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A Treaty of Pacification concluded. The Treaty broken. [BOOK II. dress; justified all they had done to be “ accord “ the treaty, to vacate any of the proceedings “ing to their native rights, and for the better “which had been in the late general assembly “ advancement of his majesty's service, which “ at Glasgow,” (by which all the bishops stood

they had always before their eyes ;” and desired excommunicated,) and renewed all their menaces “ to have those receive exemplary punishment, against them by proclamation; and imposed griev“who had done them ill offices, and misrepre- ous penalties upon all who should presume to “ sented their carriage to the king; and that ha

them in their houses : so that some noble lords might be appointed to treat by the time the king came to London, it appeared

upon all particulars. And upon no other sub- plainly, that the army was disbanded without any mission than this a treaty was presently entered peace made, and the Scots in more reputation, upon, and concluded.

and equal inclination, to affront his majesty than Whosoever will take upon him to relate all that ever. Upon which a paper published by them, and passed in that treaty, must be beholding to his avowed to contain the matter of the treaty, was own invention; the most material matters having burned by the common hangman; everybody dispassed in discourse, and very little committed to avowing the contents of it, but nobody taking upon writing Nor did any two who were present him to publish a copy that they owned to be true. agree in the same relation of what was said and The mischief that befell the king from this wondone; and which was worse, not in the same derful atonement cannot be expressed, nor was it interpretation of the meaning of what was compre- ever discovered what prevailed over his majesty to hended in writing. An agreement was made, if bring it so wofully to pass : all men were ashamed that can be called an agreement, in which nobody who had contributed to it; nor had he dismissed meant what others believed he did : The armies his army with so obliging circumstances as was

were to be disbanded ; an act of oblivion passed ; like to incline them to come so willingly together, “ the king's forts and castles to be restored; and if there were occasion to use their service. The

an assembly and parliament to be called for a earl of Essex, who had merited very well through“ full settlement; no persons reserved for justice, out the whole affair, and had never made a false “ because no fault had been committed.” The step in action or in council, was discharged in the king's army, by the very words of the agreement, crowd, without ordinary ceremony; and an acciwas not to be disbanded until all should be exe dent happening at the same time, or very soon cuted on their part ; and the king himself, at that after, by the death of the lord Aston, whereby the time, resolved to be present in the assembly at command of the forest of Needwood fell into the least, if not in the parliament : but the impatience king's disposal, which lay at the very door of of all was such for peace, that the king's army was his estate, and would infinitely have gratified presently disbanded; his majesty making all pos- him, was denied to him, and bestowed upon sible haste himself to London, and sending the another : all which wrought very much upon his earl of Traquaire to Edinburgh, to prepare all rough proud nature, and made him susceptible of things for the assembly; whilst the Scots made all some impressions afterwards, which otherwise the caresses to many of the English, and breathed would not have found such easy admission. out in mutual confidence their resentments to each The factions and animosities at court were either other.

greater, or more visible, than they had been before. The marquis of Hamilton (whether upon the The earl of Newcastle (who was governor to the fame of the treaty, or sent for by the king, few prince, and one of the most valuable men in the knew) left his fleet before Leith in a very peaceable kingdom, in his fortune, in his dependences, and posture, and came to the Berkes some hours after in his qualifications) had, at his own charge, the treaty was signed; which was very conve- drawn together a goodly troop of horse of two nient to him, for thereby he was free from the hundred ; which for the most part consisted of reproach that attended it, and at liberty to find the best gentlemen of the north, who were either fault with it; which he did freely to the king, and allied to the earl, or of immediate dependence upon to some others, whereby he preserved himself in him, and came together purely upon his account; credit to do more mischief. Many were then of and called this troop the prince of Wales's troop; opinion, and still are, that the marquis at that time whereof the earl himself was captain. When the was very odious to his countrymen; and it is earl of Holland marched with that party into certain that the chief managers at the treaty did Scotland, the earl of Newcastle accompanied him persuade the English in whom they most confided, with that troop, and upon occasion of some orders, that their principal aim was to remove him from desired that troop, since it belonged to the prince the court; which was a design willingly heard, of Wales, might have some precedence; which and universally grateful. But whatever state of the general of the horse refused to grant him, grace he stood in when he came thither, he did but required him to march in the rank he had himself so good offices before he parted, that he prescribed ; and the other obeyed it accordingly, was no more in their disfavour. The king's army but with resentment, imputing it to the little was presently disbanded, and the Scots returned kindness that was between them. But as soon as to Edinburgh with all they desired; having gotten the army was disbanded, he sent a challenge many more friends in England than they had be to the earl of Holland, by a gentleman very puncfore; kept all their officers, and as many of their tual, and well acquainted with those errands; who men as they thought fit, in pay; and prosecuted took a proper season to mention it to him, withall those who had not shewed the same zeal out a possibility of suspicion. The earl of Holin their covenant as themselves with great rigour, land was never suspected to want courage, yet in as men whose affections they doubted; and, instead this occasion he shewed not that alacrity, but that of remitting any thing of their rage against their the delay, exposed it to notice; and so, by the bishops, they entered a public protestation, “That king's authority, the matter was composed; though “ they did not intend, by any thing contained in discoursed of with liberty enough to give the

1639.] France and Holland assist the Scots. Argyle joins with the Covenanters. 51 whole court occasion to express their affections to which had not been favourable to his designs; either party.

and sent an agent privately to Edinburgh, to The king himself was very melancholic, and cherish and foment their unpeaceable inclinations; quickly discerned that he had lost reputation at and received another from thence, who solicited home and abroad; and those counsellors who supplies, and communicated counsels: he sent had been most faulty, either through want of them arms and ammunition, and promised them , courage, or wisdom, (for at that time few of them encouragement and assistance proportionable to wanted fidelity,) never afterwards recovered spirit any enterprize they should frankly engage themenough to do their duty, but gave themselves up selves in. Holland entered into a closer correto those who had so much overwitted them; every spondence with them; and they found credit there man shifting the fault from himself, and finding for a great stock of arms and ammunition, upon some friend to excuse him : and it being yet security of payment within a year; which security necessary, that so infamous a matter should not they easily found a way to give. And thus counbe covered with absolute oblivion, it fell to secre-tenanced and supplied, they quickly got credit and tary Coke's turn, (for whom nobody cared,) who power over the people at home; and as soon as was then near fourscore years of age, to be made they had formed some troops of those who had the sacrifice; and, upon pretence that he had been listed by them under good officers, (whereof omitted the writing what he ought to have done, store resorted to them of that nation out of Gerand inserted somewhat he ought not to have done, many and Sweden,) and assigned pay to them, he was put out of his office; and within a short they made no longer scruple to impose what time after, sir Henry Vane (who was treasurer of money they thought fit upon the people, and the house) by the dark contrivance of the marquis to levy it with all rigour upon them who reof Hamilton, and by the open and visible power fused, or expressed any unwillingness to submit of the queen, made secretary of State ; which was to the imposition; and made the residence of any the only thing that could make the removal of amongst them very uneasy, and very insecure, the other old man censured and murmured at: who were but suspected by them not to wish well and this was attended again with a declared and to their proceedings: and so they renewed all unseasonable dislike and displeasure in the queen those forms for the administration of the governagainst the lieutenant of Ireland, newly made ment, which they had begun in the beginning Earl of Strafford; who out of some kindness to of the disorders, and which they disclaimed upon the old man, who had been much trusted by making the pacification; and refused to suffer him and of use to him, and out of contempt the king's governor of the castle of Edinburgh and detestation of Vane, but principally out of (which was put into his hands about the same a desire to have had that miscarriage expiated by time) either to repair some works which were a greater sacrifice, opposed the removal of secre- newly fallen down, or so much as to buy provision tary Coke with all the interest he could, got it in the town for the food of the garrison. suspended for some time, and put the queen to But that which was the greatest benefit and adthe exercise of her full power to perfect her vantage that accrued unto them from the agreework; which afterwards produced many sad ment, and which was worth all the rest, was the disasters. So that this unhappy pacification conversation they had with the English with so kindled many fires of contention in court and much reputation, that they had persuaded very country, though the flame broke out first again many to believe, that they had all manner of in Scotland.

fidelity to the king, and had too much cause to On the other side, the Scots got so much bene- complain of the hard proceedings against them by fit and advantage by it, that they brought all the power of some of their own countrymen; and their other mischievous devices to pass with ease, the acquaintance they made with some particular and a prosperous gale in all they went about. lords, to that degree, that they did upon the matter They had before no credit abroad'in any foreign agree what was to be done for the future, and how parts, and so could procure neither arms to obstruct any opposition or proceedings by those ammunition; and though they could lead the who were looked upon as enemies by both sides : people at home, out of the hatred and jealousy for none in Scotland more disliked all that was of popery, into unruly tumults, yet they had not done in court, and the chief actors there, than authority enough over them to engage them in a those lords of England did ; though they were not firm resolution of rebellion : the opinion of their so well prepared for an expedient for the cure. unquestionable duty and loyalty to the king was The people of Scotland being now reduced to a that which had given them reputation to affront more implicit obedience, and nobody daring to him: nor durst they yet attempt to lay any tax or oppose the most violent proceedings of the most imposition upon the people, or to put them to violent persons in authority, they lost no time, as any charge. But, after this pacification, they hath been said, to make all preparations for a war appeared much more considerable abroad and at they meant to pursue. Most of the king's privy home; abroad, where they were without a name, council and great ministers, who (though they had and considered by nobody, now that they had not vigorously performed their duty in support of brought an army into the field against the king, the regal power) till now had been so reserved, gained all they pretended to desire, without re- that they seemed not to approve the disorderly proach or blemish; France, their old ally, looked proceedings, but now as frankly wedded that inupon them as good instruments to disturb their terest as any of the leaders, and quickly became neighbours; and cardinal Richelieu (who had the chief of the leaders. never looked upon the defeat and overthrow at [Of these was] the earl of Argyle : who had the isle of Rhé as any reparation for the attempt been preserved by the king's immediate kindness and dishonour of the invasion) was very glad of and full power, and rescued from the anger and the opportunity of disturbing a rest and quiet, | fury of his incensed father ; who, being provoked

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52 Intercepted Letter from the Scottish Nobility to the French King. [BOOK II. by the disobedience and insolence of his son, re- relied on for his parts and abilities ; a man who solved so to have disposed of his fortune, that was better known afterwards, and whom there will little should have accompanied the honour after hereafter be so often occasion to mention, as it will his death. But by the king's interposition, and not be necessary in this place further to enlarge indeed imposition, the earl, in strictness of the law upon him. They behaved themselves, in all rein Scotland, having need of the king's grace and spects, with the confidence of men employed by a protection, in regard of his being become Roman foreign state ; refused to give any account but to Catholic, and his majesty granting all to the son the king himself ; and even to himself gave no which he could exact from the father, the old man other reason for what was done, but the authority was in the end compelled to make over all his of the doers, and the necessity that required it'; estate to his son ; reserving only such a provision that is, that they thought it necessary: but then for himself, as supported him according to his they polished this sturdy behaviour with all the quality during his life, which he spent in the parts professions of submission and duty, which their beyond the seas. The king had too much occasion language could comprehend. afterwards to remember, that in the close, after his At this time the king happened to intercept a majesty had determined what should be done on letter, which had been signed by the chief of the either part, the old man declared, “ He would covenanters, and particularly by the lord Lowden, “submit to the king's pleasure, though he be written to the French king, in which they com“ lieved he was hardly dealt with ;” and then with plained “of the hardness and injustice of the some bitterness put his son in mind of his unduti.“ government that was exercised over them; put ful carriage towards him; and charged him “ “ him in mind of the dependence this kingdom

carry in his mind how bountiful the king had formerly had upon that crown; and desired him “ been to him ;” which yet, he told him, he was now to take them into his protection, and give sure he would forget : and thereupon said to his “them assistance; and that his majesty would majesty, “Sir, I must know this young man better give entire credit to one Colvil, who was the “ than you can do: you have brought me low, “ bearer of that letter, and well instructed in all “ that you may raise him; which I doubt you will particulars :" and the letter itself was sealed and “ live to repent; for he is a man of craft, subtilty, directed Au Roy; a style only used from subjects " and falsehood, and can love no man; and if ever to their natural king. "This letter being seen and " he finds it in his power to do you mischief, he perused by the lords of the council, and the lord “ will be sure to do it.” The king considered it Lowden being examined, and refusing to give any only as the effect of his passion, and took no other answer, than “That it was writ before the other care to prevent it, but by heaping every day agreement, and thereupon reserved and never new obligations upon him; making him a privy sent; that, if he had committed any offence, he councillor, and giving him other offices and power ought to be questioned for it in Scotland, and to do hurt, thereby to restrain him from doing it ; “not in England; and insisting upon his safe which would have wrought upon any generous "conduct, demanded liberty to return.” All men nature the effect it ought to have done. This earl were of opinion, that so foul a conspiracy and (for his father was now dead) came not to Edin- treason ought not to be so slightly excused'; and burgh during the first troubles; and though he that both the lord Lowden and Colvil (who was did not dissemble his displeasure against the likewise found in London, and apprehended) should bishops, because one of them had affronted him, be committed to the Tower: which was done in truth, very rudely, yet he renewed all imagina- accordingly; all men expecting that they would ble professions of duty to the king, and a readiness be brought to a speedy trial. to engage in his service, if those disorders should This discovery made a very deep impression continue : but after the pacification and the dis- upon the king ; and persuaded him, that such a banding of the king's army, and the covenanters foul application could never have been thought of, declaring that they would adhere to the acts of the if there had not been more poison in the heart, Assembly at Glasgow, he made haste to Edinburgh. than could be expelled by easy antidotes ; and that with a great train of his family and followers; and the strongest remedies must be provided to root immediately signed the covenant, engaged for the out this mischief: thereupon he first advised with provision of arms, and raising forces; and in all that committee of the council, which used to be things behaved himself like a man that might very consulted in secret affairs, what was to be done. safely be confided in.

That summer's action had wasted all the money There wanted not persons still who persuaded that had been carefully laid up; and, to carry on the king,

“ that all might yet be ended without that vast expense, the revenue of the crown'had “ blood; that there were great divisions amongst been anticipated; so that, though the raising an “ the chief leaders, through emulation and ambi- army was visibly necessary, there appeared no ~ tion of command ; and that the access of the means how to raise that army. No expedient “ earl of Argyle to that party would drive others occurred to them so proper as a parliament, and

as considerable from it, who never did, nor ever which had been now intermitted near twelve years. “ would, unite with him in any design ;” and And though those meetings had of late been attherefore advised, “ that his majesty would require tended by some disorders, the effects of mutinous “them to send some persons intrusted by their spirits; and the last had been dissolved (as hath “ body to attend him, and give an account of the been said before) with some circumstances of " reasons of their proceedings.” They demanded passion and undutifulness, which so far incensed a safe conduct for the security of the persons they the king, that he was less inclined to those assemshould employ; which was sent accordingly: and blies; yet this long intermission, and the general thereupon some persons, of the nobility, and composure of men's minds in a happy peace, and others, were commissioned to wait on the king: universal plenty over the whole nation, (superior amongst which the lord Lowden was principally sure to what any other nation ever enjoyed,) made

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1640.] A Parliament called. Sergeant Glanvile chosen Speaker.

53 it reasonably believed, notwithstanding the mur The parliament met according to summons upon murs of the people against some exorbitancies of the 13th of April in the year 1640, with the usual the court, that sober men, and such as loved the ceremony and formality; and after the king had peace and plenty they were possessed of, would be shortly mentioned “ his desire to be again acmade choice of to serve in the house of commons ; quainted with parliaments, after so long an inand then the temper of the house of peers was not “ termission; and to receive the advice and assistto be apprehended : but especially the opinion of ance of his subjects there;" he referred the cause the prejudice and general aversion over the whole of the present convention to be enlarged upon by kingdom to the Scots, and the indignation they the lord keeper: who related the whole proceedings had at their presumption in their thought of invad- of Scotland; “his majesty's condescensions the ing England, made it believed, that a parliament year before, in disbanding his army upon their would express a very sharp sense of their insolence promises and professions; their insolencies and carriage towards the king, and provide reme “ since; and their address to the king of France, dies proportionable.

“ by the letter mentioned before;" which the king Upon these motives and reasons, with the unani- had touched upon, and having forgot to make the mous consent and advice of the whole committee, observation upon the superscription himself, he the king resolved to call a parliament; which he required the keeper to do it; who told them, after communicated the same day, or rather took the the whole relation, “ That his majesty did not resolution that day, in his full council of state, expect advice from them, much less that they which expressed great joy upon it; and directed “should interpose in any office of mediation, the lord keeper to issue out writs for the meeting “ which would not be grateful to him; but that of a parliament upon the 13th day of April then they should, as soon as might be, give his next ensuing; it being now in the month of majesty such a supply, as he might provide for December; and all expedition was accordingly “ the vindication of his honour, by raising an used in sending out the said writs, the notice of

army,

which the season of the year, and the proit being most welcome to the whole kingdom. gress the rebels had already made, called upon

That it might appear that the court was not at “ without delay; and his majesty assured them, if all apprehensive of what the parliament would or they would gratify him witħ this expedition, that could do; and that was convened by his majesty's “ he would give them time enough afterwards to grace and inclination, not by any motive of neces represent any grievances to him, and a favoursity; it proceeded in all respects in the same un “able answer to them;" and so dismissed the popular ways it had done : ship-money was levied

to choose their speaker; to which with the same severity; and the same rigour used sergeant Glanvile was designed, and chosen the in ecclesiastical courts, without the least compli- same day: a man very equal to the work, very ance with the humour of any man; which was well acquainted with the proceedings in parliagreat steadiness; and, if it were then well pursued, ment; of a quick conception, and of a ready and it degenerated too soon afterwards.

voluble expression, dexterous in disposing the In this interval, between the sealing the writs house, and very acceptable to them. The earl of and the convention of the parliament, the lord Arundel, earl marshal of England, was made lord keeper Coventry died; to the king's great detri- steward of the king's house; an office necessary ment, rather than to his own. So much hath been in the beginning of a parliament; being to swear said already of this great man, that there shall be all the members of the house of commons before no further enlargement in this place, than to say, they could sit there. Two days after, the comthat he was a very wise and excellent person, and mons presented their speaker to the king; who, had a rare felicity, in being looked upon generally in the accustomed manner, approved their choice; throughout the kingdom with great affection, and upon which they returned to their house, being a singular esteem, when very few other men in any now formed and qualified to enter upon any high trust were so; and it is very probable, if he debates. had lived to the sitting of that parliament, when, The house met always at eight of the clock, and whatever lurked in the hearts of any, there was not rose at twelve; which were the old parliament the least approach of any irreverence to the crown, that the committees, upon whom the greatthat he might have had great authority in the form- est burden of business lay, might have the aftering those counsels, which might have preserved it noons for their preparation and despatch. It was from so unhappy a dissolution. His loss was the not the custom to enter upon any important busimore manifest and visible in his successor ; the seal ness in the first fortnight; both because many being within a day or two given to sir John Finch, members used to be absent so long; and that time chief justice of the court of common pleas; a man was usually thought necessary for the appointment exceedingly obnoxious to the people upon the busi- and nomination of committees, and for other cereness of ship-money; and not of reputation and monies and preparations that were usual: but authority enough to countenance and advance the there was no regard now to that custom; and king's service.

the appearance of the members was very great, These digressions have taken up too much time, there having been a large time between the issuing and may seem foreign to the proper subject of this out of the writs and the meeting of the parliament, discourse; yet they may have given some light to so that all elections were made and returned, and the obscure and dark passages of that time, which every body was willing to fall to the work. were understood by very few. But for the future, Whilst men gazed upon each other, looking who very short mention shall be made of any thing but should begin, (much the greatest part having never what immediately relates to the person, whose life before sat in parliament,) Mr. Pym, a man of good is to be herein contained, or what is necessary to reputation, but much better known afterwards, explain and illustrate those actions or counsels, in who had been as long in those assemblies as any man which he was interested or concerned.

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54 Pym's und Hamden's Speeches. The House of Peers advise the Commons. (BOOK IÌ. above two hours, after mention of the king with sobriety, the court was impatient that no advance the most profound reverence, and commendation was yet made towards a supply; which was foreof his wisdom and justice, he observed, “ That by seen would take up much time, whensoever they “the long intermission of parliaments many un went about it, though never so cordially; and “ warrantable things had been practised, notwith- therefore they prevailed with the house of peers,

standing the great virtue of his majesty :” and which was more entirely at the king's disposal, then enumerated all the projects which had been that it would demand a conference with the house set on foot ; all the illegal proclamations which of commons, and then propose to them, by way of had been published, and the proceedings which advice, “ That they would begin with giving the had been upon those proclamations; the judgment king a supply, in regard of the urgency and even upon ship-money; and many grievances which necessity of his affairs, and afterwards proceed related to the ecclesiastical jurisdiction ; summing upon their grievances, or any thing else as they up shortly, and sharply, all that most reflected thought fit:" and the house of peers accordingly upon the prudence and the justice of the govern- did give their advice to this purpose at a conferment; concluding, “ That he had only laid that ence. This conference was no sooner reported in “ scheme before them, that they might see how the house of commons, than their whole temper “ much work they had to do to satisfy their seemed to be shaken. It was the undoubted funcountry; the method and manner of the doing damental privilege of the commons in parliament, “ whereof he left to their wisdoms." Mr.Grimston that all supplies should have their rise and begininsisted only on the business of ship-money; ning from them; this had never been infringed, or the irregular and preposterous engaging the violated, or so much as questioned in the worst judges to deliver their opinion to the king, and times; and that now after so long intermission of their being afterwards divided in their judgment; parliaments, that all privileges might be forgotten, and said, “ He was persuaded, that they, who the house of peers should begin with an action

gave their opinions for the legality of it, did it their ancestors never attempted, administered too

against the dictamen of their own conscience." much cause of jealousy of somewhat else that was Peard, a bold lawyer, of little note, inveighed more intended; and so with an unanimous consent they passionately against it, calling it an abomination : declared it to be “ so high a breach of privilege, upon which, Herbert, the king's solicitor, with all “ that they could not proceed upon any other imaginable address, in which he then excelled, put “ matter until they first received satisfaction and them in mind“ with what candour his majesty had “reparation from the house of peers ;” and which

proceeded in that, and all other things which the next day they demanded at a conference. The “ related to the administration of justice to all his lords were sensible of their error; which had been

people; that, how persuaded soever he was within foreseen, and dissuaded by many of them; they “ himself of the justice as well as necessity of “s acknowledged the privilege of the commons as

levying ship-money, he would not send out a fully as they demanded it, and hoped they had “ writ for the doing thereof, till he received the “not broken it by offering their advice to them “ affirmative advice of all the judges of England; without mentioning the nature of the supply, the “and when the payment was opposed by a gentle proportion, or manner of raising it, which they “man,” and then he took occasion to stroke “confessed belonged entirely to them :" in fine, and commend Mr. Hambden, who sat under they desired them, “ that this might be no occahim, for his great temper and modesty in the pro sion of wasting their time, but that they would secution of that suit, “ the king was very well proceed their own way, and in their own method, “ contented that all the judges of England should " upon the affairs of the kingdoin." This gave no “ determine the right; that never any cause had satisfaction ; was no reparation; and served their “ been debated and argued more solemnly before turn who had no mind to give any supply without “ the judges ; who, after long deliberation between discovering any such dissatisfaction, which would “ themselves, and being attended with the records, have got them no credit, the house being generally “which had been cited on both sides, delivered exceedingly disposed to please the king, and to do “ each man his opinion and judgment publicly in him service. But this breach of privilege, which “ the court, and so largely, that but two judges was craftily enlarged upon, as if it swallowed up “argued in a day; and after all this, and a judg- all their other privileges, and made them wholly "ment with that solemnity pronounced for the subservient to the peers, was universally resented.

king, by which the king was as legally possessed A committee was appointed to examine precedents “ of that right, as of any thing else hé had; that of former times, in case of violation of their privi

any particular man should presume to speak leges by the lords, though not of that magnitude, “ against it with that bitterness, and to call it an and thereupon to prepare a protestation to be sent

abomination, was very offensive, and unwarrant- up to the house of peers, and to be entered in so able; and desired that that gentleman, who had their own Journal; and in the mean time no “ used that expression, might explain himself

, and proceedings to be in the house upon any public “ then withdraw.”. Very many called him to the business,] except upon some report from a combar; and the solicitor's discourse was thought to inittee. have so much weight in it, that Mr. Peard very After some days had been passed in this manner, hardly escaped a severe reprehension; which is and it not being in view when this debate would be mentioned only that the temper and sobriety of at an end, the king thought of another expedient, that house may be taken notice of, and their disso- and sent a message in writing to the commons by lution, which shortly after fell out, the more la sir Henry Vane, who was now both secretary of mented.

state and treasurer of the household, and at that Though the parliament had not sat above six or time of good credit there; wherein his majesty seven days, and had managed all their debates, and took notice, “ that there was some difference betheir whole behaviour, with wonderful order' and “tween the two houses, which retarded the trans

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