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90 The earl heard by counsel as to matters of law. Mr. Lane's arguments. (BOOK III. “ and are now absolved from the rules of govern- | that terrible congregation should bekindled against

ment;" but not a word of the army in Ireland, them. or reducing this kingdom. The lord marquis But truly I have not heard that it made any Hamilton, the lord bishop of London, and the lord impression upon those persons; it did not, I am Cottington, being likewise examined, answered sure, upon Mr. Lane, who argued the matter of upon their oaths, “that they heard none of those law for the earl. The matters which were by him “words spoken by the earl.” And these were the principally insisted on, and averred with such cononly persons present at that debate, save only the fidence as a man uses who believes himself, were archbishop of Canterbury, and Secretary Winde- these : bank, neither of which could be examined, or “ 1. That by the wisdom and tenderness of parwould be believed.

liaments, which knew that there could not be a The earl positively denied the words; alleged "greater snare for the subject, than to leave the “much animosity to be in sir Harry Vane towards “ nature of treason undefined and unlimited, all

him ;” and observed, “ that not one of the other “ treasons were particularly mentioned and set

witnesses, who were likewise present, and as like “ down in the statute of the 25 Edw. III. de Pro“ to remember what was spoken as the secretary, ditionibus. That nothing is treason, but what is “ heard one word of the Irish army, or reducing comprehended within that statute; all treasons " this kingdom : that, if he had spoken those “ before that statute, as killing the king's uncle,

words, it could not be understood to be spoken “his nurse, piracy, and divers others, being reof England, but of Scotland, of which the dis “strained and taken away by the declaration of

course was, and for which that army was known “ that act. And that no words or actions, in any " to be raised.” He concluded, “ that if the words “ of the articles of the earl of Strafford's charge,

were spoken by him, which he expressly denied, " did amount to treason within that statute.

they were not treason; and if they were treason, 2. That by reason of the clause in that statute, " that, by a statute made in Edward the Sixth's of declaring treason in parliament, divers actions

time, one witness was not sufficient to prove it, were declared to be treasons in parliament, in the « and that here was but one.”

“ tiine of king Richard the Second, to the great Seventeen days being spent in these skirmishes ; prejudice of the subject: it was therefore specially the earl having defended himself with wonderful “ provided, and enacted, by a statute in the first dexterity and ability, concluded, “ that if the whole year of the reign of king Henry the Fourth,

charge (in which he hoped he had given their chapter the tenth, which is still in force, that

lordships satisfaction of his loyalty and integrity, nothing should be declared and adjudged trea“ how great soever his infirmities were) was proved, son, but what was ordained in that statute of the " that the whole made him not guilty of high trea 25 Edw. III. by which statute, all power of de

son; and to that purpose desired, that his learned " claring new treasons in parliament was taken “ counsel might be heard;" and most pathetically away; and that no precedent of any such declaraconjured their lordships, “that, for their own sakes, “tion in parliament can be shewed since that time:

they would not, out of displeasure or disfavour “ all new treasons, made by any act of parliament “ towards his person, create a precedent to the “in the reign of king Henry the Eighth, being by

prejudice of the peerage of England, and wound “ the statute of the first year of queen Mary, " themselves through his sides :” which was good chapter the first, taken away, and restrained by counsel; and hath been since (though too late) “ the 25th Edw. III. and likewise that, by another acknowledged to be so.

statute of the first year of queen Mary, chapter The next day, his counsel was heard in the same “ the tenth, all trials of treasons ought to be accordplace to the matter of law. And here I cannot pass ing to the rules of the common law, and not by an instance of as great animosity, and indirect “ otherwise. prosecution, in that circumstance of assigning him “ 3. That the foundation, upon which the imcounsel, as can be given. After the house of peers “peachment was framed, was erroneous ; for that had assigned him such counsel as he desired, to (besides that it was confessed on all hands, that assist him in matter of law, (which never was, or “ the laws of the kingdom were not subverted) an can justly be denied to the most scandalous felon, endeavour to subvert the fundamental laws and the most inhuman murderer, or the most infamous statutes of the realm, by force attempted, is not traitor,) the house of commons, upon some occa treason, being only made felony by the statute of sion, took notice of it with passion and dislike, " the first year of queen Mary, chapter the twelfth ; somewhat unskilfully, “ that such a thing should " which is likewise expired. That cardinal Wolsey, “ be done without their consent;" which was no " in the thirty-third year of king Henry the Eighth, more, than that the judge should be directed by indicted only of a premunire, for an endeavour the prosecutor, in what manner to proceed and de to bring in the imperial laws into this kingdom. termine: others, with much bitterness, inveighing " And that an endeavour, or intention, to levy war, against the presumption of those lawyers, that was made treason, only by a statute of the 13th “ durst be of counsel with a person accused by Elizabeth, (a time very inquisitive for treason,) "them of high treason;" and moving, “that they " which expired with her life.

might be sent for, and proceeded against for 4. Lastly, that if any thing was alleged against “that contempt:" whereas, they were not only “ the earl which might be penal to him, that it was obliged to it, by the honour and duty of their pro- “not sufficiently and legally proved; for that by fession; but had been punishable for refusing to “the statute of the first year of king Edward the submit to the lords' orders. The matter was too Sixth, chapter the twelfth, no man ought to be gross to receive any public order, and so the debate “ arraigned, indicted, or condemned, of any treason, ended; but served (and no doubt that was the in " unless it be upon the testimony of two lawful and tention) to let those gentlemen know, how warily “ sufficient witnesses, produced in the presence of they were to demean themselves, lest the anger of }" the party accused; unless the party confess the

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1641.] The bill of attainder received with wonderful alacrity.

91 and if it be for words, within three months “ and condoling the sad condition of the kingdom, “after the same spoken, if the party be within the “ by reason of the many illegal taxes and pres

kingdom : whereas there was in this case only sures, sir Harry told hím, if he would call upon one witness, sir Henry Vane, and the words “ him the next day, he would shew him somespoken six months before.”

“what that would give him much trouble, and The case being thus stated on the earl's behalf, “ inform him what counsels were like to be followed the judgment of the lords, in whom the sole power “ to the ruin of the kingdom; for that he had, in of judicature was conceived to be, was by all men perusal of some of his father's papers, accidentexpected; the house of commons having declared, ally met with the result of the cabinet council “ that they intended not to make any reply to the upon the dissolution of the last parliament, which

argument of law made by Mr. Lane, it being comprehended the resolutions then taken. “ below their dignity to contend with a private “ The next day he shewed him a little paper of “ lawyer.” Indeed they had a more convincing “ the secretary's own writing; in which was conway to proceed by; for the next day after that “ tained the day of the month, and the results of argument, sir Arthur Haslerig, brother-in-law to • several discourses made by several counsellors ; the lord Brooke, and an absurd, bold man, brought “ with several hieroglyphics, which sufficiently exup by Mr. Pym, and so employed by that party to pressed the persons by whom those discourses make any attempt, preferred a bill in the house of “ were made. The matter was of so transcendent commons, “for the attainder of the earl of Strafford a nature, and the counsel so prodigious, with “ of high treason:" it being observed, that by what “ reference to the commonwealth, that he desired the earl had said for himself in the matter of fact “ he might take a copy of it; which the young and in matter of prudence, of the consequence of “ gentleman would by no means consent to, fearing such an extraordinary proceeding; and by what “ it might prove prejudicial to his father.

But had been said for him in the point of law ; most “ when Mr. Pym informed him, that it was of exsober men, who had been, and still were, full enough “ treme consequence to the kingdom, and that a of dislike and passion against the earl, were not at “ time might probably come, when the discovery all satisfied in the justice of the impeachment, or in “ of this might be a sovereign means to preserve the manner of the prosecution ; and therefore, that “ both church and state, he was contented that the house of peers, which consisted of near one “ Mr. Pym should take a copy of it; which he did, hundred and twenty, besides the bishops, and of “ in the presence of sir Henry Vane; and having whom fourscore had been constantly attending the “ examined it together, delivered the original again trial, were not like to take upon them the burden " to sir Henry. He said that he had carefully kept of such a judgment as was expected.

“ this copy by him, without communicating the The bill was received with wonderful alacrity, same to any body, till the beginning of this parand immediately read the first and the second time, “ liament, which was the time he conceived fit to and so committed; which was not usual in parlia “ make use of it; and that then, meeting with ments, except in matters of great concernment and many other instances of the earl's disposition to conveniency in the particular; or of little import “ the kingdom, it satisfied him to move whatsoever ance or moment to the general. Those who at “ he had moved, against that great person.” first consented, upon slight information, to his im And having said thus much, he read the paper peachment, upon no other reason, but (as hath been in his hand ; in which the day of the month was said before) because they were only to accuse, and set down, and his majesty to be present, and the lords to judge, and so thought to be troubled stating the question to be, “What was now to be no more with it, being now as ready to judge, as “ done ? since the parliament had refused to give they had been to accuse, finding some new reasons “ subsidies for the supply of the war against Scotto satisfy themselves, of which one was, “ They had “ land." There were then written two LL's and gone too far to sit still, or retire.”

a t over, and an 1 and an r, which was urged, A day or two before the bill of attainder was “ could signify nothing but lord lieutenant of brought into the house of commons, there was a “ Ireland ;” and the words written and applied to very remarkable passage, of which the pretence that name were, “ Absolved from rules of governwas, “to make one witness, with divers circum “ment; — Prosecute the war vigorously; - An

stances, as good as two;" though I believe it army in Ireland to subdue this kingdom—;" was directed in truth to an end very foreign to which was urged, “to comprehend the matter of that which was proposed. The words of the earl “ the earl's speech and advice :" that paper by of Strafford, by which “his endeavour to alter the fractions of words (without mentioning any formed “ frame of government, and his intention to levy speech) containing only the results of the several

war,”, should principally appear, were proved counsellors' advice. Before those letters which singly by sir Henry Vane; which had been often were ordered to signify the lieutenant of Ireland, averred, and promised, should be proved by several were an A.B.C.G. which might be understood to witnesses ; and the law was clear, “that less than signify, the archbishop of Canterbury his grace ; “ two witnesses ought not to be received in case and at those letters, some short, sharp expressions ~ of treason."

against parliaments, and thereupon fierce advice to To make this single testimony appear as suffi- the king: Next in the paper, was an M with an r cient as if it had been confirmed by more, Mr. Pym over, and an Ho, which were to be understood for informed the house of commons, “ of the grounds marquis Hamilton, who was master of the horse;

upon which he first advised that charge, and and the words annexed thereunto seemed to be

was satisfied that he should sufficiently prove it. rough, but without a supplement signified nothing. “ That some months before the beginning of this Then there was an L, an H, and an A, which must

parliament, he had visited young sir Henry Vane, be interpreted lord high admiral, which was the " eldest son to the secretary, who was then newly earl of Northumberland; and from that hierogly“ recovered from an ague; that being together, phic proceeded only a few words, which implied

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92 The speeches of sir Harry Vane and his son : the scene acted between them. (BOOK III. advice to the king, “to be advised by his parlia was now satisfied to whom he owed his misfor“ ment." Then there was Li Cott. (which would tunes; in which, he was sure, the guilty person easily be believed to signify the lord Cottington) “ should bear his share. That it was true, being with some expressions as sharp as those applied to “ in the north with the king; and that unfortunate the lieutenant of Ireland.

son of his having married a virtuous gentleWhen he had read this paper, he added; “ That " woman, (daughter to a worthy member then prethough there was but one witness directly in the sent,) to whom there was somewhat in justice point, sir Henry Vane the secretary, whose " and "honour due, which was not sufficiently handwriting that paper was, whereof this was a “ settled; he had sent his keys to his secretary; copy; yet he conceived, those circumstances of “ not well knowing in what box the material writ

his and young sir Henry Vane's having seen ings lay; and directed him to suffer his son to “ those original results, and being ready to swear,

“ look after those evidences which were necessary : “ that the paper read by him was a true copy of “ that by this occasion, it seemed, those papers “the other, might reasonably amount to the va “had been examined and perused, which had

lidity of another witness : and that it was no begot much of this trouble. That for his part, wonder, that the other persons mentioned in “after the summons of this parliament, and the “ that writing, who had given as bad counsel, king's return to London, he had acquainted his “ would not remember, for their own sakes, what majesty, that he had many papers remaining in “had passed in that conference; and that the earl “ his hands, of such transactions as were not like “of Northumberland (who was the only good “ to be of further use; and therefore, if his majesty “ counsellor in the pack) had remembered some of " pleased, he would burn them, lest by any acci“ the words, of a high nature, though he had for- |“. dent they might come into hands that might “gotten the other.'

“ make an ill use of them: to which his majesty When Mr. Pym had ended, young sir Harry consenting, he had burned many; and amongst Vane rose, in some seeming disorder; confessed them, the original results of those debates, of all that the other had said; and added, " That his “ which that which was read was pretended to be “ father being in the north with the king the sum copy : that to the particulars he could say no

mer before, had sent up his keys to his secretary, thing more, than what he had upon his examina“ then at Whitehall; and had written to him (his “tion expressed, which was exactly true, and he

son) that he should take from him those keys, “ would not deny; though by what he had heard ~ which opened his boxes where his writings and “ that afternoon (with which he was surprised and "evidences of his land were, to the end that he amazed) he found himself in an ill condition

might cause an assurance to be perfected which upon that testimony." concerned his wife; and that he having perused This scene was so well acted, with such passion “ those evidences, and despatched what depended and gestures, between the father and the son, that

thereupon, had the curiosity to desire to see what many speeches were made in commendation of the

was in a red velvet cabinet which stood with the conscience, integrity, and merit of the young man, “ other boxes; and thereupon required the key of and a motion made, “that the father might be en“ that cabinet from the secretary, as if he still * joined by the house to be friends with his son :" “ wanted somewhat towards the business his father but for some time there was, in public, a great dis“ had directed; and so having gotten that key, he tance observed between them. “ found, amongst other papers, that mentioned by Many men wondered very much at the unneces“ Mr. Pym, which made that impression in him, sary relation of this story; which would visibly “ that he thought himself bound in conscience to appear very ridiculous to the world, and could not “ communicate it to some person of better judg- but inevitably produce much scandal and incon“ ment than himself, who might be more able to venience to the father, and the son; who were too

prevent the mischiefs that were threatened there- | wise to believe, that those circumstances would add

in; and so shewed it to Mr. Pym; and being any thing to the credit of the former single testi“ confirmed by him, that the seasonable discovery mony: neither was there ever after any

mention of “thereof might do no less than preserve the king- it in public, to move the judgment of those, who

dom, had consented that he should take a copy we concerned to be satisfied in what they were “ thereof; which to his knowledge he had faith- to do: and therefore some, who observed the

fully done : and thereupon had laid the original stratagems used by that party to compass their “in its proper place again, in the red velvet cabinet. own private ends, believed that this occasion was “ He said, he knew this discovery would prove taken to publish those results, only to give the " little less than his ruin in the good opinion of lord Cottington notice in what danger he was, that “ his father ; but having been provoked by the so he might wisely quit his mastership of the wards “ tenderness of his conscience towards his com to the lord Say; who expected it, and might be

mon parent, his country, to trespass against his able, by that obligation, to protect him from far“natural father, he hoped he should find com- ther prosecution : and so that they meant to sacri

passion from that house, though he had little fice the reputation of the secretary to the ambition hopes of pardon elsewhere."

of the lord Say. But without doubt (though this The son no sooner sat down, than the father last consideration was very powerful with them) (who, without any counterfeiting, had a natural the true reason of the communication of this pasappearance of sternness) rose, with a pretty confu- sage was, that they found it would be impossible sion, and said, “That the ground of his misfortune to conceal their having received the principal in

was now discovered to him; that he had been formation from the secretary, for their whole pro“ much amazed, when he found himself pressed secution ; by reason some of the committee, who

by such interrogatories, as made him suspect were intrusted to prepare the charge against the

some discovery to be made, by some person as earl of Strafford, and consequently were privy to « conversant in the counsels as himsell : but he that secret, were fallen from them; at least from

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1641.] The bill of attainder passed the commons : the earl of Digby's objections. 93 their ends; and therefore they thought fit to pub- names written in pieces of parchment or paper, lish this history of their intelligence, that it might under this superscription, STRAFFORDIANS, or be rather imputed to the conscience and curiosity enemies to their country; and those papers fixed of the son, than to the malice and perjury of the upon posts, and other the most visible places father.

about the city; which was as great and destrucThe bill of attainder in few days passed the tive a violation of the privileges and freedom of house of commons; though some lawyers, of great parliament, as can be imagined : yet, being comand known learning, declared, “that there was no plained of in the house, not the least countenance

ground or colour in law, to judge him guilty of was given to the complaint, or the least care taken

high treason :” and the lord Digby (who had for the discovery. been, from the beginning, of that committee for The persons, who had still the conduct of the the prosecution, and had much more prejudice designs, began to find, that their friends abroad than kindness to the earl) in a very pathetical (of whose help they had still great need, for the speech declared, “that he could not give his con- getting petitions to be brought to the house; and “ sent to the bill; not only, for that he was un for all tumultuous appearances in the city; and “ satisfied in the matter of law, but, for that he negociations with the common council) were not

was more unsatisfied in the matter of fact; those at all satisfied with them, for their want of zeal words, upon which the impeachment was princi- in the matter of religion; and, though they had

pally grounded, being so far from being proved branded as many of the bishops, and others of the

by two witnesses, that he could not acknowledge prelatical party, as had come in their
“ it to be by one; since he could not admit sir received all petitions against the church with en-

Harry Vane to be a competent witness, who couragement: yet, that there was nothing done, or

being first examined, denied that the earl spake visibly in projection to be done, towards lessen“ those words; and upon his second examination, ing their jurisdiction; or indulging any of that “ remembered some; and at his third the rest of liberty to their weak brethren, which they had “the words:” and thereupon related many cir- from the beginning expected from them. And cumstances, and made many sharp, observations then, the discourse of their ambition, and hopes of upon what had passed; which none but one of the preferment at court, was grown public, and raised committee could have done: for which he was much jealousy of them. presently after questioned in the house; but made But the truth is, they who had made in their his defence so well

, and so much to the disadvan- hearts the most destructive vows against the church, tage of those who were concerned, that from that never durst communicate their bloody wishes to time they prosecuted him with an implacable rage their best friends, whose authority gave them their and uncharitableness upon all occasions. The bill greatest credit. For besides that their own clergy, passed with only fifty-nine dissenting voices, there whose hands they produced in great numbers to being near two hundred in the house ; and was complaints against the innovations, which had (as immediately sent up to the lords, with this addi- they said) been introduced ; and against the ceretion, “that the commons would be ready the next monies, which had been in constant practice since

day in Westminster-hall, to give their lordships the reformation, as well as before ; were far from “ satisfaction in the matter of law, upon what had being of one mind in the matter or manner of passed at the trial.”

what they wished should be altered ; as appeared The earl was then again brought to the bar ; the whenever they appeared before the house, or a lords sitting as before, in their robes; and the committee, when any of them were asked quescommons as they had done ; amongst them, Mr. tions they did not expect; there was less consent Saint-John, (whom his majesty had made his amongst their lay-friends, in ecclesiastical affairs, solicitor general since the beginning of parliament,) than amongst the other. from his place, argued for the space of near an

The earl of Bedford had no desire that there hour the matter of law. Of the argument itself should be any alteration in the government of the I shall say little, it being in print, and in many church; and had always lived towards my lord of hands; I shall only remember two notable propo- Canterbury himself with all respect and reverence, sitions, which are sufficient characters of the person and frequently visited and dined with him ; suband the time. Lest what had been said on the scribed liberally to the repair of St. Paul's church, earl's behalf, in point of law, and upon the want and seconded all pious undertakings : though, it is of proof, should have made any impression in their true, he did not discountenance notoriously those lordships, he averred, “That, in that way of bill, of the clergy who were unconformable.

private satisfaction to each man's conscience was The earl of Essex was rather displeased with the

sufficient, although no evidence had been given person of the archbishop, and some other bishops, “ in at all.” and as to the pressing the law, he than indevoted to the function; and towards some said, “ It was true, we give law to hares and deer, of them he had great reverence and kindness, as “ because they be beasts of chase; but it was bishop Moreton, bishop Hall, and some other of

never accounted either cruelty, or foul play, to the less formal and more popular prelates : and he “knock foxes and wolves on the head as they can was as much devoted as any man to the Book of “ be found, because they be beasts of prey.' In Common Prayer, and obliged all his servants to a word, the law and the humanity were alike; be constantly present with him at it; his housethe one being more fallacious, and the other more hold chaplain being always a most conformable barbarous, than in any age had been vented in man, and a good scholar. such an auditory.

In truth, in the house of peers there were only The same day, as a better argument to the lords at that time taken notice of, the lords Say and speedily to pass the bill, the nine and fifty mem- Brooke, and they believed to be positive enemies bers of the house of commons, who (as is said to the whole fabric of the church, and to desire before) had dissented from that act, had their a dissolution of that government; the earl of War

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94 The bill to take away the bishops' votes. - Mr. Hyde and lord Falkland. (BOOK III wick himself having never discovered any aversion administered much pleasure to very many who to episcopacy, and much professed the contrary. loved neither of them. When the bill was put to

In the house of commons, though of the chief the question, Mr. Hyde (who was from the begin leaders, Nathaniel Fiennes, and young sir Harry ning known to be an enemy to it) spake very ear Vane, and shortly after Mr. Hambden (who had nestly “for the throwing it out ;" said, “It wa not before owned it) were believed to be for root changing the whole frame and constitution o and branch; which grew shortly after a common “the kingdom, and of the parliament itself: that expression, and discovery of the several tempers : “ from the time that parliaments began, there hac yet Mr. Pym was not of that mind, nor Mr. Hollis, never been one parliament, when the bishop nor any of the northern men, or those lawyers who were not part of it: that if they were taken ou drove on most furiously with them : all who were “ of the house, there would be but two estate pleased with the government itself of the church. “ left; for that they as the clergy were the thir

The first design that was entertained against the “estate, and being taken away, there was nobod church; and which was received in the house of left to represent the clergy: which would intro commons with a visible countenance and approba “ duce another piece of injustice, which no othe tion of many, who were neither of the same prin part of the kingdom could complain of, who wer ciples or purpose; was a short bill that was brought “all represented in parliament, and were therefor in, “to take away the bishops' votes in parliament; “ bound to submit to all that was enacted, becaus “ and to leave them out in all commissions of the “ it was upon the matter with their own consent

peace, and with relation to any temporal affairs.” “whereas, if the bishops were taken from sittin This was contrived, with great deliberation and " in the house of peers, there was nobody wh preparation, to dispose men to consent to it: and “ could pretend to represent the clergy; and to this many of the house of peers were much dis they must be bound by their determinations." posed; and amongst theni, none more than the When he had done, the lord Falkland, wb earl of Essex, and all the popular lords; who always sat next to him, (which was so much take observed, “ that they seldom carried any thing notice of, that, if they came not into the hou “which directly opposed the king's interest, by together, as usually they did, every body left t

[reason of] the number of the bishops, who, for place for him that was absent,) suddenly stood u “s the most part, unanimously concurred against it, and declared himself “ to be of another opinio “ and opposed many of their other designs : and “and that, as he thought the thing itself to

they believed that it could do the church no absolutely necessary for the benefit of the churc “harm, by the bishops having fewer diversions “ which was in so great danger; so he had nev “ from their spiritual charges."

heard, that the constitution of the kingdo In the house of commons, they used that, and “ would be violated by the passing that act; an other arguments, to remove the prejudice from it; “ that he had heard many of the clergy prote and, as there were many who were persuaded, that “ that they could not acknowledge that they we the passing that bill would be no prejudice; and “ represented by the bishops. However we mig were as unwilling, that the bishops should be jus presume, that if they could make that appe tices of peace, and in any other secular commis that they were a third estate, that the house sions, as the lords were that they should not sit peers (amongst whom they sat, and had yet th with them : so they prevailed with others, who votes) would reject it.” And so, with sos heartily desired that there might be no such dimi- facetiousness, answering some other particula nution of their honour and authority, by persuad- concluded, “ for the passing the act. ing them, “That there was so great a concurrence The house was so marvellously delighted, to “ towards the passing this bill; and so great a the two inseparable friends divided in so import “ combination throughout the nation against the a point, that they could not contain from a k “ whole government of the church, and a resolu- of rejoicing ; and the more, because they saw “ tion to destroy it absolutely: in which the Scots Hyde was much surprised with the contradicti

were so resolutely engaged, that they discoursed as in truth he was ; having never discovered “ in all companies, that it was impossible for a firm least inclination in the other towards such a co

peace to be preserved between the nations, if pliance: and therefore they entertained an imagi

bishops were not taken away; and that the army tion and hope that they might work the lord Fa “wo never march out of the kingdom, till that land to a farther concurrence with them.

were brought to pass : but that if this bill were they quickly found themselves disappointed;

once passed, a greater number in both houses that, as there was not the least interruptior “ would be so well satisfied, that the violenter close friendship between the other two; so, w

party would be never able to prosecute their the same argument came again into debate, ak “ desires.” And this reason did prevail over many six months after, the lord Falkland changed men of excellent judgments, and unquestionable opinion, and gave them all the opposition he cou affections ; who did in truth at that time believe, nor was he reserved in acknowledging, “tha “ that the passing this act was the only expedient “ had been deceived, and by whom; and “to preserve the church :" insomuch, as when it fessed to his friends, with whom he would was brought into the house, it found a better re- freely, “ that Mr. Hambden had assured him, ception than was expected; and some men, who, “if that bill might pass, there would be not others thought, would have opposed it, spake on more attempted to the prejudice of the churc its behalf, expressing their desire “that it might which he thought, as the world then went, w pass.”

be no ill composition. There was a difference in opinion in this debate, This bill, for taking away the bishops' votes between two persons, who had been never known of the house of peers, produced another disco to differ in the house, and the entire friendship they which cast the conductors farther behind, had for each other was very remarkable ; which they were advanced by their conquest amongs

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