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5 disposed of all the graces of the king, in confer- Spain, and to fetch home his mistress; that it ring all the honours and all the offices of the three would put an end presently to all those formalities, kingdoms, without a rival; in dispensing whereof, which, (though all substantial matters were agreed he was guided more by the rules of appetite than upon already,) according to the style of that court, of judgment; and so exalted almost all of his own and the slow progress in all things of ceremony, numerous family and lependants, who had no might yet long retard the infanta's voyage into other virtue or merit than their alliance to him, England many months; all which would be in a which equally offended the ancient nobility, and moment removed by his own presence; that it the people of all conditions, who saw the flowers would be such an obligation to the infanta herself, of the crown every day fading and withered ; as she could never enough value or requite; and whilst the demesnes and revenue thereof was being a respect never paid by any other prince, sacrificed to the enriching a private family, (how upon the like addresses, could proceed only from well soever originally extracted,) not heard of be the high regard and reverence he had for her fore ever to the nation; and the expenses of the person; that in the great affair that only remained court so vast and unlimited by the old good undetermined, and was not entirely yielded to, rules of economy, that they had a sad prospect though under a very civil deliberation, which was of that poverty and necessity, which afterwards the restoring the palatinate, it was very probable, befell the crown, almost to the ruin of it.
that the king of Spain himself might choose, in Many were of opinion, that king James, before the instant, to gratify his personal interposition, his death, grew weary of his favourite; and that, which, in a treaty with an ambassador, might be if he had lived, he would have deprived him at drawn out in length, or attended with overtures least of his large and unlimited power. And this of recompense by some new concessions, which imagination prevailed with some men, as the lord would create new difficulties : however, that the keeper Lincoln, the earl of Middlesex, lord high mediation could not but be frankly undertaken treasurer of England, and other gentlemen of by the infanta herself, who would ambitiously name, though not in so high stations, that they make it her work to pay a part of her great debt had the courage to withdraw from their absolute to the prince; and that he might with her, and dependence upon the duke, and to make some by her, present to his majesty the entire peace and other essays, which proved to the ruin of every restitution of his family, which by no other human one of them; there appearing no marl
means could be brought to pass. dence, that the king did really lessen his affection These discourses made so deep impression upon to him, to the hour of his death. On the con- the mind and spirit of the prince, (whose nature trary, as he created him duke of Buckingham in was inclined to adventures,) that he was transhis absence, whilst he was with the prince in ported with the thought of it, and most impatiently Spain; so, after his return, he executed the same solicitous to bring it to pass. The greatest diffiauthority in conferring all favours and graces, culty that was in view was, how they might proand revenging himself upon those, who had cure the king's consent, who was very quickmanifested any unkindness towards him. And sighted in discerning difficulties and raising obyet, notwithstanding all this, if that king's nature jections, and very slow in mastering them, and had equally disposed him to pull down, as to untying the knots he had made : in a word, he build and erect, and if his courage and severity in knew not how to wrestle with desperate continpunishing and reforming had been as great as his gencies, and so abhorred the being entangled in generosity and inclination was to oblige, it is not such. This was to be first attempted by the to be doubted, but that he would have withdrawn prince himself, by communicating it to the king, his affection from the duke entirely, before his as his earnest desire and suit, with this circumdeath; which those persons, who were admitted stance; that since his doing or not doing what he to any privacy with him,] and were not in the most desired, depended wholly and entirely upon 'confidence of the other, (for before those he knew his majesty's own approbation and command, that well how to dissemble,) had reason enough to he would vouchsafe to promise not to communiexpect.
cate the thing proposed, before he had first taken For it is not to be doubted, that the king was his own resolution ; and that this condition should never well pleased with the duke, after the prince's be first humbly insisted on, before the substantial going into Spain; which was infinitely against point should be communicated; and so, this aphis will, and contrived wholly by the duke: who, proach being first made, the success and proseout of envy, that the earl of Bristol should have cution was to be left to the duke's credit, dextethe sole management of so great an affair (as rity, and cultivation. All things being thus hitherto that treaty had been wholly managed by concerted between his highness and the duke, him in Spain, where he was now extraordinary and this the beginning of an entire confidence ambassador, and all particulars agreed upon,) had between them, after a long time of declared one day insinuated to the prince the common mis- jealousy and displeasure on the prince's part, fortune of princes, that in so substantial a part and occasion enough administered on the other,) of their happiness in this world, as depended upon they shortly found a fit opportunity (and there their marriage, themselves had never any part, were seasons when that king was to be approached but must receive only an account from others of more hopefully than in others) to make their the nature, and humour, and beauty of the ladies address together. And "his majesty cheerfully they were to marry; and those reports seldom consented to the condition, and being well pleased proceeded from persons totally uninterested, at that all should depend upon his will, frankly proleast uninclined from the parts they had acted mised that he would not, in any degree, commu; towards such preparations. From hence [he] dis- nicate to any person the matter, before he had coursed how gallant and how brave a thing it taken, and communicated to them, his own reso. : would be, for his highness to make a journey into / lution.
An Account of Prince Charles journey into Spain. [BOOK 1. The prince then, upon his knees, declared his had thought of an expedient, which would avoid suit and very importunate request, the duke stand- all inconveniences and hazards; and that it ing a long time by, without saying a word, and should be executed before it should be suspected : until the king discoursed the whole matter to the that it had never hitherto been, in the least deprince, with less passion than they expected, and gree, consulted but between themselves, (which then looked upon the duke, as inclined to hear was really true ;) and therefore, if they now unwhat he would say; who spoke nothing to the dertook the journey only with two servants, who point, whether in point of prudence counsellable, should not know any thing till the moment they or not; but enlarged upon the infinite obligation were to depart, they might easily pass through his majesty would confer upon the prince, by his France, before they should be missed at Whiteconcession of the violent passion his highness was hall: which was not hard to be conceived, and transported with; and, after many exalted expres- so with the less disquisition was consented to by sions to that purpose, concluded, that he doubted the king: and the farther deliberation of what that his majesty refusing to grant the prince this was more to be done both in matter and manner, his humble request would make a deep impression and the nomination of the persons who should upon his spirits, and peace of mind ; and that he attend them, and the time for th eir departure, was would, he feared, look upon it as the greatest mis- deferred to the consultation of the next day. fortune and affliction that could befall him in this When the king, in his retirement, and by himworld. The prince then taking the opportunity, self, came to revolve what had been so loosely from the good temper he saw his father in, to consulted before, as he had a wonderful sagacity enlarge upon these two points, which he knew in such reflections, a thousand difficulties and were most important in the king's own wishes dangers occurred to him, and so many precipices, and judgment, that this expedient would put a which could hardly be avoided in such a journey. quick end to this treaty, which could not be con- Besides those considerations, which the violent tinued after his arrival in that court; but that his affection of a father to his only son suggested to marriage must presently ensue, which, he well him, he thought how ill an influence it might knew, the king did the most impatiently desire have on his people, too much disposed to murmur of all blessings in this world : he said likewise, and complain of the least inadvertisement, and he would undertake (and he could not but be be- that they looked upon the prince as the son of lieved from the reasonableness of it) that his the kingdom, as well as his natural son. He conpresence would in a moment determine the resti- sidered the reputation he should lose with all fortution of the palatinate to his brother and sister ; eign princes, (especially if any ill accident should which was the second thing the king longed most happen,) by so much departing from his dignity passionately to see before he should leave this in exposing the immediate heir of the crown, world.
his only son, to all the dangers, and all the jeaThese discourses, urged with all the artifice lousies, which particular malice, or that fathomless and address imaginable, so far wrought upon abyss of reason of state, might prepare
and conand prevailed with the king, that, with less hesi- trive against him; and then, in how desperate a tation than his nature was accustomed to, and condition himself and his kingdoms should remain, much less than was agreeable to his great wis- if the prince miscarried by such an unparalleled dom, he
gave his approbation, and promised weakness of his, contrary to the light of his unthat the prince should make the journey, he was derstanding, as well as the current of his affection. so much inclined to : whether he did not upon These reflections were so terrible to him, that the sudden comprehend the consequences, which they robbed him of all peace and quiet of mind; would naturally attend such a rash undertaking, insomuch as when the prince and duke came to or whether he the less considered them, because him about the dispatch, he fell into a great pasthe provisians, which must be made for such a sion of tears, and told them that he was undone, journey, both with reference to the expense and and that it would break his heart, if they pursued security of it, would take up much time, and their resolution; that, upon a true and dispascould not be done in such a secret way, but sionate disquisition he had made with himself, that the council itself might be resumed again, he was abundantly convinced, that, besides the when new measures should be taken. But this almost inevitable hazards of the prince's person, imagination was too reasonable not to be foreseen with whom his life was bound up, and besides by them; and so they had provided themselves the entire loss of the affections of his people, accordingly. And therefore, as soon as they had which would unavoidably attend this rash action, the king's promise upon the main, they told him, he foresaw it would ruin the whole design, and the security of such a design depended on the irrecoverably break the match. For whereas all expedition, without which there could be no se those particulars, upon which he could positively cresy observed, or hoped for; that, if it were and of right insist, were fully granted, (for that, deferred till such a fleet could be made ready, which concerned the prince elector, who had and such an equipage prepared, as might be fit unexcusably, and directly against his advice, infor the prince of Wales, so much time would be curred the ban of the empire in an imperial diet, spent, as would disappoint the principal ends of must be wrought off by mediation and treaty, the journey: if they should send for a pass to could not be insisted on in justice,) nor could France, the ceremony in the asking and granting Spain make any new demands, all the overtures it, and that which would flow from it, in his they had made being adjusted ; the prince should passage through that kingdom, would be at least no sooner arrive at Madrid, than all the articles liable to the same objection of delay: besides that, of the treaty should be laid aside, and new matters according to the mysteries and intrigues of be proposed, which had not been yet mentioned, state, such a pass could not in point of security and could never be consented to by him: that be reasonably depended upon; and therefore they the treaty of this marriage, how well soever
7 received, and how much soever desired by the | (after his majesty had passionately, and with many king and his chief ministers, was in no degree oaths, renounced the having communicated the acceptable to the Spanish nation in general, and matter with any person living,) that the debatę was less to the court of Rome, where, though the new again resumed upon the journey, which they earnestpope seemed more inclined to grant the dispen- ly desired might not be deferred, but that they might sation than his predecessor had been, it was take their leaves of the king within two days, in plain enough, that it proceeded only from the which they would have all things ready which were apprehension he had to displease the king of necessary, his highness pretending to hunt at TheSpain, not that he was less averse from the obald's, and the duke to take physic at Chelsea. match, it having been always believed, both in They told him, that being to have only two more Spain and in Rome, that this marriage was to be in their company, as was before resolved, they had attended with a full repeal of all the penal laws thought (if he approved them) upon sir Francis against the catholics, and a plenary toleration of Cottington and Endymion Porter, who, though the exercise of that religion in England, which they might safely, should not be trusted with the they now saw concluded, without any signal or secret, till they were even ready to be embarked. real benefit or advantage to them. And there- The persons were both grateful to the king, the fore they might expect, and be confident that when former having been long his majesty's agent in the they had the person of the prince of Wales in their court of Spain, and was now secretary to the prince; hands, the king of Spain (though in his own nature the other, having been bred in Madrid, and after and inclinations full of honour and justice) would many years attendance upon the duke, was now be even compelled by his clergy (who had always one of the bedchamber to the prince : so that his a great influence
upon the counsels of that kingdom) majesty cheerfully approved the election they had and the importunities from Rome, who would tell made, and wished it might be presently imparted him, that God had now put it into his hand to ad- to them; saying, that many things would occur to vance the catholic cause, to make new demands for them, as necessary to the journey, that they two those of that religion here ; which, though he could would never think of; and took that occasion to never consent to, would at best interpose such de- send for sir Francis Cottington to come presently lays in the marriage, that he should never live to to him, (whilst the other two remained with him,) see it brought to pass, nor probably to see his son who, being of custom waiting in the outward rooms, return again out of Spain. Then he put the duke was quickly brought in ; whilst the duke whispered in mind (whom he hitherto believed only to com- the prince in the ear, that Cottington would be ply with the prince to oblige him, after a long alien- against the journey, and his highness answered he ation from his favour) how inevitable his ruin must durst not. be, by the effect of this counsel, how ungracious The king told him, that he had always been an he was already with the people, and how many honest man, and therefore he was now to trust him enemies he had amongst the greatest persons of in an affair of the highest importance, which he was the nobility, who would make such use of this not upon his life to disclose to any man alive; then occasion, that it would not be in his majesty's said to him, “Cottington, here is baby Charles and power to protect him. And he concluded with the Stenny," an appellation he always used of and disorder and passion, with which he began, with towards the duke,) “ who have a great mind to go sighs and tears, to conjure them, that they would “ by post into Spain, to fetch home the infanta, and no more press him to give his consent to a thing “ will have but two more in their company, and 80 contrary to his reason, and understanding, and “ have chosen you for one. What think you of the interest, the execution whereof would break his journey?" He often protested, that when he beart, and that they would give over any further heard the king, he fell into such a trembling, that pursuit of it.
he could hardly speak. But when the king comThe prince and the duke took not the pains to manded him to answer him, what he thought of the answer any of the reasons his majesty had insisted journey, he replied, that he could not think well on; his highness only putting him in mind of the of it, and that he believed it would render all that promise he had made to him the day before, which had been done towards the match fruitless : for that was so sacred, that he hoped he would not violate Spain would no longer think themselves obliged by it; which would make him never think more of those articles, but that, when they had the prince marriage. The duke, who better knew what kind in their hands, they would maké new overtures, of arguments were of prevalence with him, treated which they believed more advantageous to them; him more rudely; told him, nobody could believe amongst which they must look for many which any thing he said, when he retracted so soon the would concern religion, and the exercise of it in promise he had so solemnly made ; that he plainly England. Upon which the king threw himself upon discerned, that it proceeded from another breach his bed, and said, “ I told you this before,” and fell of his word, in communicating with some rascal, into new passion and lamentation, that he was unwho had furnished him with those pitiful reasons done, and should lose baby Charles. he had alleged; and he doubted not but he should There appeared displeasure and anger enough in hereafter know who his counsellor had been: that the countenances both of the prince and duke; the if he receded from what he had promised, it would latter saying, that as soon as the king sent for him, be such a disobligation upon the prince, who had set he whispered the prince in the ear, that he would his heart now upon the journey, after his majesty's be against it; that he knew his pride well enough; approbation, that he could never forget it, nor for- and that, because he had not been first advised with, give any man who had been the cause of it. he was resolved to dislike it; and thereupon he re
The prince, who had always expressed the high- proached Cottington with all possible bitterness of est duty and reverence towards the king, by his words ; told him the king asked him only of the humble and importunate entreaty, and the duke by journey, and which would be the best way, of which his rougher dialect, in the end prevailed so far, i he might be a competent counsellor, having made
[BOOK 1. the way so often by post : but that he had the have as much reputation in the court, as they had presumption to give his advice upon matter of state, in the country. It was very reasonably thought and against his master, without being called to it, necessary, that as the king would, at the opening which he should repent as long as he lived; with a of the parliament, make mention of the treaty with thousand new reproaches, which put the poor king Spain, and more at large of his daughter's being into a new agony on the behalf of a servant, who driven out of the palatinate, which would require he foresaw would suffer for answering him honestly. their assistance and aid; so that the prince and Upon which he said, with some commotion, “Nay, duke should afterwards, to one or both houses, as by God, Stenny, you are very much to blame to occasion should be offered, make a relation of what use him so. He answered' me directly to the had passed in Spain, especially concerning the pala
question I asked him, and very honestly and tinate: that so putting the houses into some method “ wisely : and yet you know he said no more than and order of their future debate, they would be “ I told you, before he was called in.” However, more easily regulated, than if they were in the beafter all this passion on both parts, the king yielded, ginning left to that liberty, which they naturally and the journey was at that very conference agreed affected, and from which they would not be reupon, and all directions given accordingly to sir strained, but in such a manner as would be grateful Francis Cottington; the king having now plainly to themselves. discovered, that the whole intrigue was originally Things being thus concerted, after the houses contrived by the duke, and so violently pursued had been three or four days together, (for in that by his spirit and impetuosity.
time some days were always spent in the formality The manner, circumstances, and conclusion of of naming committees, and providing for common that voyage, with the rare accidents which hap- occurrences, before they made an entrance upon pened in it, will no doubt be at large remembered more solemn debates,) the prince began to speak of by whosoever shall have the courage to write the the Spanish affairs, and of his own journey thither; transactions of that time, with that integrity he and forgot not to mention the duke with more than ought to do: in which it will manifestly appear, how ordinary affection. Whereupon it was thought fit, much of the prophet was in the wisdom of the king; that the whole affair, which was likewise to be the and that that designed marriage, which had been so principal subject matter of all their consultations, many years in treaty, even from the death of prince should be stated and enlarged upon, in a conference Harry, and so near concluded, was solely broken between the two houses, which his highness and by that journey: which, with the passages before the duke were desired to manage. How little notice mentioned, king James never forgave the duke of soever any body else could take of the change, the Buckingham ; but retained as sharp a memory of duke himself too well knew the hearty resentment it as his nature could contain.
the king had of what had passed, and of the affecThis indisposition in the king towards the duke tion he still had for the Spanish treaty; and therewas exceedingly increased and aggravated upon fore he had [done], and resolved still to do, all he and after the prince's return out of Spain. For could, to make himself grateful to the parliament, though it brought infinite joy and delight to his and popular amongst the people, who he knew had majesty, which he expressed in all imaginable trans- always detested the match with Spain, or in truth portation, and was the argument of the loudest and any alliance with that nation. most universal rejoicing over the whole kingdom, So when, at the conference, the prince had made that the nation had ever been acquainted with ; in a short introduction to the business, and said some which the duke had so full a harvest, that the im- very kind things of the duke, of his wonderful care prudence and presumption (to say no more) of car of him whilst he was in Spain, and the great dexrying the prince into Spain was totally forgotten, terity he used in getting him away, he referred the or forgotten with any reference to him, and the whole relation to him ; who made“ the true ground high merit and inestimable obligation, in bringing “ of the prince's journey into Spain, which he well him home, was remembered, magnified, and cele “ knew had begot such a terrible panting in the brated by all men in all places; yet the king was “ hearts of all good Englishmen, had been only to wonderfully disquieted, when he found (which he “ make a clear discovery of the sincerity of the had not before their return suspected) that the Spaniard, and, if his intention were real, to put prince was totally aliened from all thoughts of, or a speedy end to it by marrying the lady upon the inclination to, the marriage; and that they were place : if he found it otherwise, to put his father resolved to break it, with or without his approbation “ and himself into liberty dispose of himself in or consent. And in this the duke resumed the some other place. That the ambassador, in whose same impetuosity he had so much indulged to him “hands that great affair was solely managed, when self in the debate of the journey into Spain. “ in one dispatch he wrote that all was concluded,
The king had, upon the prince's return, issued " in the next used to give an account of new diffiout writs to call a parliament, which was in the “ culties, and new demands : and, when all things twenty-first year of his reign, thinking it necessary, were adjusted at Madrid, some unexpected scruwith relation to the perplexities he was in, for the ples discovered themselves at Rome, with which breach of this match with Spain, (which he fore “ the councils in Spain seemed to be surprised, and saw must ensue,) and the sad condition of his only “ appeared to be confounded, and not to know what daughter in Germany, with her numerous issue, to to say. These ebbs and floods made the prince receive their grave advice. By the time the par “ apprehend, that the purpose was to amuse us, liament could meet, the prince's entire confidence “ whilst they had other designs in secret agitation. being still reposed in the duke, as the king's seemed “ And thereupon, that his highness had prevailed to be, the duke had wrought himself into the very “ with his father (how unwilling soever) to permit great esteem and confidence of the principal mem “ him to make that journey, that he might make bers of both houses of parliament, who were most “ that useful discovery, which could not be otherlike to be the leading men, and had all a desire to wise made in any seasonable time.
1628.] Conference with Parliament on the journey to Spain.
9 “ That they no sooner came to Madrid, than malice and fury; his majesty having a great esteem “ they discovered (though the prince was treated of that earl's' fidelity to him, and of his great “ with all the respect due to his greatness, and the abilities. “ obligation he had laid upon that nation) that The conference ended in a wonderful applause, “there had never been any real purpose that the in both houses, of the prince and duke's behaviour “ infanta should be given to him: that, during so and carriage throughout the affair, and in a hasty “ long an abode as his highness made there, they resolution to dissuade the king from entertaining “ had never procured the dispensation from Rome, any farther motions towards the match, and frankly “ which they might easily have done : and that, at and resolutely to enter into a war with Spain ; to“ last, upon the death of the pope, Gregory XV, the wards the carrying on of which they raised great “ whole process was to begin again, and would be mountains of promises, and, prevailing in the first, “ transacted with the formalities, which they should never remembered to make good the latter; which “ find necessary to their other affairs. That, instead too often falls out in such counsels. “of proceeding upon the articles, which had been When king James was informed of what the duke “pretended to be concluded, they urged nothing had so confidently avowed, for which he had no "but new demands, and in matters of religion so authority, or the least direction from him, and a “ peremptorily, that the principal clergymen, and great part whereof himself knew to be untrue; and " the most eminent of that king's preachers, had that he had advised an utter breach of the treaty,
frequent conferences with the prince, to persuade and to enter upon a war with Spain, he was infi“ him to change his religion, and become a catholic. nitely offended; so that he wanted only a resolute “And, in order to move him the more successfully and brisk counsellor to assist him in destroying " thereunto, they procured the pope to write a him: and such a one he proinised himself in the " letter himself to his highness, putting him in arrival of the earl of Bristol, whom he expected “mind of the religion of his ancestors and pro- every day. "genitors, and conjuring him to return to the He had another exception against the duke, “same faith: but that it had pleased God not only which touched him as near, and in which he en"to give the prince a constant and unshakable larged himself much more. Lionel Cranfeild, who, “ heart in his religion, but such wonderful abilities though extracted from a gentleman's family, had " to defend the same in his discourse and argu- been bred in the city, and, being a man of great wit "ments, that they stood amazed to hear him, and and understanding in all the mysteries of trade, had
upon the matter confessed, that they were not found means to work himself into the good opinion « able to answer him,
and favour of the duke of Buckingham; and having "That they would not suffer the prince to confer shortly after married a near ally of the duke’s, with " with, or so much as to speak to hardly, and very wonderful expedition was made a privy-counsellor, “ rarely to see his mistress, who they pretended he master of the wardrobe, master of the wards, and, “should forthwith marry. That they could never without parting with any of these, was now become "obtain any better answer in the business of the lord high treasurer of England, and earl of Middle“palatinate, than that the restoring it was not in sex, and had in truth gained so much credit with " the power of that king, though it had been taken the king, (being in truth a man of great parts and " by the sole power of Spain, and the Spanish notable dexterity,) that, during the duke's absence " army, under the command of the marquis in Spain, he was not only negligent in the issuing “Spinola, who was then in the entire possession out such sums of money as were necessary to the " of it: but that his catholic majesty would use defraying those unlimited expenses, and to corres“ his interposition, with all the credit he had with pond with him with that deference he had used to " the emperor and duke of Bavaria, without whose do, but had the courage to dispute his commands, "joint consent it could not be done, and whose and to appeal to the king, whose ear was always in“consent he hoped to obtain : but that he was clined to him, and in whom he began to believe “ well assured, that there was no more real inten himself so far fastened, that he should not stand in "tion in that point of restitution, than in the other need of the future support of the favourite. And " of the marriage; and that the palatinate must of all this the duke could not be without ample in“Dot be looked to be recovered any other way formation, as well from his own creatures, who were " than by force, which would easily bring it to near enough to observe, as from others; who, “pass."
caring for neither of them, were more scandalize: Throughout his whole discourse he made frequent at so precipitate a promotion of a person of such reflections upon the earl of Bristol, as if he very an education, and whom they had long known so well knew the Spaniards' purposes in the whole, much their inferior, though it could not be denied, and concurred with them in it. “ That he was so that he filled the places he held with great abilities. “much troubled when he first saw the prince, who The duke no sooner found the parliament dis" alighted at his house, that he could not contain posed to a good opinion of him, and being well “ himself, but wished that his highness were at assured of the prince's fast kindness, than he pro“ home again; that he had afterwards, when he jected the ruin of this bold rival of his, of whom he “ found that his highness liked the infanta, per- saw clearly enough that the king had so good an “suaded him in private that he would become a opinion, that it would not be in his sole power to * catholic; and that, without changing his religion, crush him, as he had done others in the same and “it would not be possible ever to compass that as high a station. And so he easily procured soine “marriage.
leading men in the house of commons, to cause an He told them, “ That the king had sent for the impeachment for several corruptions and misde"earl to return home, where he should be called to meanours to be sent up to the house of peers against "account for all his miscarriages." Whereas in that great minister, whom they had so lately known truth the king had recalled him rather to assist their equal in that house; which (besides their nahim against the duke, than to expose hiin to his lural inclination to those kinds of executions) dis