1640.] The treaty adjourned to London. A new Parliament called.

65 gentlemen of the country who had most depended or speedily have been compelled; there being at upon him, and been obliged by him, withdrawing that time an army in Ireland (as was said before) their application and attendance, and entering into ready to have visited their own country. combination with his greatest enemies against him. Neither would the indisposition of the king's

It is not to be denied, the king was in very great army (which was begot only by those infusions, straits, and had it not in his power absolutely to that there must of necessity be a parliament, which choose which way he would go ; and well foresaw, would prevent farther fighting) have lasted, when that a parliament in that conjuncture of affairs they had found those authors confuted; for the would not apply natural and proper remedies to army was constituted of good officers, which were the disease ; for though it was not imaginable it more capable of being deceived by their friends, would have run the courses it afterwards did, yet than imposed upon by their enemies; and they it was visible enough he must resign very much to had their soldiers in good devotion, and the busitheir affections and appetite, (which were not like ness of Newburn would rather have been a spur to be contained within any modest hounds,) and than a bit to all. And it had been much the best therefore no question his majesty did not think of course that could have been taken, if, after the calling a parliament at first, but was wrought to it fright at Newburn, the king, as well as the earl of by degrees : yet the great council could not but Strafford, had made haste to Durham, and kept produce the other ; where the unskilfulness and that post, without st ng at York; and after some passion of some for want of discerning conse- exemplary justice and disgrace upon the chief quences, and a general sharpness and animosity officers who were faulty, till the army had reagainst persons, did more mischief than the power covered their spirits, (which in a very short time or malice of those who had a formed design of it did with shame and indignation enough,) had confusion; for without doubt that fire at that time marched directly against the Scots; by which they (which did shortly after burn the whole kingdom) would have speedily dispossessed them of their might have been covered under a bushel. So as new conquest, and forced them to have run disin truth there was no counsel so necessary then, tracted into their own country; as may be reasonas for the king to have continued in his army, and ably concluded from their behaviour whenever to have drawn none thither, but such as were more they were assaulted afterwards by the English. afraid of dishonour than danger; and to have. And it is as strange, that the experience of the trusted the justice and power of the law with sup- last summer, wh the attendance of so great a pressing of tumults, and quieting disorders in his number of the nobility (who had no mind to the

war, and as little devotion to the court) was the It is strange, and had somewhat of a judgment true ground and cause of that ridiculous pacificafrom Heaven in it, that all the industry and learn- tion, did not prevail with the king never to convene ing of the late years had been bestowed in finding the same company to him; which could do him out and evincing, that in case of necessity any very little good, if they had desired it; and could extraordinary way for supply was lawful; and not but do him more harm than even the worst of upon that ground had proceeded when there was them at that time intended to do: for it might no necessity; and now, when the necessity was very easily have been foreseen, that the calling so apparent, money must be levied in the ordinary many discontented, or disobliged, or disaffected course of parliament, which was then more unna men together, with a liberty to consult and advise, tural and extraordinary than the other had been ; very few whereof had that affection and reverence as York must be defended from an enemy within for the person of the king as they ought to have twenty-five miles of it, by money to be given at had, though scarce any of them had at that time London six weeks after, and to be gathered in six that mischief in their hearts which they afterwards months. It had been only the season and evidence discovered against him, or indeed had the least of necessity that had been questioned; and the purpose to rebel : I say, the calling such men view of it in a perspective of state at a distance together could not but make every man much that no eyes could reach, denied to be ground worse than they came, and put worse thoughts enough for an imposition: as no man could pull into their heads than they brought with them, down his neighbour's house because it stood next when the miscarriage as well as the misfortune of furze, or thatch, or some combustible matter which the court would be the common argument and dismight take fire; though he might do it when that course; and when they would quickly discern, combustible matter was really a-fire. But it was that it was like to be in every one of their powers never denied that flagrante bello, when an enemy had to contribute to the destruction, at least to the disactually invaded the kingdom, and so the necessity grace, of men they had no kindness for, and most both seen and felt, that all men's goods are the of them great animosity against. goods of the public, to be applied to the public But the king was without the presence and atsafety, and as carefully to be repaired by the public tendance of any man in whose judgment and wisstock. And it is very probable, (since the factions dom he had a full confidence ; for the earl of within, and the correspondence abroad was so Strafford was at the army; and they who first apparent, that a parliament then called would do proposed the calling the peers knew well enough the business of the Scots, and of those who invited that the king knew parliaments too well to be inthem hither,) that if the king had positively de- clined to call one, if they should propose it; and clared, that he would have no parliament as long therefore they proposed another expedient, which as that army stayed in England, but as soon as he knew not; and so was surprised with the adthey were retired into their own country he would vice, (which he thought could do no harm,) and summon one, and refer all matters to their advice, so gave direction for the issuing out of the writs, and even be advised by them in the composing the before he enough considered whether it might not distractions of Scotland : I say, it is probable, that in truth produce some mischief he had not well they would either willingly have left the kingdom, I thought of; as he quickly found it. Nor did the


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The artifices used by the Scots.

[BOOK II. Scots themselves resolve to give him more disquiet the government, affronted the magistrates and in the ensuing parliament, than the major part of ministers of justice, and his majesty's own regal his great council, that he brought together, re- authority, with unheard of insolences and consolved to concur with them therein: and with that tempts ; rejected all his offers of grace and pardon, disposition, which they could never have contracted and, without cause or provocation, denounced war if they had remained by themselves, they all hast- against him; besieged and taken the castle of ened to the place where they might do the mischief Edinburgh, and other places which held for his they intended.

majesty ; I say, if this had been made as evident The next error to this was, that at the meeting to them as surely it might have been made, it is of the great council at York, and before any con not possible but those noble persons would have sent to the treaty at Rippon, there was not a state preserved themselves from being deluded by them; made, and information given of the whole proceed- at least many of the inconveniences which after ings in Scotland, and thereupon some debate and ensued would have been prevented, if the form and judgment by the whole council before the sixteen method of their proceedings had been prescribed, departed, for their information and instruction : or better looked into. and this had been strangely omitted before at the But it must be confessed, that in that conjuncpacification, insomuch as many who had been em ture such necessary evidence and information could ployed in that first at the Berkes, and in the last very hardly be given : for though it must not be at Rippon, confessed that neither of them (and doubted that there were many particular persons of they were of the prime quality) then did, or ever honour of that nation who abhorred the outrages after, know any thing of the laws and customs of which were committed, and retained within their that kingdom (by which they might have judged own breasts very loyal wishes for his majesty's whether the king had exceeded his just power, or prosperity; yet it cannot be denied that those any thing of the matter of fact in the several trans- persons, who by the places they held (of king's adactions) but what they had received at those meet- vocate, and other offices) ought to have made that ings from the persons who were naturally to make information of matter of law, and matter of fact, their own defence, and so by accusing others to were themselves the most active promoters of the make their own case the more plausible; in which rebellion; and the defection, as to any declaration it could not be expected they would mention any on his majesty's behalf, was so general, that they thing for their own disadvantage.

who were not corrupted in their inward fidelity By them they were told “ of a liturgy imposed were so terrified, that they durst not appear in any

upon them by their bishops, contrary [to] or office that might provoke those who solely had the “ without act of parliament, with strange circum- power and the will to destroy them. “ stances of severity and rigour of some clauses The last and most confounding error was the “ in that liturgy, different from that of the church removing the treaty to London, and upon any “ of England;" with pretty smart comments of terms consenting that the Scottish commissioners advice, and animadversion upon those alterations : should reside there before a peace concluded. By “ of a book of canons, in which an extraordinary which means, they had not only opportunity to “ and extravagant power was asserted to the publish all their counsels and directions in their

bishops: of a high commission court, which sermons to the people, (who resorted thither in in“ exceeded all limits, and censured all degrees of credible numbers, and to give their advice, from

men: of the insolent speeches of this bishop to time to time, to those of the English who knew not “ that nobleman, and of the ill life of another: of so well yet to compass their own ends, but were “their great humility and duty to their sacred ready (when any business was too big and un“ sovereign, without whose favour and protection wieldy to be managed by the few who were yet

they would not live:” and, lastly, “ of their throughly engaged) to interpose in the name of “several most submiss addresses, by petition and their nation, and, with reference to things or “ all other ways, to his majesty ; being desirous, persons, to make such demands from and on the “ when their grievances were but heard, to lay behalf of the kingdom of Scotland, as under no “ themselves and their complaints at his royal feet, other style would have received any countenance : " and to be most entirely disposed by him in such and this brought that universal terror with it (as

manner, as to his wisdom alone should be thought will appear to the life in the process of this rela“ fit : but that, by the power and interposition of tion) upon those of nearest relation to the king's “ their adversaries, all their supplications had been service, as well as those at a greater distance, who “ rejected, and they never yet admitted to be clearly discerned and detested the villainy and “ heard.”

wickedness of those transactions, that their wariWith these and the like artifices our good lords ness and wisdom could not be great enough to were so wrought upon and transported, that they preserve them, if they did not stupidly look on easily consented to whatsoever was proposed; nor without seeming to understand what they could in was there any proposition made and insisted on by no degree control or prevent. them at the first or second treaty, which was not In all conspiracies there must be great secrecy, for the matter fully consented to: whereas, if their consent, and union; yet it can hardly be conceived, lordships had been fully advertised of the whole with what entire confidence in each other the nutruth, (though there had been some inadvertencies merous proud and indigent nobility of Scotland and incogitancy in the circumstances of the trans- (for of the common people, who are naturally slaves action,) his majesty had full power, by the laws of to the other, there can be no wonder) concurred in Scotland then in force, to make that reformation the carrying on this rebellion: their strange conhe intended ; and all their petitions and addresses descension and submission to their ignorant and had found most gracious acceptance, and received insolent clergy, who were to have great authority, most gracious answers; and that, on the contrary, because they were to inflame all sorts of men upon they had invaded all the rights of the crown, altered the obligations of conscience; and in order there

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Inefficiency of the King's Council.

67 unto, and to revenge a little indiscretion and ill | men of the same integrity, that so they might unite manners of some of the bishops, had liberty to their counsels as well in the manner and way, as erect a tribunal the most tyrannical over all sorts their resolutions in the end. But: every one of

men, and in all the families of the kingdom: so thought it enough to preserve his own innocence, that the preacher reprehended the husband, govern- and to leave the rest to those who should have ed the wife, chastised the children, and insulted authority to direct. The king was perplexed and over the servants, in the houses of the greatest irresolute, and, according to his natural constimen. They referred the managery and conduct tution, (which never disposed him to jealousy of of the whole affair to a committee of a few, who any man of whom he had once thought well,) was had never before exercised any office or authority full of hope, that his condition was not so bad as in the public, with that perfect resignation and it seemed to be. The queen, how much troubled obedience, that nobody presumed to inquire what soever, wished much better to the earl of Holland, was to be done, or to murmur at or censure any than to the archbishop, or the earl of Strafford, thing that was done; and the general himself, and neither of them being in any degree acceptable to the martial affairs, were subject to this regimen her; so that she was little concerned for the danger and discipline as well as the civil : yet they who that threatened them: but when she saw the were intrusted with this superiority, paid all the king's honour and dignity invaded in the prosecuoutward respect and reverence to the person of the tion, she withdrew her favour from the earl of general, as if the sole power and disposal had been Holland: but then she was persuaded, by those in him alone.

who had most credit with her, to believe, that, by The few English (for there were yet but very few the removal of the great ministers, her power and who were intrusted from the beginning of the enter- authority would be increased, and that the prevailprise, and with all that was then projected) were ing party would be willing to depend upon her ; men of reserved and dark natures, of great in- and that, by gratifying the principal persons of them dustry and address, and of much reputation for with such preferments as they affected, she would probity and integrity of life, and who trusted none quickly reconcile all ill humours ; and so she hearkbut those who were contented to be trusted to that ened to any overtures of that kind; which were degree as they were willing to trust them, without always carried on without the consent or privity of being inquisitive into more than they were ready to those who were concerned, who in truth inore discommunicate, and for the rest depended upon their liked her absolute power with the king, than any discretion and judgment; and so prepared and other excess of the court, and looked upon it as the disposed, by second and third hands, many to greatest grievance. Every man there considered concur and contribute to many preparatory actions, only what application would be most like to raise who would never have consented to those conclu- his own fortune, or to do him harm with whom he sions which naturally resulted from those premises. was angry, and gave himself wholly up to those

This united strength, and humble and active artifices which might promote either. To preserve temper, was not encountered by an equal provi- themselves from the displeasure and censure of the dence and circumspection in the king's councils, or parliament, and to render themselves gracious to an equal temper and dutiful disposition in the those who were like to be powerful in it, was all court; nor did they, who resolved honestly and men's business and solicitude. And in this very stoutly to discharge the offices of good servants unequal and disproportioned condition and temper, and good subjects to the utmost opposition of all was the king's and the Scottish army, the court unlawful attempts, communicate their purposes to and the country, when the parliament met.

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Upon the perusal of all the returns into the ber, 1640, with a fuller appearance than could crown office, there were not found many lawyers of be reasonably expected, from the short time for eminent name, though many of them proved very elections after the issuing out of the writs ; inso- eminent men afterwards,) or who had served long much as at the first [not] many members were in formier parliaments, the experience whereof was absent. It had a sad and a melancholic aspect upon to be wished ; and men of that profession had been the first entrance, which presaged some unusual always thought the most proper for that service, and unnatural events. The king himself did not and the putting it out of that channel at that time ride with his accustomed equipage nor in his usual was thought too hazardous; so that, after all the majesty to Westminster, but went privately in his deliberation that time would admit, Mr. Lenthall, barge to the parliament stairs, and so to the church, a bencher of Lincoln's Inn, (a lawyer of competent as if it had been to a return of a prorogued or ad practice, and no ill reputation for his affection to journed parliament. And there was likewise an the government both of church and state,) was untoward, and in truth an unheard of accident, pitched upon by the king, and with very great difwhich brake many of the king's measures, and in- ficulty rather prevailed with than persuaded to finitely disordered his service, beyond a capacity of accept the charge. And no doubt a worse could reparation. From the time the calling a parlia- not have been deputed of all that profession who ment was resolved upon, the king designed sir were then returned; for he was a man of a very Thomas Gardiner, who was recorder of London, narrow, timorous nature, and of no experience or to be speaker in the house of commons; a man of conversation in the affairs of the kingdom, beyond gravity and quickness, that had somewhat of au- what the very drudgery in his profession (in which thority and gracefulness in his person and presence, all his design was to make himself rich) engaged and in all respects equal to the service. There him in. In a word, he was in all respects very was little doubt but that he would be chosen to unequal to the work ; and not knowing how to serve in one of the four places for the city of Lon- preserve his own dignity, or to restrain the license don, which had very rarely rejected their recorder and exorbitance of others, his weakness contributed upon that occasion; and lest that should fail, dili as much to the growing mischiefs, as the malice of gence was used in one or two other places that he the principal contrivers. However, after the king might be elected. The opposition was so great, had that afternoon commended the distracted conand the faction so strong, to hinder his being dition of the kingdom (with too little majesty) to elected in the city, that four others were chosen the wisdom of the two houses of parliament, to for that service, without hardly mentioning his have such reformation and remedies applied as they name : nor was there less industry used to prevent should think fit, proposing to them, as the best his being chosen in other places ; clerks were cor- rule for their counsels, “ that all things should be rupted not to make out the writs for one place, “ reduced to the practice of the time of queen and ways were found to hinder the writ from being “Elizabeth :” the house of commons no sooner executed in another, time enough for the return returned to their house, than they chose Mr. Lentbefore the meeting : so great a fear there was, that hall to be their speaker; and two days after, with a man of entire affections to the king, and of pru- the usual ceremonies and circumstances, presented dence enough to manage those affections, and to him to the king, who declared his acceptation ; and regulate the contrary, should be put into that so both houses were ready for their work, chair. So that the very morning the parliament There was observed a marvellous elated countewas to meet, and when the king intended to go nance in most of the members of parliament before thither, he was informed, that sir Thomas Gar- they met together in the house; the same men who diner was not returned to serve as a member in six months before were observed to be of very the house of commons, and so was not capable moderate tempers, and to wish that gentle remeof being chosen to be speaker; so that his ma- dies might be applied, without opening the wound jesty deferred his going to the house till the too wide, and exposing it to the air, and rather to afternoon, by which time he was to think of cure what was amiss than too strictly to make inanother speaker.

quisition into the causes and original of the malady,

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1640.] Mr. Pym's and sir John Hotham's Speeches against the Earl of Strafford. 69 talked now in another dialect both of things and “author and promoter of all those counsels which persons. Mr. Hyde, who was returned to serve “ had exposed the kingdom to so much ruin:” and for a borough in Cornwall, met Mr. Pym in West so instanced some high and imperious actions done minster-hall some days before the parliament, and by him in England and in Ireland, some proud and conferring together upon the state of affairs, the over-confident expressions in discourse, and some other told him, Mr. Hyde, “ that they must now passionate advices he had given in the most secret “ be of another temper than they were the last councils and debates of the affairs of state; adding

parliament; that they must not only sweep the some lighter passages of his vanity and amours; “ house clean below, but must pull down all the that they who were not inflamed with anger and cobwebs which hung in the top and corners, that detestation against him for the former, might have

they might not breed dust, and so make a foul less esteem and reverence for his prudence and “house hereafter; that they had now an opportu- discretion : and so concluded, “That they would nity to make their country happy, by removing

“ well consider how to provide a remedy propor“ all grievances, and pulling up the causes of them « tionable to the disease, and to prevent the far

by the roots, if all men would do their duties ;' “ ther mischiefs which they were to expect from and used much other sharp discourse to him to the “ the continuance of this great man's power and same purpose : by which it was discerned, that the credit with the king, and his influence upon

his warmest and boldest counsels and overtures would “ counsels.” find a much better reception than those of a more From the time that the earl of Strafford was temperate allay; which fell out accordingly: and named, most men believed that there would be the very first day they met together, in which they some committee named to receive information of could enter upon business, Mr. Pym, in a long, all his miscarriages, and that, upon report thereof, formed discourse, lamented the miserable state and they would farther consider what course to take in condition of the kingdom, aggravated all the par- the examination and prosecution thereof: but they ticulars which had been done amiss in the govern- had already prepared and digested their business to ment, as “ done and contrived maliciously, and a riper period.

upon deliberation, to change the whole frame, Mr. Pym had no sooner finished his discourse, “and to deprive the nation of all the liberty and than sir John Clotworthy (a gentleman of Ireland,

property which was their birthright by the laws and utterly unknown in England, who was, by the “ of the land, which were now no more considered, contrivance and recommendation of some powerful “ but subjected to the arbitrary power of the privy- persons, returned to serve for a borough in Devon

council, which governed the kingdoni according shire, that so he might be enabled to act this part “ to their will and pleasure; these calamities fall- against the lord lieutenant) made a long and con

ing upon us in the reign of a pious and virtuous fused relation “ of his tyrannical carriage in that

king, who loved his people, and was a great lover kingdom ; of the army he had raised there to “ of justice.” And thereupon enlarging in some “ invade Scotland; how he had threatened the specious commendation of the nature and goodness “ parliament, if they granted not such supplies as of the king, that he might wound him with less “ he required; of an oath he had framed to be suspicion, he said, “ We must inquire from what 6 administered to all the Scottish nation which in“ fountain these waters of bitterness flowed; what “ habited that kingdom, and his severe proceedings persons they were who had so far insinuated

against some persons of quality who refused to “ themselves into his royal affections, as to be able

66 take that oath; and that he had with great pride “to pervert his excellent judgment, to abuse his “and passion publicly declared at his leaving that

name, and wickedly apply his authority to coun kingdom, If ever he should return to that sword, tenance and support their own corrupt designs. “ he would not leave a Scottish-man to inhabit in

Though he doubted there would be many found “ Ireland :" with a multitude of very exalted ex“ of this classis, who had contributed their joint pressions, and some very high actions in his admi“ endeavours to bring this misery upon the nation; nistration of that government, in which the lives as

yet he believed there was one more signal in that well as the fortunes of men had been disposed of “ administration than the rest, being a man of out of the common road of justice : all which made

great parts and contrivance, and of great indus- him to be looked upon as a man very terrible, and

try to bring what he designed to pass; a man, under whose authority men would not choose to “who in the memory of many present had sat in put themselves. “ that house an earnest vindicator of the laws, and Several other persons appearing ready to continue

a most zealous assertor and champion for the the discourse, and the morning being spent, so that, “ liberties of the people ; but that it was long since according to the observation of parliament hours, “ he turned apostate from those good affections, the time of rising being come, an order was sud

and, according to the custom and nature of apo- denly made, “ that the door should be shut, and

states, was become the greatest enemy to the nobody suffered to go out of the house;" which “liberties of his country, and the greatest pro- had been rarely practised : care having been first “ moter of tyranny that any age had produced;" taken to give such advertisement to some of the and then named “the earl of Strafford, lord lieu- lords, that that house might likewise be kept from “ tenant of Ireland, and lord president of the rising ; which would very much have broken their “ council established in York, for the northern measures.

parts of the kingdom : who, he said, had in both Then sir John Hotham, and some other Yorkplaces, and in all other provinces wherein his shire men, who had received some disobligation

service had been used by the king, raised ample from the earl in the country, continued the invec“monuments of his tyrannical nature; and that he tive, mentioning many particulars of his imperious

believed, if they took a short survey of his actions carriage, and that he had, in the face of the coun“and behaviour, they would find him the principal l try, upon the execution of some illegal commission,

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