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T is an observation of Mr. Hume's, that History, being

a collection of facts which are multiplying without end, is obliged to adopt, like most other Sciences, Arts of Abridgment; to retain the more material events, and to drop all the minute circumstances which are interesting only during the time, or to the persons engaged in the transactions. It is not pretended that our Annual Sketches of the succeeding years, which aim only at aiding the memory, by tracing such connections and relations as may be perceived in so short a time, after the events described, attain to the solidity, importance, and dignity, of just and legitimate history: for which they are only intended to supply materials, and, in the mean time; in some measure to supply their place. But a tolerable execution of even our design, requires the aid of abridgment in proportion to the variety of scenes to be described, and events to be recorded. We had not lost sight of this maxim in the composition of the HISTORY OF EUROPE, for 1807; which has however extended to a length, for which perhaps we ought, at least to our most accomplished and refined readers, to make an apology. Certainly if the scale of narration were to be in proportion to the multiplication of facts, History would totter under its own weight, and endless details would prevent attention to those general conclusions or results, that bestow on particular details their principal importance. Never perhaps, since the contest between religious tyranny, and religious liberty, the sister and powerful ally of political freedom, in the reign of the Emperor Charles V, was there so eventful a crisis. France and Russia contended on the banks of the Vistula, for the empire of the political world ; and this—we hesitate to say whether it was settled, or only put in a train


for being settled at the peace of Tilsit: while expeditions from Great-Britain were sent out into every quarter of the world.

The great affairs of nations fall naturally into two classes, according to the physical divisions of the year into Summer and Autumn; and Winter and Spring the former division, the season of action in the field; the latter, that of deliberation and debate in the councils of states, and sovereign princes. In the year 1807, two campaigns were to be described, and an account given of the business and debates of two sessions of the British parliament.The first campaign was terminated by the long cessation of arms, at least of field-operations, wbich succeeded to the horrible battle of Eylau : the second, that which was opened in the beginning of June, and terminated in the armistice that followed the decisive battle of Friedland.--To trace, if possible, among scenes so various, such relations and dependences as might help to weave them into some kind of narrative, more interesting than an assemblage of facts arranged in the mere order of time, was a task neither easy, nor to be performed in haste, or without waiting a little for the developement of time. And the advantages we have derived from this æconomy, which we hope will appear manifest in the History of Europe, will also, we trust, apologize for the late publication of the present volume.

Such an apology for tardy publication, may not proba bly, according to present appearances, occur soon again. The Continent of Europe, notwithstanding the glorious efforts of Austria and many parts of Spain, appears to be siuking fast into a state of degradation, and the servility, monotony, and barbarisin of a military government. But wherever Liberty, carrying in ber train all that gives grace, dignity, and value to life, takes up her abode, it will be our : business to attend her: without however being inattentive to the situation, character, and fate, of the unfortunate nations she may leave behind.

London, i8th of October, 1809.

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For the YEAR 1807.




E U R O P E.


General Aspect of Europe.-Resources of the opposite Belligerent

Powers-and Views:- Fragility of Confederations.-General Maxims and Measures of Buonaparte.-Position and Strength of the French and Russian Armies.- Military Force remaining to the King of Prussia after the Battles of Jena and Pultusk.— The general Plans of the opposite Armies.-Battles of MohringenBergfried-Deppen-Hop-and Eylau.- Retreat of the French on the Vistula -- and of the Russians behind the Pregel.


T the commencement of 1807, ror of Russia, and the king of Prus.

every eye was fixed on the sia on the one part, and, on the coasts of the Baltic. It was here other, Buonaparte emperor of that the destinies of Europe were to France, and king of Italy. The be ,decided, as they had been in latter derived support from the former periods, on those of the Me. nations whom he had subdued or diterranean. The genius and the intimidated, ---Italy, Spain, Holland, resources of the north were brought and a great part of Germany : the into conflict with those of the south. former depended on the aid of A mighty contest was to be decided Sweden, and the cordial and vigoby arms between Alexander empe. rouls co-operation of Great Britain. VOL. XLIX.



There was anotherally more power. reasovably expect to be joined by ful than either of the two just mèn. the Austrians. --Such, it may be pretioned, on which

the Russians sumed, were the considerations might, and no doubt did reckon, that encouraged and determined namely, a rigorous climate to which the court of St. Petersburg to us. they themselves were inured, but dertake and to persevere in the war which might prove fatal to soldiers with France. The battle of Pul. from France, Spain, and Italy. tusk, though bloody and obstinately The enemy too, in proportion as he contested, was indecisive: and it should advance into Poland, or be- must be admitted that if the nations, yond it, would be drawn into diffi. on whose favour and co-operation culties and dangers on the line of his the Russians depended, had uoder. operations, in territories, with the stood and pursued their respective, nature or ground of which he could as well as their common interest, and not be well acquainted, and farther harmoniously joined in one well.con. and farther removed from supplies certed plan of action, their design and reinforcements. The Russians, might not have proved abortive. on the contrary, would receive re- It is, however, not physical, but inforcements and stores both by moral force that governs the world : land and sea from Russia, Sweden, bold conception, a just discrimina. and England. The young and he. tion between difficulty and impossi. roic king of Sweden, emulating his bility, profound combination, unity ancestor the great Gustavus Adole of design, promptitude and rapidity phus, with the aid both of a sub- of action. It was not physical force, sidy, and troops from England, but sublime genius and an ascendan. might march an army through the cy over the minds of men, that gave Lower Saxony, from Dantzig and energy and success to the measures Colberg, as far as Hamburgh. This of Alexander of Macedon, Hanniarmy, augmented in its progress by bal, and Julius Cæsar. All great insurgents, in * Hesse, Hanover, and results spring from small, + and, at the Prussian dominions, might pass firsty imperceptible origins ; one the Elbe, and establish a war in the constant impulsion, constantly and centre of Germany; where if he uniformly accelerating. Io confe. should be able to maintain himself derations there is generally some. for any length of time, he might thing that misgives ; something false

In consequence of the exactions of the French, there had broken out in the territory of Hesse, a very considerable insurrection of about 10,000 men cousisting principally of dis 'anded soldiers and peasants. Those among them who had served as non-commissioned officers, were appointed officers. They then arted themselves by seizing all the muskets, swords, and pieces of artillery they could lay their hands on. The insurrection had begun to extend itself to Hanover and Saxony, when this honest effervescence of German indignation was calmed by the prudent and paternal remonstrances of the prince of Hesse.

+ Natura in minimis maxima.---Pliny. The kingdoms of the earth are in this respeet like the kingdom of heaven, i. e. of Jesus Christ :“The kingdom of heaven is like to a grain of mustard seed, which indeed is the least of all seeds, but when it is grown, it is the greatest among herbs, and becometh a tree, so thac the birds of the air come and lodge in the branches thereof. Mark xiii. 31-3.

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