they were as much the peculiar product of her otherwise less remarkable intellectual culture as of her political civilisation. On the other hand Italy shares equally with Greece a life-giving but also life-shortening effect of her geographical position: a mild climate. Perhaps its effects in accelerating her bloom but also her decay have been here somewhat arrested by other territorial conditions, yet perhaps they too finally succeeded in making their influence felt. Else why have Germans and Slavs, that is to say the only civilised peoples of the north alone on the globe maintained themselves so much longer in their strength, and why have they, and perhaps they only, still to-day a prospect of millenniums of an equally robust life of political and intellectual activity VA

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APPENDIX A HISTORY IN OUTLINE OF SOME LESSER NATIONS OF ASIA MINOR Our studies of Roman history have brought us into incidental contact with several nations of Asia Minor that from time to time have held friendly or hostile relations with the Romans. The two most important of these, the Parthians and the Sassanids, who successfully disputed the mastery of the Orient with the Romans, will be given fuller individual treatment in a later volume. But the lesser kingdoms of Pergamus, Bithynia, Pontus, and Cappadocia, each of which had a somewhat picturesque and interesting history when taken by itself, were hardly of sufficient importance from a worldhistorical standpoint to be given individual treatment in our text. It will be of interest, however, and will aid the reader in gaining a clear idea of the opponents of Rome, and of the true relations of the Roman Empire to the eastern peoples, if a brief outline of the history of each of these nations is introduced. Such a chronological epitome of their history is given here. THE KINGDOM OF PERGAMUS (283-133 B.C.) B.C. 283 Philetserus, governor of the Greek fortress of Pergamus, in Mysia, revolts and founds a small principality. Owing to the troubles incident to the Gallic invasion of Greece and Asia Minor, he is not disturbed. 263 His nephew, Eumenes I, succeeds. His power increases, and he defeats the Seleucidae in a battle. 241 Attalus I succeeds. He achieves a decisive victory over the Gauls, and makes friends with Rome. Pergamus becomes a great art centre. 197 Eumenes II succeeds. Height of splendour of the kingdom, which now covers the greater part of western Asia Minor. Eumenes becomes the ally of Rome in her wars against the Persians and Syrians. Building of the temple of Zeus Soter to commemorate the great victory over the Gauls. 159 Attalus (II) Fhiladelphus, his brother, succeeds. 138 Attalus (III) Philometor, son of Eumenes II, succeeds. 133 Death of Attalus III, who bequeaths his kingdom to the Romans. They form it into the province of Asia.


278 Nicomedes I assumes title of king, and maintains himself on the throne iu spite of civil discord and threatened invasion by Antiochus I. He allies himself with the Gauls, who have invaded Asia Minor.

250 His son, Zielas, succeeds after asserting his rights against his half-brother.

228 His son, Prusias I, succeeds.

220 Prusias at war with the Byzantines in conjunction with the Romans.

210 Prusias defeats a Gallic army invited into Asia by Attalus.

207 Prusias assists Philip of Macedon in war with Romans, and invades Pergamus.

188 Prusias at war with Eumenes II of Pergamus. Hannibal lends him assistance.

180 Prusias H succeeds his father.

156 War with Pergamus. Defeat of Attalus II.

154 Peace with Pergamus.

149 Prusias slain in a revolt in favour of his son Nicomedes H, who succeeds. 131 Nicomedes assists the Romaus in their war against Aristonicus. 102 He unites with Mithridates VI of Pontus in the conquest of the vacant throne of Paphlagonia.

96 Nicomedes marries Laodice, widow of Ariarathes VI of Cappadocia, and attempts to seize the kingdom. Rome compels him to abandon it. The senate also deprives him of Paphlagonia.

91 Nicomedes IU succeeds his father.

90 Mithridates VI of Pontus drives Nicomedes from his throne. 84 He is restored by Rome.

74 Death of Nicomedes. He bequeaths his kingdom to Rome and it becomes a province.

THE KINGDOM OF PONTUS (337 B.c.-63 A.d.)

The dynasty of Pontine kings is reckoned from Ariobarzanes I, about the beginning of the fouHh century B.c. But both he and his son Mithridates I, and grandson, Ariobarzanes II, are Persian satraps, and it is not until 337 that Mithridates II, son of the last satrap, makes himself independent. His rule is not uninterrupted.

318 About this time, Antigonus I forms a plan to kill him, and he flees to Paphlagonia, and afterwards supports Eumenes against Antigonus. He then recovers his throne and fixes himself firmly on it.

302 Mithridates III succeeds his father. He adds part of Cappadocia and Paphlagonia to his dominions. He allies himself with the Heracleans, and obtains help of the Gauls to overthrow a force sent against him by Ptolemy, king of Egypt.

266 Ariobarzanes IU succeeds his father.

240 Mithridates IV succeeds his father. He repels the Gauls shortly after his accession. 220 Unsuccessful attempt to capture Sinope. 190 Pharnaces I succeeds his father.

183 Capture of Sinope. The frontiers of Pontus are extended to Bithynia.

181 Pharnaces attacks Eumenes of Pergamus and Ariarathes of Cappadocia.

179 Pharnaces purchases peace, ceding all his possessions in Galatia and Paphlagonia,

excepting Sinope. 156 Mithridates (V) Euergetea succeeds his father. 154 He assists Attalus II of Pergamus against Prusias II of Bithynia. 149-146 During the Third Punic War, Mithridates makes alliance with Rome, supplying

ships and men.

131-129 Mithridates aide Rome against Aristonicus, for which he receives Phrygia. 120 Assassination of Mithridates at Sinope. Succeeded by his son Mithridates (VI) Bupator, the Great. The Romans take Phrygia from him. In the early years of his reign he subdues many warlike tribes, and incorporates the kingdom of Bosporus m his dominions. He attempts to gain control of Cappadocia, and drives Nicomedes III of Bithynia from his throne. 88 War breaks out with Rome on account of the Bithynian succession. Mithridates

overruns Asia Minor, massacring Roman citizens. 84 Mithridates makes peace with Sulla.

83 Murena invades Pontus without reason and is defeated the following year. 74 War with Rome renewed.

72 Mithridates flees to Armenia, taking refuge with his son-in-law, Tigranes. 65 Total defeat of Mithridates by Pompey.

G3 Revolt of the troops. It is put down, but Mithridates orders a Gallic mercenary to kill him. His son, Pharnaces II, who has been in revolt, succeeds him. He submits to Pompey, who grants him the kingdom of the Bosporus. 47 Death of Pharnaces in putting down the rebellion of Asander, governor of Bosporus. 36 Antony puts Polemon I, son-in-law of Pharnaces, over a part of Pontus known as Pontus Polemoniacus. He is succeeded about 2 B.C. by his son Polemon II, whose mother is nominal ruler until 39 A.d., when Caligula invests Polemon with the kingdom. 63 Polemon abdicates the throne and Pontus becomes a Roman province. THE KINGDOM OF CAPPADOCIA (c. 333 B.c-17 Aj>.)

The Cappadocian dynasty dates back to the time of Alexander the Great, when Ariarathes I maintains himself on the throne after the fall of the Persian monarchy. 322 Ariarathes captured by Perdiccas and crucified. 315 Ariarathes II, his nephew, recovers Cappadocia at death of Eumenes. He is succeeded by his son, Ariamnes H, and he in turn by Ariarathes III (date unknown). 220 Ariarathes IV succeeds his father. He joins Antiochus the Great against the Romans, and afterwards assists Rome against Perseus of Macedon. 163 Mithridates, afterwards called Ariarathes V, succeeds his father. 158 Ariarathes deprived of his kingdom by Orophernes (Olophernes), a creature of Demetrius Soter, Dut is restored by the Romans. 154 Ariarathes assists Attalus II in his war against Prusias II. 130 Death of Ariarathes in war of the Romans against Aristonicus. His wife Laodice kills all her children except the youngest, in order that she may rule. The people put her to death and place her surviving child, Ariarathes VI, on the throne. 96 Ariarathes poisoned at instigation of Mithridates the Great of Pontus, whose daughter he has married. Nicomedes II of Bithynia seizes Cappadocia, but Mithridates soon expels him and places Ariarathes VU, son of Ariarathes VI, on the throne. This prince goes to war with and defeats Nicomedes. 93 He quarrels with Mithridates, who stabs him during an interview. The Cappadocians recall the late king's brother, Ariarathes VIII, from exile and make him king. Mithridates compels him to abandon his kingdom. The Romans now intervene and appoint Ariobarzanes I king. He is several times expelled by Mithridates and Tigranes of Armenia, but always recovers his throne. 63 Ariobarzanes resigns Cappadocia to his son Ariobarzanes II. He remains, like his father, the true ally of Rome and is 42 put to death for refusing to join Brutus and Cassius. (Some writers say this was an Ariobarzanes III, who succeeded Ariobarzanes II about 52.) Ariarathes IX, brother of Ariobarzanes II, succeeds. 36 Antony puts him to death, and appoints Archelaus king. Although an ally of Antony, Octavian leaves him in possession of the kingdom and even adds to it. 14 Tiberius summons Archelaus to Rome. 17 Death of Archelaus. Cappadocia becomes a Roman province. APPENDIX B THE ROMAN STATE AND THE EARLY CHRISTIAN CHURCH


Written Specially For The Present Work By DR. ADOLF HARNACK Professor in the University of Berlin; Member of the Imperial Academy of Sciences. During the period between the reign of Diocletian and the fall of the Western Roman Empire, were laid the foundations of the history of the Middle Ages; and of these the most important was the recognition of the Christian church by the state and the privileged position thus accorded to it. This union of state and church involved an amalgamation of their intellectual forces, their rights and powers, and also to a certain extent of their system of government. There arose a type of culture and literature which was profane and Christian at one and the same time, a Roman-Christian system of law, and an established church. An alliance was made which would have passed for impossible down to the middle of the third century. Had Tertullian been told that a time was coming when the emperors would be Christians he would have stigmatised the prophecy as impious; had any man proclaimed to Decius that in his persecuting edict he was fighting against the future pillars of the state, he would have flouted the suggestion as absurd. Even as late as the third century the state and church seemed to be irreconcilable antagonists. And yet Constantine's resolution to recognise the church and grant her privileges has a long and well-marked preliminary history — and that in the case of both parties, state and church alike. If we study this preliminary history, Constantine's act appears in the light of the close of a historic process of development which could not have ended otherwise than it did. Constantine's greatness is not impaired by this fact; he realised and accomplished the one thing needful, and no statesman can do more. In the following pages we shall attempt to sketch this preliminary history of the alliance between state and church. More than a mere sketch, in which headings take the place of detailed statements, is out of the question, since detailed statements would involve voluminous treatment of the subject; but anyone familiar with the historical facts will be able easily to fill in the brief outline. Our principal task will be to show how the line of

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