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Potatoes, 102,459,926 bushel*
For Kentucky, North Carolina, Wisconsin
658,426,744 During the long discussion in England on the subject of the corn laws, the necessary quantityof grain required to find an individual with bread, has been closely investigated, and it is estimated that the average consumption, including young and old, is about Jfw bushels to each person, including all kinds of grain.
Admitting this estimate to be correct, and putting the population of the United States at seventeen millions, we have a surplus of 33 bushels to an inhabitant. Perhaps one half of the corn, most of the wheat and buckwheat, and three quarters of the rye is used for bread; and the remainder of the rye and a large part of the corn is manufactured into whiskey, or used in fattening pork. We deduct the barley for the brewers, and the oats for stock, although in the western counties of England barley is used for bread, and in Scotland oatmeal is in general use, and we find the resources of the United States will stand as follows :—
For Kentucky, North Carolina, Wisconsin Ter-
Being over 22 bushels for each inhabitant!
In viewing the amount of bread-stuffs raised, the merchant and farmer can draw then- own conclusions, by the foregoing, as to the probability of a rise of prices, or conjecture as to a still further decline. Unless there is a great demand for it abroad, we fear the latter. At present, we see nothing to encourage more than a usual exportation.
In making a calculation, it must be recollected that there are about 4,000,000 of people in the West Indies and South America who now receive their flour from us, and have for many years. Our exports to those countries amount to near 800,000 barrels annually, and the cotton manufactures of our country consume__lflflJipObarrels for starch, &c. The past year a new trade has been carried on with the Canadas. We have taken pains to ascertain the amount, as near as we can, as the western trade with the British provinces has commenced within a year or two past.
4000 barrels from Detroit, equal to 20,000 bushels
Bushels of wheat from St. Joseph, 45,000"
70,995 barrels from Cleveland, equal to 354,974"
Bushels of wheat from Cleveland, 896,550"
From Grand River, Ohio 11,000"
40,000 barrels of flour from Rochester, N. Y., 200,000" No returns from Buffalo and other ports on the lake,
1.527,524"Most of this went to England, as after it once got into the provinces, it passed for colonial wheat, and entered the ports of Great Britain free of duty.
It will be seen from the following table that our exports have diminished yearly from 1790 to this time, with the exception of the years when Europe has been at war. In 1793, we exported equal to 6,828,770 bushels of wheat, and in 1833, only 2,246,769, although we produced five times as much as we did in 1790.
In 1700, the wheat grown in Great Britain was only 14,000 bushels, and barley 27,000. In 1830, wheat over 100,000,000, and barley 37,000.
Notwithstanding the immense increase of production of grain, owing to the oppreasion of the corn laws to the poor, there is more suffering for the want of bread in Great Britain and Ireland, than in any other part of Europe.
The importation of wheat into England, from her provinces, is free of duty; that from the United States is subject to her corn laws, and when scarcity and starvation stare them in the face, and the price of grain reaches a certain point, she allows her subjects to partake of foreign bread-stuffs; and America then comes in competition with grain from Hamburg, Dantzic, Naples, and Odessa. This leads us to say a few words in respect to the corn laws of England, which bear heavier upon the products of the mighty west than is generally understood. That the reader may understand the prices of flour in England when he reads the quotations from English papers, we give the table of duties on the article, graduated by the prices of sacks and quarters of wheat. He then can make his own calculation in sterling money, (a shilling being 22 cents,) whether it will pay the eastern merchant for shipment to Europe; and thus he can determine the prospect of foreign exports, and consequently know the rise or fall in the New York market.
TABLE OF DUTIES.
A sack of flour weighs 240 pounds, a barrel of American flour 196 pounds; thus a barrel of flour is seven tenths of a sack by weight. When he sees in the price current as follows:— Duties on American Flour.
s. s. d. s. d.
A sack of flour, at 70 equals a barrel at 49 00 6 07
"68" 47 05 10 004
66" 46 03 12 054
64" 44 09 13 07}
"62 » 43 05
"60" 42 00
58" 40 05
56" 39 08
"54" 37 09
52" 36 06
50 4 4 35 00
The present duty in England on American flour is about $2 70 per barrel, which amounts to a prohibition.
Notwithstanding the policy of England has been for years to protect her agricultural industry, no countervailing protection has been adopted by the United States; but on the contrary, duties upon British goods are every year lessening, and many of them are free of duty. The producers of the west are obliged to pay a bonus to England for the privilege of trade. If Great Britain would receive the bread-stuffs of our country, on the payment of the same duties which we pay on her manufactures, then we should have no just cause for complaint. The imports of the United States, since 1790 to 1840, have eiceeded the exports , $793,455,635
In the same time, there has been but seven years that we have exported more than we have imported, which was 51,931,205
$741,527,430 Seven Hundred And Fortv-one Million, Five Hundred And Twenty-seven thousand, Four Hundred And Thirty Dollars, which has been paid to foreign nations, in gold cud silver, over our exports, for articles which could have been manufactured in this country; and within the last six years, nearly three hundred millions of this balance has accrued against us; to say nothing of the two hundred millions of state stocks which have been sold in Europe within the past five years.
In 1833, the total amount of agricultural productions of all descriptions, with the exception of cotton, exported to all parts of the world, amounted to only $6,048,065, and the same year silks to the amount of over $25,000,000 were imported, free of duty.'
Bat we find we are deviating from our subject, which was, to i can, the amount of breadstuff's now in the country:—
Gone to Canada, 1,527,425 bushels
To foreign countries, 1840, 4,067,710" C
Used by manufacturers, 100,1100" -*
Shipped from New York, since Jan. 1, 500,000""other ports, say 500.000"
Allow for the West Indies and Mexico, ) ^ Qqq Qjjq „
Wheat raised 66,089,917
Wheat, 54,994.802 bushels
Other kind of breadstuff-., .287,773,720 •'
Allowing 10 bushels to each inhabitant, which is double the average in Europe, and we have a surplus of 172,000,000 bushels. From which we conclude that unless there is an increased demand from abroad, present prices of breadstuffs will not advance during the present season, whatever change may follow the ingathering of the ensuing crop.
COMMERCE OF FRANCE. The recent French papers contain a summary of the report laid before the Chamber of Peers by M. Cunin Gridaine, the minister of commerce, by which it appears, that since the French government reduced the protective duties on foreign produce, the trade of the country had increased considerably. Thus in the year 1829, the general trade of France, including the merchandise in the government stores, amounted to 616,000,000 francs and the exports to 604,000,000 francs; and the foreign produce imported amounted to 483,000,000 francs, and the exports to 504,000,000 francs; while in 1839, the general trade amounted to 947,000,000 francs, and the exports to 1,003,000,000 francs; and the amount of foreign produce imported amounted to 650,000,000 francs, and the exports to 677,000,000 francs. French navigation improved in a similar proportion with that of trade. The French tonnage in the year 1829, amounted to 647,000 tons; and in the year 1839, to 1,200,000 tons. Domestic produce increased in a similar proportion. The French coal mines produced but 17,000,000 of metrical quintals in the year 1829; and in the year 1839, they produced more than 30,000,000. "And what is still more remarkable," observes M. Cunin Gridaine, " this immense progress in domestic consumption was realized concurrently with the consumption of foreign coal, for the quantity of that article imported in the year 1829, amounted only to 5,000,000 of metrical quintals; and in the year 1839, it amounted to 12,000,000." "If," continues M. Cunin Gridaine, "from coal we pass to iron, we find that in the year 1828, France possessed 393 furnaces, producing 2,000,000 metrical quintals of cast iron, and 1,295 furnaces for refining, manufacturing annually 1,500,000 metrical quintals of iron. At present France possesses 475 furnaces, which produce annually 3,477,000 metrical quintals of cast metal, worth 63,000,000 francs, and 1,500 furnaces forrefining, which produce 2,241,000 quintals of iron, worth 93,000,000 francs." "Similar improvement is to be found," observes M. Cunin Gridaine, " in most of the domestic productions. Lyons has increased her silk looms from 27,000 to 40,000, and the exportation of silk stuffs, which in the year 1829, amounted to only 111,000,000, reached, in the year 1839, to 141,000,000. No less remarkable has been the improvement in the woollen and cotton manufactures. The exportation of woollen stuff amounted in 1829, to only 30,000,000 francs, and increased in the year 1839, to 60,000,000 francs. And
the exports of cotton increased from 47,000,000 to 85,000,000 francs, within the same period." "The natural consequence," concludes M. Cunin Gridaine, " to be derived from this increase of manufactures is the diminution in their price, which renders them more accessible to the mass of consumers. Bar iron, which ten years since sold at from 49 to 68 francs the 100 kilogrammes, according to the quality, now produces not more than 35 to 50 francs at most. Woollen stuff, which sold at the same period at from 40 to 50 francs the piece, now brings only 25 francs; and calico, which in 1829 was sold for 80 centimes, is not now worth more than from 40 to 50 centimes."
CONSUMPTION OF COAL. Anthracite coal was first used in Philadelphia. In 1826, the amount had increased in the United States to 48,000 tons, and in 1840 to 845,000 tons. In England, coal is the only fuel, and machinery equal to the labor of 40,000,000 of men, is now moved by the use of coal. In this country it is also applied to a considerable extent for propelling machinery, and during the past year it has been used to some extent for manufacturing iron. In 1740, the amount of iron made in England and Wales, was but 17,000 tons. In 1796, it had increased to 125,000 tons; in 1830, to 700,000 tons; in 1839, it was the enormous amount of 1,512,000 tons, and within the last nine years, $84,000,000 worth of it was exported to this country. In the United States, the amount made is 250,000 Ions, but it is fast increasing; and since the introduction of coal for the furnace it is hoped that we shall soon be able to supply ourselves. Last year we imported from England and Russia iron to the amount of $10,000,000.
FOREIGN COMMERCE OF CANADA. The Quebec Gazette gives a full statement of the foreign commerce of Montreal and Quebec. The arrival of vessels was as follows: from Great Britain, 911; Ireland, 198; Gibraltar, 2; France, 27; Spain, 4; Portugal, 1; Hamburg, 4; Antwerp, 3; Rotter, dam, 1; Sicily, 1; British North American colonies, 157; British West Indies, 5; Foreign West Indies, 10; United States, 24; total, 1,358. Vessels cleared to Great Britain, 1,079; of these 35 were built in the Canadas, carrying 20,624 tons; to Ireland, 199; to all other places, 155; total clearances, 1,433. The imports from Great Britain are valued at about nine millions of dollars, and those from other places at about four hundred thousand dollars. Among the exports from the Canadas are nearly fifty thousand barrels of flour, which we may presume are derived from the United States.
CONSUMPTION OF BRITISH GOODS IN ITALY. The average annual value of British produce, colonial and native, exported to Italy, consisting chiefly of coffee, raw sugar, pimento, and cottons, in twelve years, from 1827 to 1838, was £2,571,119, being a sixteenth of the whole annual amount of export of that kind during the same period. The numbers for the several years exhibit a rise, gradual, but a little fluctuating. The lowest amount is that of 1827, being £1,942,752. The amount for 1834 was £3,282,777; for 1835, £2,486,171; for 1836, £2,921,466; for 1837, £2,406,066; and for 1838, £3,076,231.
COMMERCE OF EGYPT. During the year 1840, the entries of vessels at Alexandria amounted to 686, and the clearances to 615. Of these there were English—entered 96, cleared 91; Austrian— entered 90, cleared 90; Greek—entered 287, cleared 229; Russia—entered 11, cleared 11; Sardinian—entered 22, cleared 22; Tuscan—entered 21, cleared 19; Flag of Jerusalem—entered 103, cleared 98. Coasters from Syria, Asia Minor, and Barbary, under the Turkish or Egyptian flag, are not comprised in the above return.