« ForrigeFortsett »
te women, commonly known by the vane of manner deposited if the gass is received in ichitos. See Medicine, and LEUCORRHEA. water, and this experiment, according to the
FLUORI! ACID. See FLUORIC STAR. circumstances under which the acid is disen
FLUORIC SPAR. (acide fluorique, French; guger!, exhibits a variety of singular and intefluss spathsure', Germ.) In the Transactions resting appearances. As soon as a bubble of of the Academy of Sciences at Berlin for 1703, gass pisses from the beak of the retort into the is contained a memoir by Margraaf on fluor water it is immediately diminished in size from spar. This able chemist found inat when the the absorption of a portion of the acid, and the above inin-ral was distilled with sulphuric acid whole would be taken up if the globule did a volatile acid vapour was disengaged, which not instantly become coated with the earth dedeposited a wbite earch on coming into con posited by ibat part of the acid which is ahtact with water; he also remarked that the sorbell, for the earthy film being interposed retort in which the distillation was carried on between the gass and the water prevents any was corroded and worn into holcs by the pro- suriher combination till the bubble Teaches cess. Three years after, Schee'published a the surface of the water, where it bursts. 18 valuable essay on the saine subjici, in which this is performed in a jar full of water inverted he proved that Huor spar consisted of lime over mercury, and care is taken to prevent the combined with a peculiar acid, many of the gass from being mixed with atmospheric air, properies of which were investigated by him the whole of the gas is absorbed, and the with great success. Priestley then took up silex, in proportion as it is deposited, dilluscs the subject, confining his attention for the itself through the liquor, which thus at length most part to the action of Auoric acid in the acquires a gelatinous consistence: when in state of ga-s. Since the date of these last ex- this state, the greater part of the earth may be periments but few additions have been made separateal by putting the whole in a piece of to our knowledge of this acid and its various linen and squieezing i:. The acid liquor thus combinations.
procured being again inverted over mercury, The distinguishing property of Avoric acid will absorb an additional quantity of gass, and by is that when dry and in the state of guss it thus treating it three or four times successively, readily combines with silex, and still retains a strong fuming acid liquor may be obtained, its elastic forin: hence arises the peculiar and consisting principally of Huoric acid and water, almost insurmountable difficulty of obtaining but still holding in solution a portion of silex, this substance in a state of purity.
and probably also alkali, from the decomposiFluoric acid is procured from Auor spar: lion of the glass of the retort. If this saturated for this purpose a quantity of the mineral being liquor is mixed with a few drops of fluat of reduced to a fine powder is to be mixed in a silver, a slight precipitate of cornea takes place, thick glass retort with an equal weight of con- and the fuoric acid is thus separated from a centrated sulphuric acid : upon the applica. sırall portion of inuriatic acid, which, when tion of a gentle heat the sulphuric acid will prepared in the foregoing manner, it is always combine with the calcareous base of the spar, found to contain. From the liquor thus puriand Ruoric gass will at the same tiine be libe. tied a considerable quantity of pure fluoric acid rated, and may be received in the mercurial gass may be obtained by heating it almost 10 pneumatic apparatus in the usual way. If the ebullition in a recort, and receiving the prie heat applied io the retort is somewhat cousin duct in mercury. This gass appears to consist derable, and the gass is rapidly produced, che merely of fluoric acil, saturated with as much retort will give way in the space of a minute waler as it can bold in an elastic state, and at a or two, being eaten into holes by the action of moderately cool camperature seems to have no the acid ; if the process is conducted cautiously action on glass. It combines readily with and at as low a temperature as possible, the water without depositing in any earth, and has retort may be macie to last a considerable while an astringent acidulous taste. A candle imlonger. The gass thus procured, while con- mersed in it is extinguished without any prefined over mercury, is perfectly colourless and vious change in the colour of the Home: it transparent; it has a pungeot suffocating odour combines with ammoniacal gass, forming a lile muriatic acid, produces immediate death white cloud : it dissolves cainphor, and is to animals which are immersed in it, extins taken up in large quantity by oil of lurpentine, guishes the name of a candle after having pre- to which it communicates an orauge colour viously tinged its fame of a green colour, and and a pungent acid odour. If kept for some changes certain vegetable blues 10 red. Its time in a bottle of soft glass it acts upon it specific gravity is considerably greater than though slighily', on which account i: is a use. that of atmospheric air, but has not yet been ful precaution before putting the acid in, to ascertained with any accuracy. If this gass is live the bottle with a thin coating of a mixture mixed with atmospheric air, a white vapour of oil and war. It has been proposed by some similar to but more copious than that occasion- chemists, as a method of obtaining pure liquid ed by the muriatie acid gass in the same cir- fluoric acid, to make use of a leaden retort and cumstances is the result, this appearance is receiver; in which case the fuor spar being parily occasioned by the combination of the previously reduced to an exceedingly fine powacid with the moisture of the air, but princi- der, is to be mixed in the retort with an equal pally by the deposition of silex, which takes weight of strong sulphuric acid; the applicaplace at the same time. The earth is in like tion of a gentle heat, not exceeding that of boiling water, will force into the receiver a mixture of one part of very fine pulverized Aluor large quantity of acid gass, where it combines spar and two parts of sulphuric acid : theni to saturation with water, and thus produces close the lid of the box, and place it on a stove, liquid fuoric acid. In this process, provided or in any other convenient situation where it the spar selecied was free from quartz, there may be exposed to as high a heat as it can bear is indeed no deposition of silex, but a very without risking the melting of the wax : fuoric notable proportion of lead is volatilized, and acid gass will be copiously disengaged, and in a remaius for the most part dissolved in the short time (from one hour to three, according Duor, which, on this account, is by no means lo circumstances) the plate will be found sufso pare as the acid produced by Dr. Priestley's ficiently corroded. See FLUOR. htthod.
FLU'RRY. s. I. A gust of wind; a hasty Fluoric acid has not yet been decomposeil, blast (Swift). 2. Hurry; a violent commois base therefore is wholly unknown, and it is tion. only from analogy that chemists suppose it to To FLUSH. v. n. (fluysen, Dutch.) 1. To contain oxygen. “A remarkable difference be. Aow with violence (Mortimer). 2. To come iven the fuoric and muriatic acid is that the in haste (Ben Jonson). 3. To glow in the latter is incapable of becoming oxygenated : it skin (Collier). . 4. To shine suddenly : obsowill deither unlie with oxygen in the state of lete (Spenser). pass nor when digested with manganese, Flu. To Flush. v. a. 1. To colour; to redden oric acid combines with the alkalies and alka. (Addison). 2. To elate; to elevate (Atterbu.). Ime earths, with alumine and silex, and with FLUSH.a, 1. Fresh; full of vigour (Cleave.). the metallic oxyds; the metals in a reguline 2. Affluent; abounding (Arbuthnot). state appear to have no affinity for dry fluoric FLUSH. S. 1. Afflux ; sudden impulse; acid, but when liquid it will dissolve irou, violent flow (Rogers). 2. Cards all of a sort. zide, copper, and arsenic, hydrogen being at FLUSHING, a handsome, strong, and conthe same time disengaged. The order of its siderable town in Zealand, and in the island of atinities is as follows: lime, barytes, stron Walcheren, with a good harbour, and a great tian, maynesia, potash, soda, ammonia, alu foreign trade. It was put into the hands of mine, and silex.
queen Elizabeth as a security for the movey The oply use to which Auoric acid has been she advanced. It is one of the three places applied is engraving on glass. It appears from which Charles V. advised Philip II. to preserve Beckman that this was first practised by an with care. It is four miles S. W. of Middleartist of Nuremberg, in the year 1670, who burg. Lon. 3. 35 E. Lat. 51, 29 N. This prepared his etching liquor by digesting toge- town was taken, in August, 1809, by the Enbei nitrous acid and finely powdered Avor glish under the command of earl Chatham. sper for several hours on a warm sand bath, T. FLU'STER. v. a. (from To flush.) To and then using the clear liquor as aquasortis is make hot and rosy with drinking (Shakemployed by ihe copper-plate engravers. But speare). the knowlege and application of this liquor FLU'STRA. Horn-wrack. In zoology, a was confined to a few German artists, till, genus of the class vermes, order zoophyta. after the discoveries of Scheele and Priestley, Animal, a polype proceeding from porous the Avoric acid in a pure state was used for cells ; stem fixed, foliaceous, meinbranaceous, the same purpose by various ingenious artists consisting of numerous rows of cells united in England and France. Puymaurin found together and woven like a mat. Eighteen spethe liquid acid prepared in leadeu vessels accord, cies; inhabitants of the European or Meditering to Scheele's process to answer very well ranean scas; one or two of the Indian and for this purpose in warm weather, but by cold Atlantic; eight found on the British coasts ; jis activity is so much impaired as to produce adhering to fuci or other submarine substances, little effect even in three or four days. The F. chartacea may serve as an example. This, passeous acid however is much more effica- as its name evinces, is papyraceous, or of a cious; and being at the same time sufficiently thin semitransparent texture, like fine paper; manageable with proper care, meriis the pre- of a very light straw colour, with cells on both ference. To engrave on glass, select a piece of sides: The tops of the branches sometimes digiplate glass of the requisite size, cover it with taied, sometimes irregularly divided, and trunhard engraver's wax, and with a needle or other cate like the edge of an axe: the cells are ob. suitable instrument trace the intended design long-square. It is found on the British shores, as in common etching, observing that every adhering to sea-wrack, shells, and rocks. stroke passes quite through the wax to the sur- FLUTE, a musical instrument, the most face of the glass; which may be ascertained simple of those which are played by the breath by placing the plate on a sloping frame like a impelled from the lips. The common fute, portable reading-desk, in which situation the or flute a bec, is a tube about eighteen inches light will shine through wherever the wax is in length and one in diameter; it has eight rempored. When the etching is completed, holes along the side, and the end is formed lay the plate with the engraved side downwards like a beak, to apply the lips to. The Gerou a frame, in a box lined with strong sheet man Aute consists of a tube formed of several lead or thick tin foil, and place on the bottom joints or pieces screwed into each other, with of the box a few leaden cups containing a holes disposed along the side, like those of the commcon Aute. It is stopped at the upper end, mistry, applied to those substances, ocisco aurl furnished with morcable brass or silver line mixtures, that are added to mineral: or kevs, which, by opening and closins certain metallic ores to assist in the process of reduce holes, serve to temper the tones to the varions tion. flats and sharps. In playing this instruunent White flur is made simply by nuising equal the performer applies bis under lip to 3 hole parts of tartar or creim oiurtar and nitre, and about two inches and a half from the upper deflagrating them in a clean crucible. The extremity, while ihc fingers, by their action on witrous acid burns the curbonaceous part of the holes and keys, accommodate the tones to the tartar, and the mixed alkalies of the nitre the notes of the counposition.
and iartar alone remain. This flur is, theila FLUTES, or FLUTING), ir architecture, fore, litile else ihan a pure subcarbonat of poichannels or cavities running perpendicularly ash. The mixture of these substances before aloug the shaft of a columnu or pilister. Toiy deflagration is called crude flux. But of all are chiefly affected in the lonic oriler, in the saline reducing substances that most fre. which they had their first rise ; though they quently employed is black flur. This is made are also used in all the richer orders, as the by deflagrating in a large crucible a mixture of Corinthian or Composite; but rarely in the one part of niire and two of tartar; and differs Doric; and scarce ever in the Tuscan. Their from the former in containing, besides carbo. number is usually twenty-four, though in the nat of potash, a quantity of charcoal of the tarDoric it is only twenty. Each flute is hoilowcar, which there may not bein nitre enough to ed exactly in a quadrant of a circie. Between consume. It therefore both assists in the futhe flutes are liitle spaces that separate them, sion of ores by its alkaline ingredient, and called by Vitruvinis, striæ, and by us, lists; oxygenates, and reduces them to the metallic though in the Doric, the flutes are frequently state by means of its carbon. made to join each other, without any inter- In making this last tlux, the materials, premediate space at all, the list being sharpened viously well mixed, should be thrown by small off to a thin edge, which forms a part of each quantities into a red-hot crucible, and loosely flute.
covered after each projection ; and as soon as To Flute. v. a. To cut columns into hol- the last portion is dettágrated, it should be relows.
moved from the fire, and kept in well.closer T. FLU'TTER. v. n. (plozenan, Sixon.) bo:tles to prevent the deliquescence of ihe al1. To take short fights with great agitation of kali. Bergman however uses the term Aus in the wings (Deuteronomy). 2. To move about a much more extensive sense ; and intends by with great show and busile without conse. it not only substances useful in the reduction quence (Grew). 3. To be moved with quick of metals, but substances capable of analyzing vibrations or undulations (Pope). 4. To move by the blowpipe saline, earthy, or inflammable irregularly (Blowel).
matters. The fluxes recomniended by him for To Flu'tter. 0.1.1. To drive in disorder, this purpose are the following. like a flock of birds swidenly roused (Shake 1. The phosphoric acid, or rather the mispeare). 2. To hurry the mind. 3. To dis- crocosmic salt, as it is called, which contains order the position of any thing.
that aciil partly saturated with mineral, partly FLUTTER. S. (from the verb.) 1. Vibration; with amnionia, and loaded besides with much undulation (Addison). 2. Hurry; tumuli; water. This salt, when exposed to the flame, disorder of mind. 3. Confusion; irregular boils and foams violently, with a continual position.
crachling noise, until the water and ammonia FLUVIATICK. a. (fluviaticus, Latin.) have flown ofi': afierwarıls it is less agitated, Belonging to rivers.
sending forth something like black scorin arisFLUX, s. (Murus, Latin.) 1. The act of ing from the burned gelatinous part: these, flowing ; passage (Digly). 2. The state of however, are soon dispelled, and exhibit a pelpassing away and giving place to others (Bro.). lucidd sphericle encompassed by a beautiful 3. Any flow or issue of maiter (Arlulhnol). green cloud, which is occasioned by the de. 4. Dysentery ; disease in which the bowels Angration of the phosphorus, arising from the arc excorialed and bleed; bloody flux (Bali. cxirication of the acid by means of the inflamfu). 5. Excrement; that which falls from mable malter. The clear globule which rebodies (Shakspeare). 6. Concourse; conflu- mains, upon the removal of the fame, contience (Shakspeare). 7. The state of being nues longer soft than that formed by borix, melted. 8. That which mingled with the and therefore is more hit for the addition of the body makes it melt.
matter to be dissolved. The aminonia is ex. FLUX AND REFLUX OF THE SEA. See pelled by the fire ; therefore an excess of acid TIDES.
remains in what is left behind, which readily Flux (fluss, Gernian), in cheinistry, any attracts moisture in a cool place. 2. Soda, substance which is added to another to assist when put upon charcoal, melts superficially, its fusion when heat is applied. Thus alkali is penetrates the charcoal with a crackling noise, a flux for flint, as when mixed with it in due and then disappears. In the spoon it yields a proportion, and heated, it causes it 10 melt permanent and pellucid sphericle, as long as it into the compound called glass.
is kept fluid by the blue apex of the flame, The term flux is almost exclusively, in che. but when the heat is diminished, it beco!c>
apaque, and assumes a milky colour. It ate easily roll off the charcoal, especially when of ucks sereral earthy maliers, particularly those the size of a grain of pepper. Smaller pieces, of the siliceous kind, but cannot be employed therefore, ought either to be used, or they og charcoal. 3. Crystallized borax, exposed should rest in hollows made in the charcoal. to the flame urged by the blowpipe, or char. On their first melting they assume a polished coal, first becomes opaque, white, and exces- surface, an appearance always retained by the stely swelled, with various protuberances, or perfect metals; but the imperfect are soon obbranches proceeding out from it. When the scured by a pellicle formed of the calx (oxide) water is expelled, is easily collects itself into a of the metal. The colours communicated by mass, which, when well fused, yields a trans- the calces vary according to the nature of the pareat sphericle, retaining its transparency metal from which the calx is produeed. Some een after cooling. If calcined borax be eni- of the calces easily recover their metallic form played, the clear sphericle is obtained the by simple exposure to fame upon the charcoal ; miner.
others are reduced in this way with more diffiHaring provided every thing necessary, the culty; and some not at all. The reduced calces following directions are next to be attended to. of the volatile metals immediately fly off from 1. A common tallow candle, not too thick, is the charcoal. In the spoon they exhibit glogenerally preferable to a wax candle, or w a bules; but it is very difficult to prevent them Lamp. The snuff must not be cut too short, from being first dissipated by the blast. . as the wick should bend towards the object. The metals are taken up by the Auxes ; bat 2. The weaker exterior flame must first be di- as soda yields an opaque spherule, it is not to be rected upon the object, imuil its effects are dis- made use of. Globules of borax dissolve and covered, after which the interior flame must melt any metallic calx; and, unless too much be applied. 3. We must observe with auten- loaded with it, appear pellucid and coloured,
on whether the matter decrepitates, splits, A piece of metal calcined in flux produces the swells, vegetates, boils, &c. 4. The piece ex- same effect, but more slowly. A portion of posed to the flame should scarcely ever exceed the calx generally recovers its metallic form, the size of a pepper-corn, but ought always to and floats on the melted matter like one or be large enough to be taken up by the forceps. more excrescences. 5. A small piece should be addeci separately to The calces of the perfect metals are recluced Euch of the fluxes ; concerning which it must by borax in the spoon, and adhere to it at the le observed whether it dissolves wholly or only point of contact, and there only. The microin part; whether this is eflected with or within cosmic salt acts like borax, but does not reduce oui effervescence, quickly or slowly; whether the inetals. It attacks them more powerfully the mass is divided into a powder, or gradually on account of its acid nature ; at the saine tine and externally corroded ; with what colour the it preserves the spherical form, and inerefore is glass is linged, and whether it becomes opaque adapied in a peculiar manner to the investigaor remains pellucid.
tion of metals. Having given these directions, M. Bergman The tinge communicated to the Aux freproceeds next to consider the subjects proper to quently varies, being different in the fused and be examined by the blow pipe. These he die in the cooled globule; for some of the dissolv. vides into four classes : 1. Saline; 2. Earthy; ed calces, while fused, show no colour, but ac3. Inflammable; and 4. Metallic. As the sub- quire one while cooling ; but others, on the ject, however, is treated at considerable length, contrary, have a much more intense colour we shall refer the reader to M. Bergman's while in the state of fluidity. Should the trans. writings, and confine ourselves in this place to parency be injured by too great a concentration what he has advanced concerning the last of of colour, the globule, on compressing it with these subjects, namely, metallic substances, the forceps, or drawing it out into a thread,
The perfect metals, when calcined (oxyge- will exhibit a thin and transparent mass; but nated) in the moist way, recover their former if the opacity arises from supersaturation, more nature by simple fusion. The imperfect metals Aux must be added ; and as the Auxes attract are calcined by fire, especially by the exterior the metals with unequal forces, the latter prefame; and then, in order to their being re- cipitate one another. duced, indispensably require the contact of an "Metals when mineralized by acids have the inflammable substance. With respect to fue properties of metallic salis; when mineralized sibility, the two extremes are mercury and pla- by carbonic acid, they possess the properties of tina; the former being scarcely ever seen in a calces, that volatile substance being easily exsolid form, and the latter almost as difficult of pelled without any effervescence; but when fusion. The metals, therefore, may be ranked combined with sulphur they possess properties in this order, according to their degrees of fusic of a peculiar' kind. They may then be melted, bility. 1. Mercury; 2. Tin; 3. Bisinuth; 4. or even calcined upon the charcoal, as also in Lead; 5. Zinc; 6. Antimony; 7. Silver; 8. a golden or silver spoon. The volatile parts Gold ; 9. Arsenic ; 10. Cobalt; 11. Nickel; are distinguished by the smell or smoke; the 12. Irou ; 13. Manganese; 14. Platinum. The fixed residua, by the particles reduced or prelast two do not yield to the blowpipe, and in- cipitated upon iron, or from the tinge of the deed forged iron does not melt without diffi- fluxes. culty ; bút cast iron perfectly.
Gold in its metallic state fuses on the charBletals in fusion affect a globuluar form, and coal, and is the only metal which remains un. changed. It may be oxygenated in the moist through the glass it appears of a cold colour; way by solution in aqua regia ; but to calcine but care nust be taken vot to crack the glass, it also by fire, we must pursue the following Calcined silver precipitated from nitrous acid method : To a globule of microcosmic salt, let by mixed alkali is easily reduced. The microthere be added a small piece of solid gold, of crismic acid dissolves ii speedily and copiously ; gold leaf, purple mineral, os, which is best of bui on cooling it becomes opaque, and of a all, of the cry-talline salt formerl by a solurion whilish vellow', which is also sometimes the of gold in aqua regia containing sea salt. Let case with leaf-silver. Copper is discovered by this again be melted, and added while yet soft a green colour, and sometimes by that of a to turbiih mineral, which will immediately ruby, unless we choose rather ti inipute that to grow red on the contact. The fusion being gold. The globules can scarcely be obtained afterwards repealed, a vehement effervescence pellucid, unless the quantity of calx is very arises ; and when this is considerably diminish: small; but a longer fusion is necessary to proed, let the blast be stopped for a few moments, duce an opacily with borax. The globule, again beguin, and so continued uniil almost all loaded with dis-olved silver during the time of the bubbles disappear. After ibis the sphe- iis fusion in the spoon, covers a piece of copper Tule, on cooling, assumes a ruby colour, but with silver, and becomes itself of a pellucid if this does not happen, let it be just made sost green: antimony quickly takes away the milky by the exterior Hame, and upon hardeniny, ibis opacity of dissolved luna cornea, and separates tinge generally appears. Should the process the silver in distinct grains. Cobalt, and most fail at first, owing 10 some minute circum- of the other metals, likewise, precipitale silver stances which cannot be described, it will suc- on the sume jirinciples as in the moist way, ceed on the sıcord or third trial. The ruby- viz. by a double elective attraction. This mecoloured globule, when compressed by the for. tal, when cuineralized by marine and vitriolic ceps while hoi, frequently becomes blue; by acids, yields a natural luna comea, which prosudden fusion ii generally assumes an opal co- duces a number of small metallic globules on lour, which by refraction appears blue, and by the charcoal: il dissolves in microcomic salt, reflection of a brown red. If further urged by and renders ir opaque, and is reduced, partially the fire in loses all colour, and appears like was at least, by borax. Sulphurated silver, called ter; but the redness may be reproduced several also the glassy ore of what nietol, fused upon times by the addition of turbiih mineral. The charcoal, casily parts with the sul bur it conflux is reddened in the same manner by the ad. tains : so that a polished globule is often prodision of lin instead of turbith ; but it has a duced, which, if necessary, mos be depurated yellowish hue, and more easily beconies by borax. The silver may also be precipitated opaque; while the redness communicated by by the addicion of copper, iron, or manganese. turbith mineral has a purple tinge, and quite When arsenic makes part of the compound, as resembles a ruby. Borax produces the same in the red ore of ar-enic, it must first be freed phenomena, bui more rarely; and in all cases from the sulphur by gentle roasting, and finally the slightest variation in the management of entirely depurated by boras. lidecrepitales in the fire will make the experimenu fail entirely. the fire at first.
The ruby colour nay also be produced liy Copper, together with sulphur and arsenic copper; whence a doubu may arise, whether it mixed with silver, called the white ore of sil. is ihe gold or the remains of the copper that ver, yields a regulus having the same alloy. produce this effect. M. Bergman ihinks it Galena, which is an ore of lead containing probable that both may contribute towards it, sulphur and silver, is to be freed in the same especially as copper is often found to contain mauner from the sulphur; after which the goldl.
lead is gradually dissipated by allermately meliThis precious metal cannot directly be mie ing and cooling, oris separated in a cupei from neralized by sulphur: but by the medium of the galena by means of the flame. Bergman iron is sometimes furmed into a golden pyrites. has not been able to precipitate the silver dia Here, honever, the quantity of gold is so small, stinct from the lead, but the whole mass bethat a globule can scarcely be extracied from it comes malleable ; and the same is true of tin, by the blowpipe.
but the mass becomes more brillle. Grains of native platinum are not affected Pure miercury Mies off from the charcoal by the blowpipe, either alone or mixed with with a moderate heat, the fixed herciogeneous fluxes; which, however, are frequently tinged malers remaining behind. When calcined, green by it: but platinum, precipitated from it is easily reduced and dissipated, and she fuses aqua regia by vegetable or volatile alkali, is re- take it up wiib effervescence ; but it is soon duced by microcosmic salt 10 a small malleabile totally driven off. When mineralized by sulglobule. Our author has been able to unite phur, ii liquefies upon the charcool, busi: with seven or eight of these into a malleable mass; a blue flame, smokes, and graduilly disappears; but more of them produced only a britiie one. but, on exposing cinnabur to the fire on a poPlatinum scarcely loses all its iron, unless re. libed piece of copper, the mercurial globules duced 10 very thin fusion.
are fixed upon it all rouid. Silver in iis metallic state easily melis, and Lead in its meillie siate readily melts, and resists calcination. Silver leaf fastened by continues to retain a metallic splendour for means of the breath, or a solution of borax, some time. By a more intense beat it boils may easily be fixed on it by the flame, and and smokes, forining a yellow circle upon the