of the

several statos.

the security of their liberties, and their mutual and general welfare; binding ihemselves to assist each other against all force offered to, or attacks made upon them, or any of them, on account of religion, sovereignty, trade, or any other pretence whatever.

Art. 4. The better to secure and perpetuate mutual friend- Mutual priviship and intercourse among the people of the different states to the

uluerent states free inhabitin this union, the free inhabitants of each of these states, pau- ants of the pers, vagabonds, and fugitives from justice, excepted, shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of free citizens in the several states; and the people of each state shall have free ingress and regress to and from any other state, and shall enjoy therein all the privileges of trade and commerce, subject to the same duties, impositions, and restrictions, as the inhabitants thereof respectively, provided that such restrictions shall not extend so far as to prevent the removal of property imported into any state to any other state, of which the owner is an inhabitant; provided also, that no imposition, duties, or restriction, shall be laid by any state on the property of the United States or either of them. If any person guilty of or charged with treason, felony, or Porsons guilty

of crimes to be other high misdemeanor, in any state, shall flee from justice, givan up. and be found in any of the United States, he shall, upon deinand of the governor or executive power of the state from which he fled, be delivered up, and removed to the state having jurisdiction of his offence. Full faith and credit shall be given in each of these states to Faith to be

given to the the records, acts, and judicial proceedings of the courts and ma- acts of each gistrates of every other state.

stata. ART. 5. For the more convenient management of the gene. Delegates to

be annually ral interests of the United States, delegates shall be an- appointed, &c. nually appointed in such manner as the legislature of each state shall direct, to meet in congress on the first Monday in November, in every year, with a power reserved to each state Each stato.

may recall its to recall its delegates or any of them, at any time within the delegates, &c. year, and to send others in their stead for the remainder of the year. No state shall be represented in congress by less than two Number and

capacity of nor by more than seven members ; and no person shall be ca- delegates. pable of being a delegate for more than three years in any term of six years; nor shall any person, being a delegate, be capable of holding any office under the United States, for which he, or another for his benefit, receives any salary, fees, or emolument of any kind.

Each state shall maintain its own delegates in a meeting of Each stato to the states, and while they act as members of the committee of maintain its

own deloThe states.

gates. In determining questions in the United States in congress Each assembled, each state shall have one vole.

Privileges of Freedom of speech and debate in congress shall not be impeached or questioned in any court or place out of congress ; congress, and the members of congress shall be protected in their persons from arrests and inprisonments, during the time of their

have one vote. ing offices not

members of

ress not



val and

going to and from and attendance on congress, except for trea

son, felony, or breach of the peace. No stato to Art. 6. No state, without the consent of the United States negotiate with in

th in congress assembled, shall send any embassy 10, or receive foreign powers. any embassy from, or enter into any conference, agreement, al

liance, or treaty, with any king, prince, or state; nor shall any Persons hold.

person holding any office of profit or trust under the United to accept States, or any of them, accept of any present, emolument, office, presents.

not or title of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign to grant titles state ; nor shall the United States in congress assembled, or any

of them, grant any title of nobility. Treaties be- No two or more states shall enter into any treaty, confederazween iwo or tion, or alliance whatever between them, without the consent of prohibited. the United States in congress assembled, specilying accurately

the purposes for which the same is to be entered into, and how

long it shall continue.. No state to Ño state shall lay any imposts or duties, which may interfere lay interfering imposts or du: with any stipulations in treaties entered into by the United ties.

States in congress assembled, with any king, prince, or state, in pursuance of any treaties already proposed by congress 10

the courts of France and Spain. Regulations No vessels of war shall be kept up in time of peace by any

nilita- state, except such number only as shall be deemed necessary ry establish.. by the United States in congress assembled for the defence of ments, the mic litia, &c. such state or its trade; nor shall any body of forces be kept up

by any state in time of peace, except such number only as, in the judgment of the United States in congress assembled, shall be deemed requisite to garrison the forts necessary for the defence of such stale; but every state shall always keep up a well regulated and disciplined militia, sufficiently arined and accoutred, and shall provide and have constantly ready for use, in public stores, a due number of field pieces and tents, and a

proper quantity of arins, ammunition, and camp equipage. No state, ex: No state shall engage in any war without le consent of the cept in certain u

to en. United States in congress assembled, unless such state be acgage in war; tually invaded by enemies, or shall have received certain ad. missions to vice of a resolution being formed by some nation of Indians to armed vessels, invade such state, and the danger is so imininent as not lo ad

mit of a delay till the United States in congress assembled can be consulted ; nor shall any state grant commissions to any ships or vessels of war, nor letters of marque or reprisal, except it be after a declaration of war by the United States in congress assembled, and then only against the kingdom or state, and the subjects thereof, against which war has been so declared, and under such regulations as shall be established by the United States in congress assembled, unless such state be infested by pirates, in which case vessels of war may be fitted out for that occasion, and kept so long as the danger shall continue, or until the United States in congress assembled shall de

termine otherwise. Officers of the ART. 7. When land forces are raised by any state for the land force, un- common defence, all officers of or under the rank of colonel,

nor grant com



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shall be appointed by the legislature of each state respectively, der the rank by whom such forces shall be raised, or in such manner as such be

of colonel, lo state shall direct; and all vacancies shall be filled up by the state by the states which first made the appointment.

respectively. Art. 8. All charges of war, and all other expenses that shall All charges of be incurred for the common defence or general welfare, and al- defrayed out lowed by the United States in congress assembled, shall be de- :

e treasury. frayed out of a common treasury, which shall be supplied by the several states in proportion to the value of all land within each state granted to or surveyed for any person, as such land The treasury and the buildings and improvements thereon shall be estimated, tots

mited, by contribuaccording to such mode as the United States in congress assem- íons of tho bled shall from time to time direct and appoint.

The taxes for paying that proportion shall be laid and levied Taxes to be by the authority and direction of the legislatures of the several bv

laid and levied states, within the time agreed upon by the United States in respectively. congress assembled.

Art. 9. The United States in congress assembled shall have Powers of the the sole and exclusive right and power of determining on peace

corgress. and war, except in the cases mentioned in the sixth article of sending and receiving anibassadors-entering into treaties and alliances ; provided, that no ireary of commerce shall be made whereby the legislative power of the respective states shall be restrained from imposing such imposts and duties on foreigners as their own people are subjected to, or from prohibiling the exportation or importation of any species of goods or commodities whatsoever-of establishing rules for deciding in all cases, what captures on land or water shall be legal, and in whal manner prizes taken by land or naval forces in the service of the United States shall be divided or appropriated-of granting letters of marque and reprisal in times of peace-appointing courts for the trial of piracies and felonies commitied on the high scas, and establishing courts for receiving and determining finally appeals in all cases of captures ; provided, Members of that no member of congress shall be appointed a judge of any con of the said courts.

of admirally The United States in congress assembled shall also be the com last resort on appeal in all disputes and differences now sub- last resort for

deciding dissisting or that hereafter may arise between two or more states putes between concerning boundary, jurisdiction, or any other cause what- states. ever ; which authority shall always be exercised in the inanner following: whenever the legislative or executive authority Mode in which or lawful agent of any state in controversy with another shall congress shall

exercise ils present a petition to congress, stating the matter in question, authority for and praying for a hearing, notice thereof shall be given by de order of congress to the legislative or executive authority of states. the other state in controversy, and a day assigned for the appearance of the parties, by their lawful agents, who shall then be directed to appoint by joint consent commissioners or judges to constitute a court for hearing and determining the matter in question ; but if they cannot agree, congress shall name

three persons out of each of the United States, and from the > list of such persons each party shall alternately strike out one,

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the petitioners beginning, until the number shall be reduced Judges to be to thirteen; and from that number not less than seven nor

more than nine names, as congress shall direct, shall, in the presence of congress, be drawn out by lot; and the persons whose names shall be so drawn, or any five of them, shall be commissioners or judges, to hear and finally determine the con

troversy, so always as a major part of the judges, who shall Opinions of a hear the cause, shall agree in the determination : and if either e majority of judges io pre

e-party shall neglect to attend at the day appointed, without vail, &c. showing reasons which congress shall judge sufficient, or be

ing present shall refuse to strike, the congress shall proceed to nominate three persons out of each stale, and the secretary

of congress shall strike in behalf of such party absent or reJudgment to fusing; and the judgment and sentence of the court to be apbe final and conclusive.

pointed in the manner before prescribed, shall be final and conclusive; and if any of the parties shall refuse to submit to the authority of such court, or to appear, or defend their claim or cause, the court shall nevertheless proceed to pro

nounce sentence or judgment, which shall in like manner be Sentence and final and decisive, the judgment or sentence, and other proproceedings to be lodged ceedings, being in either case transmitted 10. congress, and among the lodged among the acts of congress for the security of the gress.

parties concerned : provided, that every commissioner, before he sits in judgment, shall take an oath, to be administered by

one of the judges of the supreme or superior court of the state, Dath to be where the cause shall be cried, well and truly to hear and detaken by the termine the matter in question, according to the best of his judgjudges. Proviso.

ment, without favor, affection, or hope of reward :" provided also, that no state shall be deprived of territory for the benefit of

The United States. Congress also All controversies concerning the private right of soil, claim10 determine ed under different grants of iwo or more states, whose juris. controversies diction as they may concerning diction as they may respect such lands and the states which private rights passed such grants are adjusted, the said grants or either of of soil.

them being at the same time claimed to have originated antecedent to such settlement of jurisdiction, shall, on the petition of either party to the congress of the United States, be finally determined, as near as may be, in the same manner as is before prescribed for deciding disputes respecting territorial jurisdiction between different states.

The United States in congress assembled shall also have the sole and exclusive right and power of regulating the alloy and value of coin struck by their own authority, or by that of the respective states-fising the standard of weights and measures throughout the United States-regulating the trade and managing all affairs with the Indians not members of any of the states; provided that the legislative right of any stale within its own liinits be not infringed or violated-establishing and regulating post offices from one state to another throughout all the United States, and exacting such postage on the papers passing through the same as may be requisite to defray the expenses of the said office-appointing all officers of the land forces in the service of the United States, excepting regimental

Further powers of congress.

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officers—appointing all the officers of the naval forces, and commissioning all officers whatever in the service of the Unite ed States—making rules for the government and regulation of the said land and naval forces, and directing their operations.

The United States in congress assembled shall have autho-Congress to rity to appoint a committee to sit in the recess of congress, lo appon

8 ." committee of be denominated “ a committee of the states;" and to consist the states. of one delegate from each state, and to appoiol such other commillees and civil officers as may be necessary for manag-gress enumeing the general affairs of the United States, under their direc-ra tion-10 appoint one of their number to preside, provided that no person be allowed to serve in the office of president more than one year in any term of three years—to ascertain the necessary sums of money to be raised for the service of the United States, and to appropriate and apply the same for defraying the public expenses-10 borrow money or emit bills on the credit of the United States, transmilling every half year to the respective states an account of the sums of money so borrowed or emilled- to build and equip a navy-lo agree upon the number of land forces, and to make requisitions from each state for its quota, in proportion to the number of white inhabitants in such state; which requisition shall be binding, and thereupon the legislature of each state shall appoint the regimental officers, raise the men, and clothe, arm, and equip them in a soldier-like manner, at the expense of the United States; and the officers and men so clothed, armed, and equipped, shall march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the United States in congress assembled : but if the United States in congress assembled, shall, on consideralion of circumstances, judge proper that any state should not raise men or should raise a smaller number than its quota, and that any other state should raise a greater number of men than the quota thereol, such extra number shall be raised, officered, clothed, armed, and equipped, in the same inanner as the quota of such state, unless the legislature of such state shall judge that such extra number cannot be safely spared out of the same ; in which case they shall raise, officer, clothe, arm, and equip, as many of such extra number as they judge can be safely spared. And the officers and men so clothed, armed, and equipped, shall march to the place appointed, and within the time agreed on by the United States in congress assembled.

The United States in congress assembled shall never en- Congress nol gage in a war, nor grant letters of marque and reprisal in time ... exerciso of peace, nor enter into any treaties or alliances, nor coin enumerated money, nor regulate the value thereof, nor ascertain the sums un and expenses necessary for the defence and welfare of the states ; nor to United States or any of them, nor emit bills, nor borrow mo

determine any

Da question, exney on the credit of the United States, nor appropriate money, cept for adnor agree upon the number of vessels of war to be built or purchased, or the number of land or sea forces to be raised, day, without

the powers

unless by the votes of nino

the sanction nor appoint a commander in chief of the army or navy, unless nine states așsent to the same ; nor shall a question on any

ment day to

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