CLAYTON ACT. See Antitrust Acts.

COERCION. See Constitutional Law, II, 1; V, 10.
COLLECTIVE BARGAINING. See Constitutional Law, I, 1.

Jurisdiction, IV, 2; Labor.

COLLISION. See Admiralty, 1.

COMMANDER IN CHIEF. See Constitutional Law, I, 1; Juris-

diction, I, 2.
COMMERCE. See Admiralty, 1; Antitrust Acts; Constitutional

Law, IV; Federal Power Act; Jurisdiction, IV, 2; Public

Utilities; Transportation.
COMMUNISM. See Contempt.
COMPENSATION. See Admiralty; Government Employees; Ju-

risdiction, IV, 1.
COMPETITION. See Antitrust Acts.
CONFESSION OF ERROR. See Procedure, 3.
CONFESSIONS. See Constitutional Law, V, 8, 10; Procedure, 3.
CONGRESS. See Admiralty, 1; Constitutional Law, I, 1, 3; Stat-

utes, 2.
CONSERVATION. See Jurisdiction, II, 5.
CONSPIRACY. See Antitrust Acts.

CONSTITUTIONAL LAW. See also Criminal Law, 2; Elections;

Evidence; Federal Power Act; Jurisdiction, I, 1; II, 1, 5:

I. In General, p. 993.
II. Freedom of Speech, Press and Religion, p. 994.
III. Search and Seizure, p. 994.
IV. Commerce, p. 995.

V. Due Process of Law, p. 995.

VI. Equal Protection of Laws, p. 996.
I. In General.

1. Powers of President-National defense-Seizure of property.
Presidential order directing governmental seizure and operation of
steel mills, to avoid strike of steelworkers endangering national de-
fense, unconstitutional, Congress having authorized other procedures
and not seizure. Youngstown Sheet & Tube Co. v. Sawyer, 579.


2. Presidential electorsManner of appointment-Primary elec-
tions.-Federal Constitution no bar to political party requiring, from
candidate for Presidential elector in its primary, pledge to support
nominees of National Convention. Ray v. Blair, 154, 214.

3. Powers of Congress-Sixteenth Amendment-Income tax.-Six-
teenth Amendment empowers Congress to tax as income monies re-
ceived by extortion. Rutkin v. United States, 130.

4. Federal Government action-What constitutes.-Operation of
radio service on streetcars and busses by District of Columbia transit
company, and order of Public Utilities Commission permitting opera-
tion, as action of Federal Government making First and Fifth Amend-
ments applicable. Public Utilities Comm'n v. Pollak, 451.
II. Freedom of Speech, Press and Religion.

1. Religious freedom - Public schools Released time."-New
York “released time" system not violative of First Amendment rights;
not prohibition of "free exercise" of religion nor law "respecting an
establishment of religion”; evidence of coercion lacking. Zorach v.
Clauson, 306.

2. Freedom of speechTransit radio-Rights of passengers.-
Constitutional rights of passengers not invaded by radio programs on
District of Columbia streetcars and busses, nor by permissive order
of Public Utilities Commission. Public Utilities Comm'n v. Pollak,

3. Freedom of speech and press-Prior restraint-Motion pic-
tures—Sacrilegious."—State ban on showing of motion picture as
"sacrilegious" unconstitutional; motion pictures within free speech
and press guaranty. Joseph Burstyn, Inc. v. Wilson, 495; Gelling
v. Texas, 960.

4. Freedom of speech and press-Group libel lauValidity.-
State court conviction for distributing anti-Negro leaflets sustained;
Illinois group libel law not violative of freedom of speech and press;
“clear and present danger" doctrine not involved here. Beauharnais
v. Illinois, 250.
III. Search and Seizure.

Federal agents-Listening devices-Admission of evidence.-Evi-
dence of conversation between defendant and undercover agent in
defendant's place of business, heard by witness outside on receiver
tuned to radio transmitter concealed on undercover agent, not ex-
cludable; conduct of federal agents did not amount to proscribed
search and seizure. On Lee v. United States, 747.



IV. Commerce.

State regulationTaxicabsForeign commerce.-Ordinance
quiring permit from sheriff and payment of $1 fee for driving taxi-
cabs in county, valid though passengers were being transported only
in foreign commerce; not unreasonable burden on foreign commerce.
Buck v. California, 99.
V. Due Process of Law. See also II, supra.


1. In general-Criteria of due process-State practice.--Practice
followed in large number of states not necessarily required as due
process. Leland v. Oregon, 790.

2. Liberty-Right of privacy-Public transportation-Radio serv-
ice.-Operation of radio service on District of Columbia streetcars
and busses, permitted by Public Utilities Commission, did not invade
passengers' right of privacy. Public Utilities Comm’n v. Pollak, 451.

3. Elections-Political parties--Primaries.--Requirement by po-
litical party that candidate in primary for Presidential elector pledge
support to nominees of National Convention, valid. Ray v. Blair,
154, 214.

4. Civil procedure-Sherman Act.-Procedure whereby royalty
rates under patent licenses were fixed did not deny due process to
defendant in Sherman Act proceeding. Besser Mig. Co. v. United
States, 444.

5. Criminal statutes-Requirement of definiteness.-Requirement
of definiteness as satisfied by construction given here to 18 U. S. C.
$ 215. United States v. Hood, 148.

6. Immigration Act-Validity-Vagueness.- Provision of Immi-
gration Act making it felony for alien, ordered deported, to willfully
fail to make timely application in good faith for documents necessary
to departure, not void for vagueness. United States v. Spector, 169.

7. Group libel law-Validity-Vagueness.—Illinois group libel law
valid; not void for vagueness.

Beauharnais v. Illinois, 250.
8. Criminal casesConfessionsState courts.--Due process not
denied by trial court's refusal to require prosecutor to make confes-
sion of defendant available to counsel before trial. Leland v. Oregon,

9. Criminal cases--State courtsProof of insanity.-Oregon stat-
utes requiring defendant to prove insanity beyond reasonable doubt
and making "morbid propensity" no defense, valid; due process
does not require adoption of "irresistible impulse” rather than “right
and wrong" test of sanity; instructions to jury. Leland v. Oregon,
tion, IV, 2; Labor; Taxation, 4; Usufruct.
CONTRIBUTIONS. See Criminal Law, 1.
CORPORATIONS. See Procedure, 1.
CORRUPT PRACTICES. See Criminal Law, 1.
COUNSEL. See Constitutional Law, V, 8, 10; Contempt; Taxation.
COURTS. See Antitrust Acts; Constitutional Law, II, 4; III; V,


10. Criminal casesTrialState courts.State court conviction
for murder did not deny due process; confessions; newspaper arti-
cles; fair trial; assistance of counsel; burden of showing unfair trial.
Stroble v. California, 181.

11. Criminal casesTrialState courts.—Due process not denied
by trial court's rejection of defendant's proffer of evidence which
would have been no defense. Beauharnais v. Illinois, 250.
VI. Equal Protection of Laws.

ElectionsPolitical partiesPrimaries.—Requirement by political
party that candidate in primary for Presidential elector pledge sup-
port to nominees of National Convention, valid. Ray v. Blair, 154,
CONTEMPT. See also Criminal Law, 3.

Criminal contemptPower of court-Misbehavior in presence-
Summary disposition-Deferment of judgment.-Power of federal
judge to defer until end of criminal trial summary punishment of
defense counsel for contempt committed in presence of judge; effect
of fact that contempt was personal to judge; Rule 42 (a) of Federal
Rules of Criminal Procedure construed; effect of sentences. Sacher
v. United States, 1.
CONTINUANCE. See Jurisdiction, II, 6.
CONTRACTS. See Admiralty, 1; Federal Power Act; Jurisdic-

4, 8–11; Contempt; Criminal Law, 2-3; Evidence; Jurisdic-

tion; Labor, 1; Procedure; Trespass.
COURTS-MARTIAL. See Jurisdiction, I, 2.
CRIMINAL LAW. See also Constitutional Law, II, 4; III; V, 1,

5-11; Contempt; Evidence; Jurisdiction, I, 2; II, 7; Procedure,

3; Statutes, 3; Taxation, 1; Treason; Trespass; Trial.
1. Federal offenses-Sale of influenceAppointive offices.-Sale of
influence to obtain non-existent office was offense under 18 U. S. C.
§ 215, where establishment of office was authorized and could rea-
sonably be anticipated. United States v. Hood, 148.



2. Burden of proof-Reasonable doubtState courts.Reason-
able doubt rule of Davis v. United States established no constitu-
tional doctrine but only rule for federal courts. Leland v. Oregon,

3. Concurrent sentences-Reversal of one-Effect.-Where sen-
tences on specifications of criminal contempt are concurrent, reversal
on one does not require reversal on others. Sacher v. United
States, 1.
DAMAGES. See Admiralty; Government Employees.
DEATH SENTENCE. See Constitutional Law, V, 9-10; Treason.
DECREES. See Antitrust Acts; Constitutional Law, V, 4; Juris-

diction, I, 1; IV, 2.
DEDUCTIONS. See Admiralty, 2; Taxation, 3-4.
DEFINITENESS. See Constitutional Law, V, 5–7.
DEPORTATION. See Constitutional Law, V, 6.
DISCRIMINATION. See Antitrust Acts, 3; Constitutional Law,

V, 7; VI; Transportation, 2.
DISTRICT ATTORNEYS. See Constitutional Law, V, 8–11;

DISTRICT COURTS. See Contempt; Jurisdiction; Procedure.
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. See Public Utilities.
DOCTORS. See Antitrust Acts, 1; Taxation, 4.
DUE PROCESS. See Constitutional Law, I, 1; II; V.
EDUCATION. See Constitutional Law, II, 1.

Presidential electorsPrimary electionsParty requirements.-
Status and function of Presidential electors; requirement by political
party that candidate in primary for Presidential elector pledge sup-
port to nominees of National Convention, valid. Ray v. Blair, 154,
EMERGENCY. See Constitutional Law, I, 1.
EMINENT DOMAIN. See Constitutional Law, I, 1.
EMPLOYER AND EMPLOYEE. See Admiralty, 2; Government

Employees; Labor.
EQUAL PROTECTION OF LAWS. See Constitutional Law, VI.

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