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The entry of Pryn, Bastwick, and Burton into London. [BOOK III former laws, and what benefit or detriment, in (tween the schools and the camp, (for he had been in, profit or jurisdiction, will accrue thereby to the or passed through armies,) and had gotten a doctorcrown: and then, upon a full and free debate by ship, and Latin; with which, in a very flowing style his counsellors, the king resolves, and accordingly with some wit and much malice, he inveighed doth mark the bills that are to be enacted into against the prelates of the church in a book which laws, and respites the other that he thinks not fit | heprinted in Holland, and industriously dispersed in to consent to. And methinks as this hath been London, and throughout the kingdom; having prethe known practice, so the reason is very visible ; sumed (as their modesty is always equal to thei that the royal assent being a distinct and essential obedience) to dedicate it to the sacred majesty of th part towards the making a law, there should king. be as much care taken to inform the under T'he third had formerly a kind of relation by ser standing and conscience of the king upon those vice to the king; having, before he took orders occasions, as theirs, who prepare the same for his waited as closet-keeper, and so attended at canoni royal stamp:

cal hours, with the books of devotion, upon hi That it might appear that what was done within majesty when he was prince of Wales; and, a litt) the houses was agreeable to those who were with before the death of king James, took orders : an out, and that the same spirit reigned in parliament so his highness coming shortly to be king, th and people, all possible

" license was exercised in vapours of ambition fuming into his head that I preaching, and printing any old scandalous pam- was still to keep his place, he would not think phlets, and adding new to them against the church: less than being clerk of the closet to the new kin petitions presented by many parishioners against which place his majesty conferred upon, or rath their pastors, with articles of their misdemeanours continued in, the bishop of Durham, doctor Ney and behaviours ; most whereof consisted, “in their who had long served king James there. Mr. Burto

bowing at the name of Jesus, and obliging the thus disappointed, and, as he called it, despoiled “ communicants to come up to the altar,” (as they his rights, would not, in the greatness of his hea enviously called it,) that is, to the rails which en- sit down by the affront; but committed two closed the communion-table,“ to receive the sacra- three such weak, saucy indiscretions, as caused “ment.” All which petitions were read with great inhibition to be sent him, “that he should not p delight, and presently referred to the committee for

sume to come any more to court:” and from tlreligion ; where Mr. White, a grave lawyer, but time [he] resolved to revenge himself of the bish notoriously disaffected to the church, sat in the of Durham, upon the whole order; and so turn chair ; and then both petition and articles were lecturer, and preached against them; being endu suffered to be printed and published, (a license with malice and boldness, instead of learning a never practised before,) that the people might be any

tolerable parts. inflamed against the clergy; who were quickly These three persons having been, for several taught to call all those against whom such petitions lies and libelling humours, first gently reprehend and articles were exhibited (which were frequently and after, for their incorrigibleness, more sever done by a few of the rabble, and meanest of the censured and imprisoned, found some means people, against the sense and judgment of the prison of correspondence, which was not bef parish) the scandalous clergy; which appellation known to be between them; and to combine the was frequently applied to men of great gravity and selves in a more pestilent and seditious libel t learning, and the most unblemished lives.

they had ever before vented : in which the hon There cannot be a better instance of the unruly of the king, queen, counsellors, and bishops, and mutinous spirit of the city of London, which with equal license blasted and traduced; which was the sink of all the ill humour of the kingdom, faithfully dispersed by their proselytes in the than the triumphant entry which some persons at The authors were quickly and easily known, that time made into London, who had been before had indeed too much ingenuity to deny it ; seen upon pillories, and stigmatized as libellous and were thereupon brought together to the s infamous offenders : of which classis of men scarce chamber-bar ore tenus ; where they behaved th any age can afford the like.

selves with marvellous insolence; with full co There had been three persons of several profes- dence demanding, “that the bishops who sat in sions some years before censured in [the] star “ court” (being only the archbishop of Canterbchamber ; William Pryn, a barrister of Lincoln's and the bishop of London) “might not be pres Inn; John Bastwick, a doctor of physic; and “ because they were their enemies, and so parti Henry Burton, a minister and lecturer in London. which, how scandalous and ridiculous soev

The first, not unlearned in the profession of the seemed then there, was good logic and good law, as far as learning is acquired by the mere read two years after in Scotland, and served to ba ing of books; but being a person of great industry, the bishops of that kingdom both from the cou had spent more time in reading divinity; and, which table and the assembly. Upon a very patient marred that divinity, in the conversation of factious solemn hearing, in as full a court as I ever and hotheaded divines : and so, by a mixture of all without any difference in opinion or disse three, with the rudeness and arrogance of his own voice, they were all three censured as scanda nature, had contracted a proud and venomous dis- seditious, and infamous persons, “to lose thei like against the discipline of the church of England; “ in the pillory, and to be imprisoned in se and so by degrees (as the progress is very natural) gaols during the king's pleasure :” all whicl an equal irreverence to the government of the state executed with rigour and severity enough. too; both which he vented in several absurd, petu- yet their itch of libelling still brake out; and lant, and supercilious discourses in print.

friends of the city found a line of communica The second, a half-witted, crack-brained fellow, Hereupon the wisdom of the state thought fit unknown to either university, or the college of phy- those infectious sores should breathe out thei sicians; but one that had spent his time abroad, be- ruption in some air more remote from that cat

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1640.]
Pryn, Burton and Bastwick set at liberty.

81 city, and less liable to the contagion : and so, by an | Dover ; and from thence bringing the same testiorder of the lords of the council

, Mr. Pryn was | monies of the affections and zeal of Kent, as the sent to a castle in the island of Jersey ; Dr. Bast- others had done from Hampshire and Surrey, was wick to Scilly; and Mr. Burton to Guernsey; met before he came to Southwark by the good where they remained unconsidered, and truly I people of London, and so conducted to his lodging think unpitied, (for they were men of no virtue or likewise in the city. merit,) for the space of two years, till the beginning I should not have wasted this much time and of this present parliament.

paper in a discourse of this nature, but that it is Shortly upon that, petitions were presented by and was then evident, that this insurrection (for it their wives or friends, to the house of commons, was no better) and phrensy of the people was an expressing “ their heavy censures and long suffer- effect of great industry and policy, to try and pub

ings;" and desiring, by way of appeal," that the lish the temper of the people ; and to satisfy them

justice and rigour of that sentence might be selves in the activity and interest of their tribunes, “ reviewed and considered; and that their persons to whom that province of shewing the people was

might be brought from those remote and desolate committed. And from this time, the license of

places to London, that so they might be able to preaching and printing increased to that degree, “ solicit or attend their own business.” The send- that all pulpits were freely delivered to the schising for them out of prison (which was the main) matical and silenced preachers, who till then had took up much consideration : for though very lurked in corners, or lived in New England; and many who had no kindness, had yet compassion the presses at liberty for the publishing the most towards them; as thinking they had suffered invective, seditious, and scurrilous pamphlets, that enough; and that, though they were scurvy fel- | their wit and malice could invent. Whilst the lows, they had been scurvily used: and others ministers of the state, and judges of the law, like had not only affection to their persons, as having men in an ecstasy, surprised and amazed with suffered for a common cause; but were concerned several apparitions, had no speech or motion; as to revive and improve their useful faculties of if

, having committed such an excess of jurisdiction, libelling and reviling authority; and to make those (as men upon great surfeits are enjoined for a time ebullitions not thought noisome to the state : yet a to eat nothing,) they had been prescribed to exersentence of a supreme court, the star-chamber, (of cise no jurisdiction at all. Whereas, without doubt, which they had not yet spoke with irreverence,) if either the privy-council, or the judges and the was not lightly to be blown off: but, when they king's learned council, had assumed the courage to were informed, and had considered, that by that have questioned the preaching, or the printing, or sentence the petitioners were condemned to some the seditious riots upon the triumph of these three prisons in London; and were afterward removed scandalous men, before the uninterruption and thence by an order of the lords of the council; security had confirmed the people in all three, it they looked upon that order as a violation of the had been no hard matter to have destroyed those sentence; and so made no scruple to order “that the seeds, and pulled up those plants, which, [being] “ prisoners should be removed from those foreign neglected, grew up and prospered to a full harvest

prisons, to the places to which they were regu- of rebellion and treason. But this was yet but a “ Tarly first committed.” And to that purpose rudeness and rankness abroad, without any

visible warrants were signed by the speaker, to the go- countenance or approbation from the parliament: vernors and captains of the several castles, “to all was chaste within those walls.

bring them in safe custody to London :” which The first malignity that was apparent there (for were sent with all possible expedition.

the accusation of the archbishop and the earl of Pryn and Burton being neighbours (though in Strafford were looked upon as acts of passion, distinct islands) landed at the same time at South- directed against particular persons, who were ampton; where they were received and entertained thought to have deserved some extraordinary meawith extraordinary demonstrations of affection and sure and proceeding) was against the church: not esteem; attended by a marvellous conflux of com- only in their committee for religion; which had pany; and their charges not only borne with great been assumed ever since the latter times of king magnificence, but liberal presents given to them. James, but no such thing had been before heard of And this method and ceremony kept them company in parliament; where, under pretence of receiving all their journey, great herds of people meeting petitions against clergymen, they often debated them at their entrance into all towns, and waiting points beyond the verge of their understanding : upon them out with wonderful acclamations of joy. but, by their cheerful reception of a declaration of When they came near London, multitudes of people many sheets of paper against the whole government of several conditions, some on horseback, others of the church ; presented by ten or a dozen minon foot, met them some miles from the town ; very isters, at the bar; and pretended to be signed by many having been a day's journey; so they were seven hundred ministers of London and the counbrought, about two of the clock in the afternoon, ties adjacent : and a petition, presented by alderin at Charing-cross, and carried into the city by man Pennington, and alleged to be subscribed by above ten thousand persons, with boughs and twenty thousand men, inhabitants within the city flowers in their hands; the common people strew- of London; who required, in plain terms, “the total ing flowers and herbs in the ways as they passed, extirpation of episcopacy." But the house was making great noise, and expressions of joy for then so far from being possessed with that spirit, their deliverance and return; and in those accla- that the utmost that could be obtained, upon a mations mingling loud and virulent exclamations long debate upon that petition, was, “ that it should against the bishops, “who had so cruelly prose “ not be rejected;" against which the number of “ cuted such godly men.

In the same manner, the petitioners was urged as a powerful argument; within five or six days after, and in like triumph, only it was suffered to remain in the hands of the Dr. Bastwick returned from Scilly, landing at | clerk of the house, with direction, “that no copy

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Petition against the government of the church by bishops. (BOOK III “ of it should be given.” And for the ministers' | house was continued by special warrant from th declaration, one part only of it was insisted on by king ; and by his majesty, in a solemn messag them, and read in the house; which concerned the sent to them by sir Harry Vane, then principa exercise of their jurisdiction, and the excess of secretary, “ required to proceed in the making their ecclesiastical courts: the other parts were canons, for the better peace and quiet of th declined by many of them, and especially ordered "church.” Notwithstanding this command, th “to be sealed up by the clerk, that it might be chief of the clergy, well knowing the spirit of bi“perused by no man.” So that all that envy and terness that was contracted against them; an animosity against the church seemed to be resolved many obsolete pamphlets against their jurisdictio into a desire, “ that a bill might be framed to and power being, since the commotions in Sco

remove the bishops from their votes in the lords' land, revived and published with more freedom "house, and from any office in secular affairs ;” | desired his majesty, “that the opinions of t which was the utmost men pretended to wish : and“ * judges might be known and declared, wheth to such a purpose a bill was shortly after prepared, they might then lawfully sit, the parliame and brought into the house ; of which more shall being dissolved, and proceed in the making be said in its proper place.

canons; as likewise, upon other particulars It was a strange uningenuity and mountebankry, “ their jurisdiction, which had been most i that was practised in the procuring those petitions; veighed against ?” which continued ever after in the like addresses. All the judges of England, upon a mature debat The course was, first, to prepare a petition very in the presence of the king's council

, under th modest and dutiful, for the form ; and for the hands asserted, “their power of making cano matter, not very unreasonable; and to communi and those other parts of jurisdiction, which h cate it at some public meeting, where care was “ been so enviously questioned.” Hereupon tl taken it should be received with approbation : the proceeded; and having composed a body of cano subscription of very few hands filled the paper presented the same to his majesty, for his ro itself, where the petition was written, and therefore approbation. They were then again debated at many more sheets were annexed, for the reception council-board, not without notable opposition ; of the number, which gave all the credit, and pro- upon some lessening the power and authority cured all the countenance, to the undertaking. the chancellors, and their commissaries, by th When a multitude of hands was procured, the canons, the professors of that law took themsel petition itself was cut off, and a new one framed, to be disobliged; and sir Henry Martin, (v suitable to the design in hand, and annexed to the could not oversee any advantages,) upon seve long list of names which were subscribed to the days of hearing at the council-table, with former. And by this means, many men found utmost skill objected against them : but in their hands subscribed to petitions, of which they end, by the entire and unanimous advice of before had never heard. “As several ministers, privy-council, the canons were confirmed by whose hands were to the petition and declaration king, under the great seal of England, and ther of the London ministers before mentioned, have legally enjoined to be observed. So that what professed to many persons, “that they never saw they were, the judges were at least as guilty of " that petition or declaration before it was pre- first presumption in framing them, and the l “ sented to the house ; but had signed another, of the council in publishing and executing th “ the substance of which was, not to be compelled as the bishops, or the rest of the clergy, in eit) “ to take the oath enjoined by the new canons: Yet the storm fell wholly on the church : “and when they found, instead of that, their the matter of those canons, and the manne

names set to a desire of an alteration of the making them, was insisted on, as a pregnant t

government of the church, they with much mony of a malignant spirit in the very functio “ trouble went to Mr. Marshall, with whom they the bishops. The truth is, the season in w “ had intrusted their petition and their hands; that synod continued to sit (as was observei “ who gave them no other answer, but that it was fore) was in so ill a conjuncture of time, (upo

thought fit by those who understood business dissolution of a parliament, and almost in ai “ better than they, that the latter petition should vasion from Scotland,) that nothing could “ rather be preferred than the former.” And when been transacted there, of a popular and previ he found, they intended by some public act to influence. Then, some sharp canons against s vindicate themselves from that calumny; such ries, and some additionals in point of ceremo persons, upon whom they had their greatest de- countenancing, though not enjoining, what pendence, were engaged, by threats and promises, not been long practised, infinitely inflamed to prevail with them to sit still, and to pass by and troubled others; who jointly took adva that indirect proceeding.

of what strictly was amiss; as the making an For the better facilitating and making way for the matter of which was conceived incongr these virulent attempts upon the church, petitions and enjoining it to many of the laity, as well and complaints are [were] exhibited against the clergy; and the granting of subsidies. exorbitant acts of some bishops ; especially against So that the house of commons (that is, the the bishops of Bath and Wells, and Ely; who part) made no scruple, in that fury, to di “ had with great pride and insolence provoked all so that the convocation-house had no power “ the gentry, and in truth most of the inhabitants “ of making canons :” notwithstanding that “ within their dioceses." And the new canons apparent by the law, and the uncontradicted were insisted on, as a most palpable invasion by tice of the church, that canons had neve: “ the whole body of the clergy, upon the laws and otherwise made : “ and that those canon “ liberty of the people.”

“ tained in them matter of sedition and re I told you before, that after the dissolution of “ to the regal power; prejudicial to the libei the former short parliament, the convocation property of the subject, and to the privil

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Money borrowed of the city by the two houses.

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parliament.” By the extent of which notable " into blood, by the determination of the cessation,
vote and declaration, they had involved almost the “ which want of pay would inevitably produce;
whole clergy under an arbitrary guilt; as much as " the several members of the house would lend
they had done the nobility and gentry before, money, according to their several abilities; or
under their votes of lords lieutenants, deputy “ that such as had no money would become bound
lieutenants, privy-counsellors, and sheriffs ; and “ for it; and upon these terms enough could be
of which they made the same use; as shall be “ borrowed.” And this was no sooner proposed,
remembered in its proper place.

but consented to by all the eminent leaders; and
The two armies were necessarily to be provided by many others, in order to make themselves the
for, lest the countries where their quarters were more acceptable to those; and some did it for their
should come to be oppressed by free quarter ; own convenience, there being little hazard of their
which would not only raise a very inconvenient money, and full interest to be received, and be-
noise, but introduce a necessity of disbanding the lieving it would facilitate the disbanding of the
armies, which they were in no degree ready for : armies ; upon which all sober men's hearts were
and money not being to be raised soon enough in | directed.
the formal way, by act of parliament, which would And now, to support their stock of credit, it was
require some time in the passage ; besides, that time to raise money upon the people by act of par-
the manner and way of raising it had not been liament; which they had an excuse for not doing
enough considered; and the collecting it would in the usual way," and giving it immediately to
require much time, even after an act of parliament " the king, to be paid into the exchequer; because
should be passed; therefore for the present supply “ the public faith was so deeply engaged to the
they thought fit to make use of their credit with city for a great debt; and so many particular
the city; to whom a formal embassy of lords and “ members in the loan of monies, and in being
commons was sent; which were carefully chosen “ bound for the payment of great sums, for which
of such persons as carried the business of the house " their estates were liable : and therefore it was
before them, that the performing the service might “ but reason, that for their indemnity the money
be as well imputed to their particular reputation “ that was to be raised should be paid into the
and interest, as to the affection of the city: and “ hands of particular members of the house, named
these men in their orations to the citizens under- “ by them; who should take care to discharge all
took “that their money should be repaid with " public engagements.” And the first bill they
“ interest by the care of the parliament.” And passed being but for two subsidies, which was not
this was the first introduction of the public faith; sufficient to discharge any considerable part of the
which grew afterwards to be applied to all mon- money borrowed, they inserted in the bill the com-
strous purposes.

missioners' names, who were to receive and dispose
And this expedient succeeded twice or thrice for the money. And the king made no pause in the
such sums as they thought fit to require; which passing it; himself not considering the conse-
were only enough to carry on their affairs, and quence of it, and none about him having the
keep them in motion ; not proportionable to discourage to present it to him.
charge the debt due to the armies, but to enable But from that time, there was no bill passed for
them to pay their quarters : it being fit to keep a the raising of money, but it was disposed of in the
considerable debt still owing, lest they should ap- same, or the like manner; that none of it could be
pear too ready to be disbanded.

applied to the king's use, or by his direction. Nor
And they had likewise another design in this were they contented with this invasion of his pre-
commerce with the city ; for always upon the loan rogative, but took notice, “that, from the time of
of money they recommended some such thing to “ his majesty's coming to the crown, he had taken
the parliament, as might advance the designs of “the customs and impositions upon merchandise
the party; as “the proceeding against delin his own right, without any act of parliament;

quents;" or some reformation in the church :" | " which no king had ever before done;" insinuatwhich the managers knew well what use to make ing withal, “ that they meant to make a further of upon any emergency. When they had set this inquisition into those, who had been the chief traffick on foot in the city, and so brought their “ ministers in that presumption.” They said, friends there into more reputation and activity; at Nobody could imagine, but that they intended their election of common-council men, (which is to grant the same to his majesty, in the same every year before Christmas; and in which new manner, for his life, as had been done to his promen had rarely used to be chosen, except in case genitors by former parliaments: but that they of death, but the old still continued,) all the grave

“ found such an act could not be presently made and substantial citizens were left out; and such ready; because the book of rates now in practice chosen as were most eminent for opposing the (besides that it had not been made by lawful government, and most disaffected to the church, “ authority) contained many excesses, and must though of never so mean estates : which made a “ be reformed in several particulars; in preparing present visible alteration in the temper of the city, “ which, they would use all possible diligence, and (the common-council having so great a share in hoped to effect it in a short time: however, that the management of affairs there,) and even in the “ the continuance of the collection in the manner government itself.

“ it was in, without any lawful title, and during Other ways were to be thought of for getting of “the very sitting of the parliament, would be a money, which was, once at least every month,“ precedent of a very evil consequence, and make called for very importunately by the Scottish com “ the right of giving it the more questioned; at missioners; which caused the same provision to be “ least the less valued. And therefore it would be made for the English forces. The next expedient “ fit, that either all the present collection be diswas, “ That in so great an exigence, and for the continued, and cease absolutely; which was in

public peace; that the armies might not enter “ the power of the merchants themselves to do, by

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A bill for a triennial parliament passed, 1641. [воок III refusing to pay any duties which there was no and comely presence, his other parts were over “ law to compel them to: or, that a short act valued ; his learning in the law being his master “ should be presently passed, for the continuance piece. And so he was chosen to be keeper, upor “ of the payments for a short time; against the the opinion and recommendation of the two grea

expiration whereof, the act [for granting them] ministers under the cloud; who had before brough “ for life, with the book of rates, would be pre- him to be a privy-counsellor, whilst chief justice “pared, and ready.” There were many incon- to the no little jealousy of the lord Finch. veniences discovered in the first, in discontinuing Banks, the attorney general, was weary enoug the collection and payment of duties, “which of the inquisition that was made into the king “ would not be so easily revived again, and reduced grants, and glad to be promoted to the commo “ into order : and that the last would, without pleas. And Herbert, the solicitor general, wh

prejudice to either, both vindicate the right of had sat all this time in the house of common “ the subject, and secure the king's profit:” and awed and terrified with their temper; applyin so they prepared (with all the expressions of duty himself to Mr. Hambden, and two or three of th and affection to the king that can be imagined) other, without interposing or crossing them in an and presented a grant of those duties for some thing; longed infinitely to be out of that fire : an few months. In which there was a preamble, dis- so the office of attorney general, which at ar approving and condemning “all that had been other time had been to be wished, was now mo “ done in that particular, from his majesty's first grateful, as it removed him from the other atten

coming to the crown, to that time; and assert ance, there being an incapacity put upon th

ing his whole right to depend upon the gift of place of sitting as a member in parliament: ar “his subjects:" and concluded with “most severe so he was called by writ to attend the house “ penalties to be inflicted upon those, who should peers, where he sits upon the woolsack at the ba

presume hereafter to collect or receive those of the judges. “ duties otherwise than as they were, or should From the time that there was no more fear “ be, granted by act of parliament :” which was the archbishop of Canterbury, nor the lord lieu never before provided for, and the king likewise nant of Ireland, nor of any particular men w passed it; and so, besides other unseasonable con were like to succeed them in favour; all who h cessions and determinations, put all the revenue been active in the court, or in any service for he had to live upon, and to provide him meat, king, being totally dispirited, and most of them into their hands, and to take from him whenever be disposed to any vile offices against him ; they should think it convenient to their other de- great patriots thought they might be able to signs : of which he shortly after found the mischief. their country better service, if they got the pla

Though, as hath been observed, there was not and preferments in the court, and so prevented yet one penny of money given to the king, or evil counsels which had used to spring fr received by his ministers; yet, because subsidies thence. And they had then a fast friend th were raised upon the people, according to the for- the marquis of Hamilton ; who could most o mality of parliaments; and as if all that great terously put such an affair into agitation, with supply had been to the king's own coffers ; it was least noise, and prepare both king and quee thought necessary, that the people should be re- hearken to it very willingly: and in a short t freshed with some behoveful law, at the same time all particulars were well adjusted for every m that they found themselves charged with the pay- accommodation. ment of so many subsidies. And under that con The earl of Bedford was to be treasurer sideration, together with that bill for subsidies, order to which, the bishop of London had alre another was sent up to the lords, for a triennial desired the king “to receive the staff into parliament : both which quickly passed that house, hand, and give him leave to retire to the and were transmitted to the king.

care of his bishopric;" by which he wisely v In that for the triennial parliament (though the drew from the storm, and enjoyed the gre same was grounded upon two former statutes in tranquillity of any man of the three kingd the time of king Edward the Third, “ That there throughout the whole boisterous and destro “should be once every year a parliament”) there time that followed; and lived to see a happy were some clauses very derogatory to monarchical blessed end of them, and died in great honour principles ; as “ giving the people authority to glory. And so the treasury was for the pr

assemble together, if the king failed to call put into commission. Mr. Pym was to be “ them,” and the like: yet his majesty, really cellor of the exchequer : which office the intending to make those conventions frequent, with- Cottington was likewise ready to surrender, out any great hesitation, enacted those two bills assurance of indemnity for the future. Thes together; so much to the seeming joy and satis- were engaged to procure the king's revenue faction of both houses, that they pretended “to liberally provided for, and honourably incr " have sufficiently provided for the indemnity of and settled. “ the commonwealth; and that there remained And, that this might be the better done “nothing to be done, but such a return of duty earl of Bedford prevailed with the king, upg “and gratitude to the king, as might testify their removes mentioned before, to make Oliver ; “ devotions; and that their only end was to make John (who hath been often, and will be o “ him glorious :" but those fits of zeal and loyalty mentioned in this discourse) his solicitor ge never lasted long.

which his majesty readily consented to; h The lord Finch's flight made not only that place that, being a gentleman of an honourable e vacant, but begat several other vacancies. The tion, (if he had been legitimate, he would seal was given to Littleton, who was then chief been very useful in the present exigence to si justice of the common pleas ; for which place he his service in the house of commons, whe was excellently fitted : but being a man of a grave authority was then great ; at least, that he

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