the contrary assumption, no details Epistle itself gives us ample eviwhatever as to the founding of the dence. Galatian churches have come down Still, the predominant body, and to us.

that which gave its most distinctive In spite of this, and in spite of characteristics to the Church, were some other points in which the the genuine Galatians themselves. history may seem to be simplified A question similar to that as to the by assigning to Galatia the wider boundaries of Galatia has been signification, a balance of considera- raised in regard to these. To what tions seems to prevent us from race did they belong? A large doing so. There can be no question section of the ablest German comthat St. Luke, in the Acts, wher-mentators until quite recently were ever he speaks of Galatia, uses the disposed to claim them as Teutons, word in its narrower and proper the main ground for this being sense, and though this would not that Jerome, in the fourth century, be in itself decisive as to the usage observed the resemblance between of St. Paul, still it is impossible to the language spoken in Galatia and think that in impassioned passages that of Treveri, who bequeathed like Gal. iü. 1, "Õ foolish Galatians, their name to the modern district who hath bewitched you,” &c., the of Treves, and who are said to Apostle is using only an official have been German. This point, title. We shall be safe in assuming however, is itself perhaps more that he was really writing to the than doubtful, and as to the Galatæ descendants of the Gallic invaders, there is abundant evidence, besides and that he addresses them by the their name, to show that they were name by which they were familiarly Celts, and not Teutons. This was known.

the universal opinion of antiquity,

to which even Jerome, notwithII. The Galatians. It does standing his statement about the not, however, follow from what has language, was no exception; and it just been said that the Christian is confirmed by a philological converts were taken solely or even analysis of the names both of perchiefly from the native Galatians. sons and of places in Galatia that They did but give a name to the have come down to us. The theory country; three other nationalities of the Teutonic origin of the Galawent to make up its population. tians is now given up, not only in First came the Greeks, who were England, but in Germany. 80 numerous as to give to their The Galatians, then, were Celts, adopted home the second name of and we are not surprised to find in Gallogræcia. Then, beneath the them the Celtic qualities. They upper layer of conquering Gala- came of the race which “shook ail tians, there lay a large substratum empires, but founded none. of the older inhabitants, the con- great failing was in stability. quered Phrygians; and by the side Quick to receive impressions, they of both—brought partly by coloni- were quick to lose them; at one sation and partly by purposes of moment ardently attached, at the trade-were considerable numbers next violently opposed. This is of Jews. Of the disturbing pre- precisely what St. Paul complains sence of this latter element the of. He gives a striking picture of

." Their the enthusiasm with which he had had found their way-as th
been received on his first visit. He easily might, through the chain o
himself was stricken down with Jewish posts scattered over Asia
sickness, but that did not damp the Minor—as far north as Galatia.
ardour of his converts. They These emissaries pursued the
would even have "plucked out same tactics as they had pursued
their eyes," and given them to him. elsewhere. They called in question
But in a short space of time all the Apostle's authority. They
this was gone. They bad now claimed to act from a superior
made common cause with his adver- commission themselves. They dis-
saries. They had forsaken his paraged his teaching of personal
teaching and repudiated his au- faith in Jesus. They knew nothing

of such faith. They acknowledged
The cause of the evil lay in the Jesus as the Messiah, and with
intrigues of certain Judaisers. And that they were content. They still
the consideration of the question in looked for salvation, as they had
debate between them and St. Paul done hitherto, from the literal per-
opens out a new subject for dis- formance of the Mosaic Law, and

they forced this view upon the

Galatians. They insisted specially
III. Contents and Doc. the rite of circumcision. They
trinal Character of the would not allow the Gentile con-
Epistle.—The controversy that verts to escape it. They proclaimed
divided, and could not but divide, it as the only avenue to the cove-
the infant Church, came to a head nant relation with God. And no
most conspicuously in Galatia. sooner had the convert submitted
Was the Jewish Law to be binding to circumcision than they proceeded
upon Christians ?

It was only to lay upon him an oppressive
natural that many should be found burden of ritualistic ceremonies.
to say that it was. Christianity He was to keep a multitude of
had sprung out of Judaism. The seasons, “days, and months, and
first and most obvious article in the times, and years.” If he was to
Christian creed—the Messiahship enjoy the Messianic privileges he
of Jesus—was one that might easily must be righteous. But to be
be accepted, and yet all the pre- righteous was to perform scrupu-
judices in favour of the Jewish lously the precepts of the Mosaic
Law he retained. It was only a Law, and in the attempt to do this
deepal and prolonged reflection the convert's whole powers and
that could show the fundamental energies were consumed. The
antagonism between the Jewish Messiahship of Jesus was something
view of things and the Christian. secondary and subordinate. The
St. Paul saw this, but there were Judaisers accepted it so far as it
many who were not so clear- seemed to hold out to them a pro-
sighted. The main body of the spect of advantage, but otherwise
Church at Jerusalem held tena- it remained a mere passive belief.
ciously to the Jewish practices. The key to life and conduct was
The old Pharisaic passion for mak- still sought in the fulfilment of the
ing proselytes still clung to them. Mosaic Law.
And emissaries from this Church With such a position as this the


Apostle could not but be directly that primary position which it had at issue. To him the Messiahship occupied under the old covenant. of Jesus (including, as it did, His It had fulfilled its functions, which eternal Sonship) formed the very were preparatory and not final. Its root and centre of his whole object had been to deepen the sense religious being. Faith-or the of sin, to define unmistakably the ardent conviction of this Messiah- line which separated it from rightship in its completest sense—was eousness, and so to prepare the way the one great motive power which for that new Messianic system in he recognised. And the state in which the power of sin was not which the Christian was placed by ignored but overcome, and overfaith was itself-apart from any come by lifting the believer as it laborious system of legal obser- were bodily into a higher sphere. vances-an attainment of right. He was taken out of a sphere of

The Messianic system human effort and ritual observance, was everything. The Law hence- and raised into a sphere in which forth was nothing. By his relation he was surrounded by divine into the Messiah the Christian ob- fluences, and in which all that he tained all of which he had need. had to do was to realise practically Sin stood between him and the what had already been accomplished favour of God, but the Messiah had for him ideally. In that sphere died to remove the curse entailed the centre and life-giving agency by sin; and by his adhesion to the was Christ, and the means by Messiah the Christian at once which Christ was to be apprehended stepped into the enjoyment of all was Faith. So that Christ and the blessings and immunities which Faith were the watchwords of the the Messianic reign conferred. It Apostle, just as the Law and Cir. was not that he was released from cumcision were the watchwords of the obligations of morality (as the Jews. represented by the Law), but Thus the line that the Apostle morality was absorbed in religion. takes in this Epistle was clearly One who stood in the relation that marked out for him. Against the the Christian did to Christ could attacks upon his apostolic authority not but lead a holy life; but the he defended himself by claiming holy life was a consequence—a that, although he was a late comer in natural, easy; necessary conse- point of time, this did not imply quence-of this relation, not some- any real inferiority. His was not thing to be worked out by the an authority derived at secondman's unaided efforts, independ- hand. On the contrary, he owed ently of any such relation. The his calling and commission directly command, “Be ye holy as I am to God Himself. The proof was to holy,” remained, but there inter- be seen both in the circumstances vened the motive and stimulus of his conversion and also in the afforded by the death and exaltation fact that, though he had once or of Christ. “Be ye holy, because ye twice been brought into apparent aro bought with a price; because contact with the elder Apostles, his ve are Christ's, and your life is hid teaching was entirely independent of with Christ in God."

them, and was already fully formed The Law then no longer held when he had at last an opportunity of consulting them about it. And Ishmael for Isaac, the child of in practice, not only was he recog- promise. The Apostle cannot think nised by them as an equal, but that the Galatians will do this. He even Peter submitted to a rebuke exhorts them earnestly to hold fast from him. On the other hand, to their liberty, to hold fast to upon the great dogmatic question, Christ, not to give up their high St. Paul meets his opponents by an privilege of seeking righteousness emphatic statement of his own posi- by faith, and accepting it through tion. Christianity is not something grace, for any useless ordinance accessory to the Law, but super- like circumcision. Yet the liberty sedes it. Righteousness is to be of the Christian is far from mean. sought not by legal observances, ing license. License proceeds from but by faith. The old system was giving way to the impulses of the carnal, material, an affair of ex- tlesh, but these impulses the ternals. The new system is a Christian has got rid of. His spiritual renewal by spiritual forces. relation to Christ has brought him Not that there is any real contra- under the dominion of the Spirit of diction between the new and the Christ. He is spiritual, not carnal; old. For the very type and pattern and to be spiritual implies, or of the old dispensation-Abraham should imply, every grace and every himself-obtained the righteous- virtue. The Galatians should be ness that was imputed to him not gentle and charitable to offenders. by works, but by faith. Thus, the They should be liberal in their true descendant of Abraham is he alms. The Epistle concludes with who puts faith in Christ. It was a repeated warning against the Juto Christ that the promise related, daising intruders. Their motives are in Christ that the whole divine low and interested. They wish to scheme of redemption and regene- pass off themselves and their conration centred. The Law could not verts as Jews, and to escape perseinterfere with it, for the Law came cution as Christians. But to do so after the Promise, by which it was they must give up the very essenguaranteed. The function of the tials of Christianity. Law was something temporary and The Epistle is not constructed transient. It was, as it were, a upon any artificial system of divistate of tutelage for mankind. The sions, but the subject-matter falls full admission to the privileges of naturally into three main sections, the divine patrimony was reserved each consisting of two of our for those who became personal present chapters, with a short followers of the Messiah. He was preface and conclusion, the last in the Son of God, and those who the Apostle's own handwriting. cast in their lot wholly with Him The first section contains the dewere admitted to a share in His fence of his apostolic authority and Sonship. To go back to the old independence in a review of his own stage of ritual observance was pure career for the first seventeen years retrogression. It was an unnatural from his conversion. This leads exchange-a state of drudgery for him to speak of the dispute with a state of freedom.

It was

a St. Peter at Antioch, and the docreversal of the old patriarchal story trinal questions involved in that -a preferring of Hagar and dispute lead up to the second or doctrinal section, in which his own

The subject of which con. main tenet of righteousness by

troversy was the superfaith is contrasted with the teach

session of the Law by ing of the Judaisers and established

Christ (chap. ii. 15— out of the Old Testament. This

21). occupies chaps. iii. and iv. The last section, is, as usual with St. III. - Dogmatic Apologia : Paul, hortatory, and consists of an Inferiority of Judaism, application of the principles just or Legal Christianity, to laid down to practice, with such the Doctrine of Faith cautions as they may seem to need, (chaps. iii. 1-iv, 31). and one or two special points which (a) The Galatians bewitched into his experience in the Church at retrogression from a spiritual Corinth and the news brought to system to a carnal system him from Galatia appear to have (chap. iii. 1–5). suggested.

(6) Abraham himself a witness The following may be taken as a to the efficacy of faith (chap. tabular outline of the Epistle* :

iii. 6—9).

(c) Faith in Christ alone removes I. — Introductory Address

the curse which the Law (chap. i. 1-10).

entailed (chap. iii. 10–14): a. The apostolic salutation (chap. (d) The validity of the Promise i. 1-5).

unaffected by the Law (chap. b. The Galatians' defection (chap.

iji. 15–18). i. 6—10).

(e) Special pædagogic function

of the Law, which must II.-Personal Apologia : an needs give way to the larger

Autobiographical Retro- scope of Christianity (chap. spect (chaps. i. 11-ii. 21). üi. 19–29). The Apostle's teaching derived (f) The Law a state of tutelage

from God and not man (chap. (chap. iv. 1-7).
i. 11, 12), as proved by the (9) Meanness and barrenness of
circumstances of -

mere ritualism (chap. iv. 8— (1) His education (chap. i. 13, 14). 11). (2) His conversion (chap. i. 15— (1) The past zeal of the Galatians 17).

contrasted with their present (3) His intercourse with the coldness (chap. iv. 12—20).

other Apostles, whether at (i) The allegory of Isaac and
(a) his first visit to Jerusa- Ishmael (chap. iv. 21—31).
lem (chap. i. 18—24), or (6)
his later visit (chap. ii. 1– IV.-Hortatory Application

of the Foregoing (chaps. (4) His conduct in the contro- v. 1-vi. 10). versy with Peter at Antioch

(a) Christian liberty excludes (chap. ii. 11-14);

Judaism (chap. v. 1–6). (6) The

Judaising intruders Figures are used where the subdivi.

(chap. v. 7–12). sions are continuous steps in the same

(c) Liberty not license, but love argument, letters where they are distinct arguments.

(chap. v. 13—15).

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