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of it being adapted to this purpose, gory, bishop of Neocesarea, in Ponand the ground on the sides of it still tus, instituted, that festival days bearing certain vestiges of a Roman should be celebrated to them who intrenchment; that the brick-kiln had contended for the faith, that is, was built for the use of the Romans, to the martyrs.” And Nysen adds or for their civilized British subjects, this reason for the institution, viz. about the year 418, in which year, “ When he (Gregory) observed that according to the Saxon chronicle, the the simple and unskilful multitudes, Romans left tbis island, carrying with by reason of corporeal delights, rethein all their treasures; that, in con- mained in the error of idols, that the sequence of this event, and of the principal tbing 'might be corrected confusion which followed it, from among them, namely, that instead of the inroads of the Picts, Scotch, and this vain worsbip, they might turn Saxons, the Britons had no leisure their eyes upon God, he permitted, nor inclination to raise new buildings; that, at the memories of the holy until, at length, they were driven out martyrs, they might make merry, of the open country, and confined to delight themselves, and be dissolved the mountains of Wales and Corb- into joy. The heathens were dewall; that the Saxons were too much lighted with the festivals of their employed, and too little civilized for gods, and unwilling to part with almost a century after their arrival those delights; and therefore Grehere, to think of new buildings; and gory, to facilitate their conversion, that, when they did begin to build, instituted annual festivals to saints they, as was the practice with their and martyrs.” Hence it came to successors the Normans, used stones, pass, that for exploding the festivals or even flints, in preference to bricks; of the heathens, the principal festivals that, during all this time, the dust and of the christians succeeded in their earth accumulated, as I said before, room; as the keeping of Christmas upon the heap of bricks, till they with ivy, and feasting in the room of completely covered it. With respect the Bacchanalia and Salurnalia: the to the focus, floors, &c. at the house celebrating of May-day with flowers, which I suppose belonged to the in the room of the Floralia ; and the Roman fort, these being in situations keeping of festivals to the Virgin where no cellars were dug, they must Mary, John the Baptist, and divers have escaped the mattocks of the of the apostles, in the room of the workmen, when they were digging solemnities used at the entrance of the foundations for the old house, the sun into the signs of the zodiac now demolished.

in the old Julian calendar. “The church (says an ingenious writer)

hath only christened these heathen fesOrigin of placing Holly in Churches tivals with the name of some saints; at Christmas.

and as December was a dead time

of the year, when the heathens had The great Newton, in his disser- their Saturnalia, and gave loose to tations on prophecy, says, “ Gregory recreation, the christians honoured Nyssen tells us, that after the persé- the season with the name of their mtion of the emperor Decius, Gre. Saviour."

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Here

Here then we may discover the of “placing sprigs of ivy, holly, &e. honourable origin of Christmas, and in our churches at Christmas;" a by consulting Kennet or any other seasou of more dissolute pleasure and writer on Roman antiquities, we may criminal indulgence than any other in also discover how the Bacchanalia the whole year, as if Christ was be. W observed, the gross licentious- come the minister of sin! ness of that festival, and the reason

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MISCELLANEOUS

MISCELLANEOUS ESSAYS,

&c. &c.

American Expedition of Discovery, order the more effectually to explore

under the Command of Captain the country, and discover the most Lewis.

practicable route which does exist across the continent by the

way

of VHE following is a copy of a let- the Missouri and Columbia rivers.

ter from captain Clarke, the In this we were completely successsecond in command, to his brother, ful, and have therefore no hesitation general Clark; which ascertains that in declaring, that such as nature has this Expedition succeeded in pene- permitted, we have discovered the trating through the continent between best route which does exist across the rivers Missouri and Columbia, the continent of North America in and in navigating the Columbia down , that direction. Such is that by way to the Pacific.

of the Missouri to the foot of the

Rapids below the great falls of that St. Louis, Sept. 23, 1805. river, a distance of 2575 miles; .“ Dear brother,

thence by land passing by the Rocky “ We arrived at this place at Mountains, to a navigable part of twelve o'clock to-day, from the the Kooskooske, 340; and with the Pacific Ocean, where we remained Kooskooske 73 miles, Lewis's River during the last winter, near the en- 154 miles, and the Columbia 413 trance of the Columbia river. This miles to the Pacific Ocean, making station we left on the 27th of March the total distance from the confluence last, and should have reached St. of the Missouri and Mississippi, to Louis early in August, had we not the discharge of the Columbia into been detained by the snow, which the Pacific Ocean, 3554 miles. The barred our passage across the Rocky navigation of the Missouri may be Mountains, until the 24th of June. deemed good-its difficulties arise In returning through those moun- from its falling banks, timber emtains, we divided ourselves into se bedded in the mud of its channels, veral parties, digressiog from the its sand-bars and steady rapidity of route by which we went out, in its' current, all which may

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come

were, of

come with a great degree of cer in nine tenths of the most valuable tainty, by using the necessary pre fur country in America, may be concautions. The passage by land of veyed to the mouth of the Colum340 miles from the falls of the Mis- bia, and shipped from thence to the souri to the Kooskooske, is the most East Indies, by the 1st of August in formidable part of the tract proposed each year; and will of course reach across the continent. Of this dis- Canton earlier than the furs which tance, 200 miles is along a good are annually exported from Montreal road, and 140 miles over tremen- arrive in Great Britain. dous mountains, which for 60 miles “ In our outward-bound voyage, are covered with eternal snows. A we ascended to the foot of the rapassage over these mountains, is, pids below the great falls of thehowever, practicable from the latter Missouri, where we arrived on the part of June to the last of Septem- 14th of June, 1805. Not having ber; an cheap rate at which met with any of the natives of the horses are to be obtained from the Rocky Mountains, we Indiaus of the Rocky Mountains, and course, ignorant of the passes by west of them, reduces the expencés land which existed through these of transportation over this portage mountains to the Columbia river; to a mere trifle,

The navigation of and bad we even known the route, the Kooskooske, Lewis's river, and we were destitute of horses, which the Columbia, is safe and good, from would have been indispensably nethe 1st of April to the middle of cessary to enable us to transport the August; by making three portages requisite quantity of ammunition and on the latter river; the first of other stores to ertsure the remaining whichi, in descending, is 1200 paces part of our voyage down the Columat the falls of Columbia, 261 miles bia; we therefore determined to paup that river: the second of two' vigate the Missouri, as far as it was miles, at the long narrows six miles practicable, or unless we met with below the falls; and a third, also of some of the natives from whom we two miles at the great rapids, 65 could obtain horses and information miles still lower down. The tide of the country. Accordingly we took flows up the Columbia 183 miles, a most laborious portage, at the fall and within seven miles of the great of the Missouri, of 18 miles, wbich

we effected with our rapids. Large sloops may with

canoes and safety ascend as high as tide water, baggage by the 3d of July. From and vessels of 300 tous burther thence, ascending the Missouri, we reach the entrance of the Multuo- penetrated the Rocky Mountain at mab river, a large southern branch the distance of 71, miles above the of the Columbia, which takes its upper part of the portage, and perise on the confines of New Mexico, netrated as far as the three forks of with the Callerado and Apostle's that river, a distance of 180 miles rivers, discharging itself into the further. Here the Missouri divides Columbia, 125 miles from its en

into three nearly equal branches at trance into the Pacific Ocean. I the same point: the two largest consider this tract across the conti- branches are so nearly of the same nent of immense advantage to the dignity that we did not conceive that fur trade, as all the furs collected either of them conld, with propriety,

retain

retain the name of the Missouri; ing niountains between the waters of and, therefore, called these streams the Missouri and Columbia, and Jefferson's, Madison's, and Galla- descended the river, which I since tin's rivers. The confluence of these called the East Fork of Lewis's ririvers, is 3843 miles from the mouth ver, about 70 miles. Finding that of the Missouri by the meanders of the Indians' account of the country that river. We arrived at the three in the direction of tbat river was corforks of the Missouri the 27th of 'rect, I returned and joined capt. July. Not leaving yet been so for- Lewis on August 29, at the Shotunate as to meet with the natives, shone camp, excessively fatigued, as although I had previously made se you may suppose; having passed veral exertions for that purpose, we

mountains almost inaccessible, and were compelled to continue our route been compelled to subsist on berries by water.

during the greater part of my route. “ The most northerly of the three We now purchased seventeen horses forks, that to which we have given of the Indians, and hired a guide, the name of Jefferson's river, was who assured us, that he could, in deemed the most proper for our puro 15 days, take us to a large river, in poses, and we accordingly ascended an open country west of these mounit 248 miles, to the upper forks, tains, by a route some distance to and its extreme wavigable point. On the north of the river on which they the morning of the 17th of August, lived, and that by which the natives 1805, I arrived at the forks of Jef- west of the mountains visit the plain ferson's river, where I met Capt. of the Missouri, for the purpose of Lewis, who had previously pene- bunting the buffalo. Every preparatrated with a party of three men to tion being made, we set forward with the waters of the Columbia, dis our guide on the 31st of Angust, covered a band of the Shoshone na- through these tremendous mountains, tion, and had found means to induce in which we continued till the 22d 35 of their chiefs and warriors' to of September, before we reached accompany him to that place. From the lower country beyond them.these people we learned, that the On our way we met with the Oleriver od which they resided was not lachslook, a band of the Tuchanavigable, and that a passage through paks, from whom we obtained an the mountains in that direction was accession of seven horses, and eximpregnable. Being unwilling to changed eight or ten others; this confide in this unfavourable account proved an infinite service to us, as of the natives, it was concerted be we were compelled to subsist on tween capt. Lewis and myself, that horse beef about eight days before one of us should

go

forwarı imme we reached Kooskooske. During diately with a small party, and ex our passage over these mountains, plore the river; while the other, in we suffered every thing which hunthe interim, would lay up the ca- ger, cold, and fatigue, could impose; noes at that place, and engage

the nor did our ditficulties terminate on Hatives with their horses to assist in our arrival at the Kooskooske; for transporting our stores and baggage although the Pullotepallors, a nuto their camp. Accordingly I set merous nation inbabiting that counout the next day, passed the divid- try, were extremely hospitable, and,

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