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sharp visages, indicative of both intel- certain, and I dare to appeal for the ligence and want. I was at pains to truth of it to any one acquainted inquire into the diet of these poor with Caithness.” people." Breakfast, meal and bree, Mr. H. leaving Cape Wrath, an that is water-gruel, not the sub- immense rock, but not quite so slaptial porridge of the Lowlanders. - stupendous as the Red-head in An

“Dinner, meal and bree kail, or a gus, went back to Thurso; and froin kind of soup meagre, iu which there thence crossing the Pentland Frith to is boiled, perhaps, some barley or the Orkneys, and took up his head grils, with some kail, and a scanty quarters at the house of his old allowance of barley-cakes. Supper, acquaintance, the Rev. Mr. Allison, meal and bree: or, in place of this, minister of St. Andrews, and Deersowens, a kind of frumarty, made ness. He did not go to the Shet. from the busks of grits, or oatmeal. lands, but an account of the present On Sundays, or other festivals, they state of these islands, was communihave, after their meal and bree, some cated to him by a minister of a pa.. milk, or perbaps two eggs. If any rish there; which, indeed, forms the farmer is reported to eat flesh; the most interesting and valuable part laird considers this as a fraud on of his publication. Leaving the bim. “ I must look sharp after this Orkneys, he set sail to the Hebrides; man: he has his farm too cheap. where he found a class of mortals calThey tell me he eats flesh-meat. led Scollags, a kind of prædial slaves,

“It is a common thivg for labour- iŋ a condition still more wretched ers, or farmers' servants, to stipulate than that of the labouring class of with their masters, that, besides their people in Caithness. From the Hemeal and bree, or soup meagre for brides he set sail for Fort William. dinner, they shall have a certain from thence he went to Inverary, number of stocks of kail to be eaten and from Inverary by Lochlomond with bread and salt. This must ap- and Dunbarton to Glasgow. From pear to an Englishman wholly in Glasgow he went up the course or credible; as being altogether insuffi- valley of the Clyde, as far as Lanark, cient to keep soul and body together, and from thence returned to EdinNevertheless, there is nothing more burgh.

CONTENTS

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General Aspect of Europe.-Resources of the opposite Belligerent

Powers-and Views.-Fragility of Confederations.-General Marims and Measures of Buonaparte. - Position and Strength of the French and Russian Armies.-Military Force remaining to the King of Prussia after the Battles of Jena and' Pultusk.--The general Plans of the opposite Armies.- Battles of Mohringen-Bergfried - Deppen

Hoff-and Eylau. - Retreat of the French on the listula-and of the Russians behind the Pregel.

1

CH A P. II.

Relative Positions in which the French and Russian Armies were placed after the Buttle of Eylau.— Pacific Overtures by Buonaparte Rejected.- Artifices of Buonaparte.-The Russians persevere in their System of acting on the offensive.-Battle of Ostrolenka.Skirmishes.Triumphant Proclamation, or Address of Buonaparte to his- Army.-Positions of the French Army in their Winter Quarters.- Bridges and Tếtes-du-Pont on the Vistula.--Continued Skirmishes.---The most important of these.- Artillery taken from the Enemy by the French since their Arrival on the Vistula.Progress of the Allies of the French, under Jerome Buonaparte, in the reduction of Silesia.-Siege of Dantzig:-Disposition of the grand French Army for protecting the besieging Army.-Dantzig defended by Nature and by "Art.- Arrival of the Russian Emperor at Meměl— Followed by that of the Archduke Constantine with, a Reinforcement to the Russian Army.-Grand Council of War concerning the Relief of Dantzig.-Of two Plans, that which was adopted.--Prussian Force sent for the Relief of Dantzig, defeated. Attacks of the Russians on the whole Line of the French--Intended to prevent them from reinforcing the Army besieging Dantzig.Dantzig surrendered on Capitulation--Conditions of this.--State of VOL. XLIX. 3 X

the

, the CONTENTS the Garrison at this time.The Fort of Weischelnunde also surrendered.-StralsundThe Siege of it, abandoned by the French, who retire towards the Vistula.-Pursued by the Swedes. These, advancing, beyond the Peene, are discomfited by the French under the command of Marshal Mortier, and reduced to the necessity of demanding an Armistice ; which is granted.-Conditions of this Armistice. The King of Sweden arrives at Stralsund-Reviews and encourages his Army.- Himself encouraged by the Arrival of an Envoy from Great Britain with Assurances of Succour in Troops and in Money....... 16

CHAP. III. Meeting of Parliament--His Majesty's Speech delivered to both Houses

by commission-An Address in AnswerMoved in the House of Peers, by the Earl of Jersey - Seconded by Lord Somers-Observations on the Speech by Lord Hawkesbury - Replies made to Lord Hawkesbury, and the Speech in general defended by Lord Grenville-An Address in Answer to the Speech from the Throne, mored in the House of Commons by the Hon. William Windham-Seconded by Mr. John Smith-Speech of Mr. Canning on the present Occasion, and Character of his Speeches in general.-- Substitution proposed by Mr. Canning, of a new Address in place of that proposed by Mr. Lamb Reply to Mr. Canning, and the Speech from the Throne in general defended by Lord Howick-Reply to Lord Howick, and various Strictures on the conduct of Administration, by Lord Castlereagh--The Address, carried Nem. diss. Thanks to General Sir John Stuart, and the Officers and Soldiers by whose valour the Victory of Maida was obtained, moved in the House of Peers by Lord Grenville. And in the House of Commons by Mr. Windham. These Motions carried in both Houses by Acclamation. ;.

CHA P. IV. Considerations on the late Negociation with France, in the House of

Peers-Apology by Lord Grenville for the Omission of certain papers in the Number of those laid before the House. --The Ends in view, whole of the Negociation--Review of the Negociation, in the four different Stages into which Lord Grenville divided it.---Causes of the Rupture of the Negociation. --Address to His Majesty on the Subject of the Negociation, moved by Lord Grenville.- Observations on the Address, and the Subject of the Address by Lord Hawkésbury-Lord Sidmouth-Lord Eldon - And the Earl of Lauderdale - Address carried, Nem. diss.+ Address to the same effect moved in the House of Commons by Lord Howick.- Conduct of the English Ministry in the Negociation vindicated.--Speeches on the present Question by Lord Yarmouth Sir Thomas Turton-Mr. Montagu-Mr. Whitbread

Mr.

31

Mr. Canning - Lord. Henry Petty--and Mr. Perceval -- Address
carried, Nem. diss....

· 52

CHAP. V.

The insatiable Ambition and insiduous Policy of France.- No Alternative

for Britain between Resistance and Submission.-The first Attentions
of the Legislature called to the State of the Army and Navy.
Ordnance Estimates moved in the House of Commons, by Mr. Caleraft.
--Resolutions moved thereon-agreed to.-- Motions by Lord Castle-
reagh, for the Returns of the Effective State of our Military
Establishment --agreed to.---

Army Estimates.- Number and Disposition
the Volunteers.-- Result
the Recruiting System. ---Observations by Lord Castlereugh on the
Statements that had been laid before the House by the Secretary at

War: - Reply to Lord Castlereagh, by Mr. Windhan.New System
for Recruiting the Army vindicated.Strictures on that System
by Mr. Perceval.--Mr. Perceval answered, and the New System
defended by Lord Howick.- Remarks by Sir Jumes Pulteney.-Speech
of Sir John Doyle.-Observations by Mr. Johnstone--Mr Rose-
and Mr. Thornton.- The New System defended by Lerd H. Petty-
The Resolutions agreed to.- Navy Estimates moved by Mr. Thomas
Grenville.--New Arrangement proposed for a clear Statement of the

Naval Estimates in future.-Resolutions, moved by Mr. Grenville,
* agreed to.Sums for Miscellaneous Services moved by Mr. Vansittart-

among these a Sum in Addition to what had been granted before to
the Ronian Catholic college at Maynooth-Which gives rise to anima-

ted conversations on this Subject:- The Speakers ; Mr. Perceval-Mr.
Banks--Lord Stanley-Sir John Newport-Mr. Grattan - Lord
Mahon-Mr. Wilberforce--and Lord Howick.-All the Resolutions
moved by Mr. Vansittart, agreed to..

72

CA P. VI.

Finances of the country.Supplies -Ways and

Means.- Plan of Finance,
with its Object, proposed by Lord Henry Petty.-Eleven Resolutions
relating to his Plan laid on the Table for the consideration of the
House of Commons -- Objections to the Plan by Mr. Johnstone.-and
by Lord Castlereagh.--Resolutions relating to a Plan of Finance,
submitted to the House by Lord Castlereagh, in place of that of Lord
H, P.-Objections to Lord H. P.'s Plan by Mr. Long.-Lord H.
Pos Plan defended by Mr. Tierney,--and by Lord H. P. himself.-
Farther Reasoning against Lord H. Pi's Plan by Lord Castlereagh.
Fundamental Error in Lord C.'s Plan of Finance pointed out by Mr.
Giles. Lord H. Pis Plan defended by Mr. David Giddy.-Resolu-
tions on Lord H, Pis Plan reported and agreed to.-

Plan of Finance
3 X 2

by

by Sir James Pulteney.---Lord P.'s Plan defended, and Lord C's åt-
tacked by Mr. H. Thornton.Ways and Means.-Progress of the Com-,
mission of Military Inquiry.— Abuses in the Barrack Department.-
Fraudulent Dealings of Mr. Alexander Darison.--Proceedings of the
Treasury with regard to Darison-Motion by Mr. Robson for the
Appointment of a Committee of Inquiry into useless Places, and sinecure
offices.--Slightly amended by Lord I. Petty, and agreed to.-Reflec-
tions on the Proceedings in Parliament relating to Finance. On the
Nature of Money, and its great and still increasing Influx.Bad EY-
fects of this.--Observations on the Funding System.-- And on the Sinki-
ing Fund for paying off the National Debt

89

CHAP. VII.

Bill for the Abolition of the Shure Trade, brought into the House of Peers

by Lord Grenville.Motion for appointing a Day for the second
Reading of the Bill.- Communications on this Subject between His
Mojesty and Foreign Pouers. - Second Rcading of the Bill.-- Speakers
in favour of the Bill-and Speakers against it.- Religious and Moral
Plan for the gradual Abolition of Slavery, by Lord Sidmouth.- New
Clauses introduced into the Bill.--The Bishop of London's Lamenta-
tion respecting the Paucity of Churches and Ecclesiastics in our West-
India Islands.- Emphatio Declaration against the Bill, by the Earl of
St. Vincent.-The Bill passed in the House of Peers,' and sent down to
the House of Commons.-Speakers pro and con.-- Council heard against
the Bill.- Second Reading of the Bill.-- Debate on the Question for
going into a Committee.- The Question carried-and passed into a Law.

-Motion for a gradual Abolition of Slavery in our }}'est- India colonies,
by Lord Percy-supported by Mr. Sheridan--but not pressed, for the
present, by Lord Percy against the general sense of the House....'110

CHA P. VIII.

Motion by Mr. Whitbread for Leare to bring in a Bill for, tycouraging

Industry and the Relief of the Poor.- Description of the Numbers
and actual Condition of the Necessitous Poor in England.-06-
servations on the New Systems of Poor's Laus proposed by Mr.
Malthus, and Mr. Arthur Young - Principles on which Mr. Whit-
bread fminded his Bill. The particular Measures proposed to
be adopted.- Prophetic Vision of the happy Effects that might be
expected to result from thehr Adoption. Compliments paid to Mr.
Whitbread.--His Bill read a second tine, and printed. -- Sundry Ob-
serrations on the Bill.--- Inte of the Bill.- Molion by Lord Howick
for Leave to bring in a Bill for securing to all His Majesty's Sab-
jects the Privilege of serving in the Army and Navy--objected to by
Mr. Perceval:--The motion agreed to, and the Bill read a first time,

and

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