such enumeration shall be made, the State of New-Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three; Massachusetts eight; RhodeIsland and Providence plantations one; Connecticut five; NewYork six; New-Jersey four; Pennsylvania eight; Delaware one ; Maryland six; Virginia ten; North-Carolina five; South-Carolina five; and Georgia three.

Writs of elec

4. When vacancies happen in the representation from any a for filling State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue writs of


First appor

tionment of


election to fill such vacancies.

Iouse of Rep

5. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speakresentatives to er and other officers; and shall have the sole power of imSpeaker, &c. peachment.

choose their


Two Senators

chosen by the Legislature of

1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of

6 years; each

each State for two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one See Art. 5, yote.* clause 1.]

a vote.

vided into three classes.

2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in conseThe Senate di- quence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second Senatorial seats year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, vacated and fil- and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so that one third may be chosen every second year; and if vacancies happen by resignation or otherwise, during the recess

One third of the

led every two years.

Executives of

States to fill va of the Legislature of any State, the executive thereof may

cancies in the

recess of Legis- make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the latures, &e. Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.

aged 30 years;

A Senator to be 3. No person shall be a Senator who shall not have atnine years tained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citiUnited States, zen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be and an inhab an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

citizen of the

itant of

State, when 4. The Vice President of the United States shall be Pres


Vice President ident of the Senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be

to be President

of the Senate, equally divided.

to vote on an equal divisiɔn

5. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a only. President pro-tempore, in the absence of the Vice-President, choose their or when he shall exercise the office of President of the

The Senate to

President pro

tempore, &e. United States.

peachments in

6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all imThe sole pow-peachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be er to try im on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United the Senate, &c. States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two thirds of the members present.

ment in cases


Extent of judg 7. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend of impeach- further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honour, trust, or profit under the to judg United States; but the party convicted shall nevertheless be ment, &c. ac liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and punish

Party liable al


cording to law.

ment, according to law.


1. The times, places, and manner of holding elections for Times, &c. of holding elecSenators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each tions for Senators and State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may, at sentatives regany time, by law, make or alter such regulations, except as States to the places of choosing Senators.

ulated by the or by Congress. Congress to assemble annual

2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year; and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

on the first Monday in Des

cember, &c.


Each House to

election of its

1. Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and qualifications of its own members; and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller judge of the number may adjourn from day to day, and may be author- own members. ised to compel the attendance of absent members, in such Quorum. manner and under such penalties as each House may provide.

determine its

2. Each House may determine the rules of its proceed- Each House to ings; punish its members for disorderly behaviour; and, own rules, &c. with the concurrence of two thirds, expel a member.

House and pub

3. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings; Journals to be and, from time to time, publish the same, excepting such kept by each parts as may in their judgment, require secrecy and the lished, &c. yeas and nays of the members of either House, on any question, shall, at the desire of one fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.


4. Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three of both Houses. days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.


paid, &c.

1. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a com- Senators and pensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and tives to be paid out of the treasury of the United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be Privileged from privileged from arrest, during their attendance at the session arrest, &c. of their respective Houses, and in going to, or returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other place.

of offi

2. No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office, under Concerning the the authority of the United States, which shall have been cre- ces by Senators ated, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased, tatives. during such time; and no person holding any office under the United States, shall be a member of either House, during his continuance in office.

and Represen.


to originate in

1. All bills, for raising revenue, shall originate in the House Revenue bills of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur the House of with amendments, as on other bills.

Representa tives, &c.

7 l nt s


ors of the 2. Every bill, which shall have passed the House of RepCo gress in resentatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a law, be Jasad the presented to the President of the United States. If he apforms o pr cding on bits prove, he shall sign it: but if not he shall return it, with his in that respect objections, to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to re-consider it. If, after such re-consideration, two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be re-considered; and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a law. But, in all such cases, the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays; and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill, shall be entered on the journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President, within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress, by their adjournment, prevent its return; in which case it shall not be a law.

3. Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the concurJoint Resolu- rence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be Tions except for necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be

ad ouromen'.

to recene the presented to the President of the United States; and, before

same sanction as Bills.

Congress have power to lay taxes, &c.

To borrow money.

To regulate commerce.


To coin money, &c.

To establish the rules of

4. To establish an uniform rule of naturalization, and uni

naturalization, form laws on the subject of bankruptcies, throughout the

United States:

To establish post offices,&e.

the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him; or being disapproved by him, shall be re-passed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.

To promote science, &c.


The Congress shall have power

1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises; to pay the debts, and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States:

5. To coin money; regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin; and fix the standard of weights and measures: To provide for 6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the sepunishing Cunterfeiters. Curities and current coin of the United States:

To constitute inferior tribu

2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States : 3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian tribes:

7. To establish post offices and post roads :

8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing, for limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries:

9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court: naston To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the racies, felonies, high seas and offences against the law of nations:

punish pi

war, &c.

10. To declare war; grant letters of marque and reprisal; To declare and make rules concerning captures on land and water: 11. To raise and support armies; but no appropriation of To raise a:money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years: 12. To provide and maintain a navy:

mies, &c.

13. To make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces:

To provide a
Navy, &c.


for governi army and

14. To provide for calling forth the militia, to execute the To provide t laws of the Union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions: militia.

calling the

15. To provide for organizing, arming and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be em- To provide r ployed in the service of the United States; reserving to the organizing the States respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress :

militia, &c.

clusive jurisd


16. To exercise exclusive legislation, in all cases whatsoever, over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as To exercise t may, by cession of particular States, and the acceptance of tion over a 1Congress, become the seat of the Government of the United States; and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the Legislature of the State in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful buildings: and

ritorial distaler
not exceed
10 miles square.

17. To make all laws, which shall be necessary and prop- To make all er for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all laws necessary other powers vested by this Constitution in the Government tion of their of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof. powers.

to the exec


not to pro

1. The migration or importation of such persons, as any Importation of of the States now existing, shall think proper to admit, shall certain perso not be prohibited by the Congress, prior to the year one hibited untila thousand eight hundred and eight; but a tax or duty may be see Art. 5. imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars each person.*

ter 1808.

for clause 1.3

2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not suspended, unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, public safety may require it.

3. No bill of attainder, or ex post facto law, shall be No bills of a1passed.

tainder or ex

post facto laws. Direct taxes

4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration herein before di- according to rected to be taken.


be Writ of habeas the nized, &c.

corpus recog⚫


another in con

5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from No export dure. any State. No preference shall be given by any regulation of one State t of Commerce or revenue, to the ports of one State over those of another: nor shall vessels, bound to or from one State be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another."


6. No money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in consequence of appropriations made by law: and a regular Money to be statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of appropriation all public money shall be published from time to time.

pended by legai


the U. States;

No titles of no- 7. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United And no person, holding any office of profit or trust nor can its offi- under them, shall, without the consent of the Congress, acpresents, &c. cept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince or foreign State.

eers accept

bility can be
Conferred by States.


1. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or con



Powers with federation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; States individ- emit bills of credit; make any thing but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder; ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts; or grant any title of nobility.

the States can

2. No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection Powers which laws; and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by exercise only any State on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the under the sane-Treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops, or ships of war, in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another State, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.

tion of gress.



1. The Executive Power shall be vested in a President of Excentive pow. er vested in a the United States of America. He shall hold his office dur

President, &c. ing the term of four years, and, together with the VicePresident, chosen for the same term, be elected as follows:

2. Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the LegisVice-President, lature thereof may direct, a number of Electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives, to which the State may be entitled in the Congress; but no Senator, or Representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States shall be appointed an Elector.


3. The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for two persons, of whom one, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for Their proceed- each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate, and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such majority and have an equal number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall

Electors of
President and


Meeting of the
Electors of
President, &c.

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