to redeem principal condition, of very near relation to the it from the infamy of a general defection, by the king's service, (who pretended to be sent upon exemplary fidelity of a superior party, and therefore matter of high importance to his majesty from those withdrew not his confidence from any of those who who most intended his service there,) met him, and attended his person, and who, in truth, lay leiger advised him very earnestly“ not to advance farther for the covenant, and kept up the spirits of their with his party, which was so much inferior in countrymen by their intelligence.
“ number to those of the enemy, that it would inThe king hastened the raising an army, which“ fallibly be cut off: that himself overtook the day was not long in doing. He chose to make the earl “ before a strong party of the army, consisting of of Arundel his general, a man who had nothing “ three thousand horse and foot, with a train of martial about him but his presence and his looks, « artillery, all which he left at such a place,” (which and therefore was thought to be made choice of he named,)“ within three hours' march of Berwick, for his negative qualities : he did not love the “ where they resolved to be the night before, so Scots; he did not love the puritans; which good that his proceeding farther must be fruitless, and qualifications were allayed by another negative, he “ expose him to inevitable ruin.” These advertisedid love nobody else: but he was fit to keep the ments wrought no otherwise upon the earl, than to state of it; and his rank was such, that no man hasten his marches, insomuch that he came to Berwould decline the serving under him.
wick sooner than he proposed to have done, entered The earl of Essex was made lieutenant-general | the place without the least opposition, and by all
1639.] The King summons the English Nobility to attend him.
47 the inquiry he could make hy sending out parties, | had been none in the march but soldiers, it is most and other advertisements, he could not discover probable that a noble peace would have quickly that any of the enemies' forces had been drawn ensued, even without fighting: but the progress was that way, nor indeed that they had any considerable more illustrious than the march, and the soldiers forces together nearer than Edinburgh.
were the least part of the ariny, and least consulted The earl being thus possessed of his post, lost no with. time in advertising the king of it, and sent him a In this pomp the king continued his journey to very particular account of the informations he had York, where he had a full court, those noblemen of received from so many ear and eyewitnesses, who the northern parts, and many others who overtook were all at that time in the court, and very fit to be not the king till then, joining all in that city ; where suspected after the publishing of so manyfalsehoods; his majesty found it necessary to stay some days; and the men had been constant in the same reports, and there the fruit, that was to be gathered from and as confident in reporting the defeat of the earl such a conflux, quickly budded out. Some rules of Essex, and cutting off his party, as they had were to be set down for the government of the been to himself of the Scots’ march, and their being army; and the court was too numerous to be wholly masters of Berwick. The joy was not concealed left to its own license; and the multitude of the with which his majesty received the news of the Scots in it administered matter of offence and jeaearl's being in Berwick, the contrary whereof these lousy to people of all conditions, who had too much men made him apprehend with much perplexity; cause to fear that the king was every day betrayed; but they underwent no other reproach for their the common discourse by all the Scots being either intelligence, than that their fears had multiplied magnifying the good intentions of their countrymen, their sight, and that they had been frighted with and that they had all duty for the king, or underother men's relations; which remissness, to call it valuing the power and interest of those who disno worse, was an ill omen of the discipline that covered themselves against the church. was like to be observed.
It was therefore thought fit by the whole body If the war had been now vigorously pursued, it of the council, that a short protestation should be had been as soon ended as begun; for at this time drawn, in which all men should“ profess their loyalty they had not drawn three thousand men together “ and obedience to his majesty, and disclaim and in the whole kingdom of Scotland, nor had in truth renounce the having any intelligence, or holding arms complete for such a number, though they had any correspondence with the rebels.” No man the possession of all the king's forts and magazines, imagined it possible that any of the English would nor had they ammunition to supply their few fire- refuse to make that protestation; and they who arms; horses they had, and officers they had, which thought worst of the Scots did not think they made all their show. But it was the fatal misfor- would make any scruple of doing the same, and tune of the king, which proceeded from the excel-consequently that there would be no fruit or dislency of his nature, and his tenderness of blood, covery from that test; but they were deceived. that he deferred so long his resolution of using his The Scots indeed took it to a man, without grievarms; and after he had taken that resolution, that ing their conscience, or reforming their manners. it was not prosecuted with more vigour.
But amongst the English nobility the lord Say, He more intended the pomp of his preparations and the lord Brook, (two popular men, and most than the strength of them, and did still believe, that undevoted to the church, and, in truth, to the the one would save the labour of the other. At the whole government,) positively refused, in the same time that he resolved to raise an army, he king's own presence, to make any such protestacaused inquiry to be made, what obligations lay tion. They said, “ If the king suspected their upon his subjects to assist him, both as he went loyalty, he might proceed against them as he himself in person, and as it was an expedition thought fit; but that it was against the law to against the Scots; which, in the ancient enmity impose any oath or protestation upon them between the two nations, had been provided for by “ which were not enjoined by the law; and, in some laws, and in the tenure which many men held “ that respect, that they might not betray the comtheir estates by. He found that the kings had usu mon liberty, they would not submit to it.” This ally, when they went to make war in their own per- administered matter of new dispute in a very unsons, called as many of the nobility to attend upon seasonable time; and though there did not then them, as they thought fit.
appear more of the same mind, and they two were And thereupon he summoned mostof the nobility committed, at least restrained of their liberty; yet of the kingdom, without any consideration of their this discovered too much the humour and spirit of affections how they stood disposed to that service, the court in their daily discourses upon that subto attend upon him by a day appointed, and through- ject; so that the king thought it best to dismiss out that expedition; presuming, that the glory of those two lords, and require them to return to sucha visible appearance of the whole nobility would their houses : and if all the rest who were not look like such an union in the quarrel, as would at officers of the army, or of absolute necessity about once terrify and reduce the Scots ; not considering, the king's person, had been likewise dismissed and that such kind of unitings do naturally produce the sent home, the business had been better prosegreatest confusions, when more and greater men cuted, are called together than can be united in affections Indeed, if the king himself had stayed at London, or interests; and in the necessary differences which or, which had been the next best, kept his court arise from thence, they quickly come to know each and resided at York, and sent the army on their other so well, as they easily unite in several divisions, proper errand, and left the matter of the war wholly though never in any one public interest ; and from to them, in all human reason, his enemies had been hence the most dangerous factions have always speedily subdued, and that kingdom reduced to arose, which have threatened and ruined the peace their obedience, which it would not have been of nations : and it fell out no better here. If there easy for them to have shaken off.
The King enters Scotland. The Earl of Holland marches to Dunce. [BOOK II. Before the king left York, letters and addresses | courage and military knowledge. As he might were sent from the Scots, “lamenting their ill for- very safely have made a halt at Dunce, till his foot
tune, that their enemies had so great credit with and artillery came up to him, so he might securely “ the king, as to persuade him to believe, that they enough have engaged his body of horse against
were or could be disobedient to him, a thing their whole pitiful army, there being neither tree “ that could never enter into their loyal hearts; nor bush to interrupt his charge; but it was “ that they desired nothing but to be admitted into thought otherwise; and no question it was gene“ the presence of their gracious sovereign, to lay rally believed, by the placing and drawing out “ their grievances at his royal feet, and leave the their front in so conspicuous a place, by the ap• determination of them entirely to his own wisdom pearance of other troops behind them, and by the “ and pleasure.” And though the humility of the shewing great herds of cattle at a distance upon style gained them many friends, who thought it the hills on either side, that their army was very great pity that any blood should be spilt in a con- much superior in number. And therefore, as tention which his majesty might put an end to by soon as the earl came in view, he dispatched meshis own word, as soon as he would hear their com sengers one after another to the king, with an plaints ; yet hitherto the king preserved himself account of what he heard and saw, or believed he from being wrought upon, and marched with con saw, and yet thought not fit to stay for an answer; venient expedition to the very borders of Scotland, but with the joint consent of all his superior officers and encamped with his army in an open field, (for it was never after pretended that any one called the Berkes, on the further side of Berwick, officer of name dissuaded it, though they were still and lodged in his tent with the army, though every ashamed of it) retired towards his foot, to whom day's march wrought very much upon the consti- he had likewise sent orders not to advance; and tution if not the courage of the court, and too so wearied and tired by the length of the march, many wished aloud, “that the business were and more by the heat of the weather, which was “ brought to a fair treaty.”
intolerable, they returned to the camp where the Upon advertisement that a party of the Scots king was; and the Scots drew a little back to a army was upon their march, the earl of Holland more convenient post for their residence. was sent with a body of three thousand horse, and The covenanters, who very well understood the two thousand foot, with a fit train of artillery, to weakness of the court, as well as their own want of meet it, and engage with it; who marched accord- strength, were very reasonably exalted with this ingly into Scotland early in a morning as far as a success, and scattered their letters abroad amongst place called Dunce, ten or twelve miles into that the noblemen at court, according to the humours kingdom. It was in the beginning of August, of the men to whom they writ; there being upon when the nights are very short, and, as soon as the matter an unrestrained intercourse between the the sun rises, the days for the most part hotter king's camp and Edinburgh. than is reasonably expected from the climate, and They writ three several letters to the three geneby the testimony of all men that day was the rals, the earl of Arundel, the earl of Essex, and the hottest that had been known. When the earl earl of Holland. That to the earl of Essex was in came with his horse to Dunce, he found the Scots a dialect more submiss than to the others; they drawn up on the side of a hill, where the front said much to him of “his own fame and reputacould only be in view, and where, he was informed, “ tion, which added to their affliction that he the general Lesley and the whole army was; and “ should be in arms against them; that they had it was very true, they where all there indeed;
“ not the least imagination of entering into a war it was as true, that all did not exceed the number against England ; their only thought and hope of three thousand men, very ill armed, and most was to defend their own rights and liberties, country fellows, who were on the sudden got to “ which were due to them by the laws of the land, gether to make that show: and Lesley had placed “ until they might have access to his majesty, to them by the advantage of that hill so speciously, expose their complaints to him, from which they that they had the appearance of a good body of “ were hindered by the power and greatness of men, there being all the semblance of great bodies some of their own countrymen;" being desirous behind on the other side of the hill; the falsehood the earl should understand that their principal of which would have been manifest as soon as they grievance was the interest of the marquis of Hamilshould move from the place where they were, and ton, who, they knew, was not in any
degree acceptfrom whence they were therefore not to stir. able to the earl; and therefore desired him “ to be
The horse had outmarched the foot, which, by ready to do them good offices to the king, that reason of the excessive heat, was not able to use they might be admitted to his presence.” The great expedition : besides, there was some error earl of Essex, who was a punctual man in point in the orders, and some accidents of the night that of honour, received this address superciliously had retarded them; so that when the enemy ap- enough, sent it to the king without returning any peared first in view, the foot and the artillery was answer, or holding any conference, or performing three or four miles behind.
the least ceremony, with or towards the messengers. Nothing can be said in the excuse of the counsel The earls of Arundel and Holland gave another of that day, which might have made the king a kind of reception to the letters they received. To glorious king indeed. The earl of Holland was a the former, after many professions of high esteem man of courage, and at that time not at all sus of his person, they enlarged upon pected to be corrupted in his affections ; and “ affection to the English nation, and how they though himself had not seen more of the war than “ abhorred the thought of a war between the two two or three campaigns in Holland before his com “ nations ;” they besought him “to present their ing to the court, he had with him many as good“ supplication” (which they enclosed) “to the officers as the war of that age, which was very king, and to procuretheir deputies admission to his active, had made, and men of unquestionable “ majesty.” The earl used them with more respect
“ their great
“ the treaty.
1639.] The Scots address the King. View of the King's Council.
49 than was suitable to the office of a general, and to the king, and found themselves so welcome to made many professions of “his desire to interpose, all persons, that their modesty was not like to “ and mediate a good peace between the nations :" suffer any violence in offering the conditions. and it was confidently reported and believed, that The Scots had from the beginning practised a he had frequently made those professions by several new sturdy style of address, in which, under the messages he had sent before into Scotland; and license of accusing the counsel and carriage of he had given passes to many obscure persons, to others, whom yet they never named, they bitterly go into and return out of that kingdom.
and insolently reproached the most immediate acTheir letter to the earl of Holland was in a morn tions and directions of his majesty himself ; and confident style, as to a man from whom they ex- then made the greatest professions of duty to his pected all good offices. They sent him likewise a majesty's person that could be invented. The copy of their supplication to the king, and desired king had not, at that time, one person about him him “ to use his credit that a treaty might be of his council, who had the least consideration of “ entered into, and that his majesty would appoint his honour, or friendship for those who sat at the men of religion and of public hearts to manage helm of affairs; the duke of Lenox only excepted;
And from this time that earl was who was a young man of small experience in found at least enough inclined to that interest; affairs, though a man of great honour, and very and the king's readiness to hear discourses of a good parts, and under the disadvantage of being pacification, and that messengers would be shortly looked upon as a Scotsman; which he was not in sent to him with propositions worthy of his accept- his affections at all, being born in England, of an ation, abated those animosities, and appetite to English mother, and having had his education war, which had made all the noise in the march. there; and had indeed the manners and nature
Indeed the marquis of Hamilton's neighbourly and heart of an Englishman, and a duty and reverresidence with his fleet and foot soldiers before ence and affection for the king and church accordLeith, without any show of hostility, or any care ingly; and would never trust himself in those taken to draw his friends and followers together intrigues, as too mysterious for him. for the king's service; on the other side, the visits The rest who were about the king in any
offices his mother made him on board his ship, who was of attendance, were the earl of Holland, whom we a lady of great authority amongst the covenanters, have had occasion to mention before in the first and most addicted to it and them, her daughters entrance upon this discourse, and whom we shall being likewise married to those noblemen who have often occasion hereafter to speak of; and most furiously persecuted the church, and pre- therefore shall say no more of him
than sided in those councils ; the king's refusing to that he neither loved the marquis of Hamilton, give leave to some officers of horse, who had whom he believed the Scots intended to revenge offered to make inroads into the country, and de- themselves upon; nor Wentworth the deputy of stroy the stock thereof, whereby they would be Ireland; nor the archbishop of Canterbury; nor presently obliged to make submission, and to ask almost any thing that was then done in church or pardon; and lastly, the reception of the earl of state. Secretary Coke, who had all the dispatches Holland after his shameful retreat, with so much upon his hand, was near eighty years of age ; satisfaction and joy as his majesty had manifested a man of gravity, who never had quickness from upon his return, (having after the first messenger's his cradle; who loved the church well enough arrival from Dunce, when the enemy was in view, as it was twenty years before; and understood sent him orders not to engage,) made it then sus- nothing that had been done in Scotland, and pected, as it was afterwards believed by those who thought that nothing that was or could be done stood nearest, that his majesty had in truth never there worth such a journey as the king had put any purpose to make the war in blood, but believed himself to. Sir Harry Vane was comptroller of that by shewing an army to them, that was able to the house, and a busy and a bustling man ; who force them to any conditions, they would have had credit enough to do his business in all places, begged pardon for the contests they had made, and cared for no man otherwise than as he found and so he should have settled the church, and all it very convenient for himself. There was no things else, according to his pleasure : and sure other of his council of name but the general, he might have done so, if he had but sat still, and the earl of Arundel; who was always true to the been constant to his own honour, and positive in character under which he was heretofore delivered, denying their insolent demands. But the Scots in and thought he had been general long enough. the court had made impression upon so many of All the lustre of the court was in that part of the English lords, that though at that time there the nobility which attended upon command, and were very few of them who had entered into an at their own charge; and therefore the more unlawful combination against the king, yet there weary of it. The earl of Pembroke hath been forwas almost a general dislike of the war, both by gotten, who abhorred the war as obstinately as he the lords of the court and of the country; and loved hunting and hawking, and so was like to they took this opportunity to communicate their promote all overtures towards accommodation with murmurs to each other; none of the persons who great importunity: so the Scots found persons to were most maligned for their power and interest treat with them according to their own wish. The with the king being upon the place; and all men earl of Essex still preserving his grandeur and believing, that nothing could be asked of the king, punctuality, positively refused to meddle in the but what must be satisfied at their charge, whose treaty, or to be communicated with, or so much damage they considered, though it was to be pro- as to be present, or receive any visits from the cured at the expense of the king's honour. When Scottish commissioners till after the pacification the covenanters understood by their intelligence, was concluded. that the season was ripe, they sent their supplica The covenanters were firm, and adhered still to tion (of which they had scattered so many copies) | their old natural principle, even in this their ad