such enumeration shall be made, the State of New-Hampshire First appor shall be entitled to choose three; Massachusetts eight; Rhode

tionment of



tion filling

Island and Providence plantations one; Connecticut five; New-
York six; New-Jersey four; Pennsylvania eight; Delaware one;
Maryland six; Virginia ten; North-Carolina five; South-Car-
olina five; and Georgia three.

Writs of elec 4. When vacancies happen in the representation from any ferg State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.


House of Rep

5. The House of Representatives shall choose their Speakresentatives to er and other officers; and shall have the sole power of imSpeaker, &c. peachment.

choose their

Two Senators chosen by the Legislature of


1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of each State for two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one [See Art. 5, yote.*

6 years; each

a vote.

The Senate di

One third of the


clause 1.] 2. Immediately after they shall be assembled in consevided into three quence of the first election, they shall be divided as equally classes. as may be into three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be vacated at the expiration of the second Senatorial seats year, of the second class at the expiration of the fourth year, vacated and fil- and of the third class at the expiration of the sixth year, so years. that one third may be chosen every second year; and if vaExecutives of cancies happen by resignation or otherwise, during the recess States to fill va of the Legislature of any State, the executive thereof may recess of Legis- make temporary appointments until the next meeting of the latures, &c. Legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies.

led every two

cancies in the

aged 30 years;

A Senator to be 3. No person shall be a Senator who shall not have atnine years tained to the age of thirty years, and been nine years a citi United States, Zen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be itant of his an inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

citizen of the

and an inhab


State, when 4. The Vice President of the United States shall be PresVice President ident of the Senate, but shall have no vote, unless they be of the Senate, equally divided.

to be President

to vote on an equal division only.

The Senate to

5. The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a President pro-tempore, in the absence of the Vice-President, choose their or when he shall exercise the office of President of the tempore, &e. United States.

President pro

6. The Senate shall have the sole power to try all imThe sole pow-peachments. peachments. When sitting for that purpose, they shall be er to try im on oath or affirmation. When the President of the United peachments in the Senate, &c. States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: and no person shall be convicted without the concurrence of two thirds of the members present.

Extent of judg.

ment in cases


7. Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend of impeach- further than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any office of honour, trust, or profit under the to judg- United States; but the party convicted shall nevertheless be ment, &c. ac liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law.

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Sect. iv.

holding eleetors and Repre

1. The times, places, and manner of holding elections for Times, &c. of Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each tions for SenaState by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may, at sentatives regany time, by law, make or alter such regulations, except as States to the places of choosing Senators.

ulated by the

or by

Congress. Congress to assemble annuai

2. The Congress shall assemble at least once in every em the first year; and such meeting shall be on the first Monday in De- Monday in De cember, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.


cember, &c.

Each House to

election of its

1. Each House shall be the judge of the elections, returns, and qualifications of its own members; and a majority of each shall constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller judge of the number may adjourn from day to day, and may be author-own members. ised to compel the attendance of absent members, in such Quorum. manner and under such penalties as each House may provide.

determine its

2. Each House may determine the rules of its proceed- Each House to ings; punish its members for disorderly behaviour; and, own rules, &c. with the concurrence of two thirds, expel a member.

House and pub

3. Each House shall keep a journal of its proceedings; Journals to be and, from time to time, publish the same, excepting such kept by each parts as may in their judgment, require secrecy and the lished, &c. yeas and nays of the members of either House, on any question, shall, at the desire of one fifth of those present, be entered on the journal.


4. Neither House, during the session of Congress, shall, without the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three of both Houses. days, nor to any other place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.


Representapaid, &c.

1. The Senators and Representatives shall receive a com- Senators and pensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and tives to be paid out of the treasury of the United States. They shall in all cases, except treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be Privileged from privileged from arrest, during their attendance at the session arrest, &c. of their respective Houses, and in going to, or returning from the same; and for any speech or debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other place.

holding of offiand Represen.

2. No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil office, under Concerning the the authority of the United States, which shall have been cre- ces by Senators ated, or the emoluments whereof shall have been increased, during such time; and no person holding any office under the United States, shall be a member of either House, during his continuance in office.



to originate in

1. All bills, for raising revenue, shall originate in the House Revenue bills of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur the House of with amendments, as on other bills.

Representa tives, &c.

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the at ng

ors of the 2. Every bill, which shall have passed the House of RepCo gress in resentatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a law, be las, ad the presented to the President of the United States. If he apeding on its prove, he shall sign it: but if not he shall return it, with his in that respects objections, to that House in which it shall have originated,

forms o pr

Joint Resolutions except for ad ouromen'.

who shall enter the objections at large on their journal, and proceed to re-consider it. If, after such re-consideration, two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the bill, it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be re-considered; and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a law. But, in all such cases, the votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and nays; and the names of the persons voting for and against the bill, shall be entered on the journal of each House respectively. If any bill shall not be returned by the President, within ten days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law, in like manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress, by their adjournment, prevent its return; in which case it shall not be a law.

3. Every order, resolution, or vote, to which the concur rence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of adjournment) shall be to receive the presented to the President of the United States; and, before the same shall take effect, shall be approved by him; or being disapproved by him, shall be re-passed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the rules and limitations prescribed in the case of a bill.

same sanction as Bills.

Congress have power to lay taxes, &c.

To borrow money.

To regulate


To establish

the rules of naturalization,


To coin money, &c.


The Congress shall have power

1. To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises; to pay the debts, and provide for the common defence and general welfare of the United States; but all duties, imposts and excises shall be uniform throughout the United States:

2. To borrow money on the credit of the United States : 3. To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian tribes:

4. To establish an uniform rule of naturalization, and uniform laws on the subject of bankruptcies, throughout the United States:

5. To coin money; regulate the value thereof, and of foreign coin; and fix the standard of weights and measures:

To provide for 6. To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the sepunishing eunterfeiters. curities and current coin of the United States: 7. To establish post offices and post roads:

To establish post offices, &c.

To promote science, &c.

To constitute inferior tribu

8. To promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing, for limited times, to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries :

9. To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court: nals to define To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the racies, felonies, high seas and offences against the law of nations:

and punish pi


10. To declare war; grant letters of marque and reprisal; a To declare and make rules concerning captures on land and water:

11. To raise and support armies; but no appropriation of To raise :money to that use shall be for a longer term than two years: 12. To provide and maintain a navy:

13. To make rules for the government and regulation of

the land and naval forces:

mies, &c.
To provide a
Navy, &c.

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army and k

14. To provide for calling forth the militia, to execute the To provid calling forth the laws of the Union, suppress insurrections, and repel invasions: militia. 15. To provide for organizing, arming and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be em- To provide r ployed in the service of the United States; reserving to the organizing the States respectively, the appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress :

militia, &c.

clusive jurisde

ritorial distier
not exceed
10 miles square.

16. To exercise exclusive legislation, in all cases whatsoever, over such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as To exercise (5may, by cession of particular States, and the acceptance of tion over a 1:1 Congress, become the seat of the Government of the United States; and to exercise like authority over all places purchased by the consent of the Legislature of the State in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful buildings: and

to the exec

17. To make all laws, which shall be necessary and prop- To make !! er for carrying into execution the foregoing powers, and all laws necessary other powers vested by this Constitution in the Government tion of of the United States, or in any department or officer thereof. powers.



not to be pro

ter 1808.

1. The migration or importation of such persons, as any Importation of of the States now existing, shall think proper to admit, shall certain perso not be prohibited by the Congress, prior to the year one hibited untila thousand eight hundred and eight; but a tax or duty may be See Art. 5, imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars each person.*

2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not suspended, unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, public safety may require it.

3. No bill of attainder, or ex post facto law, shall passed.

for clause 1.3

be Writ of habeas the nized, &c.

corpus recog

be No bills of 21

tainder or ex post facto laws.

4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in Direct taxes proportion to the census or enumeration herein before di- according to rected to be taken.


No export dure, one State t

nor preference

another in conmerce.

5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any State. No preference shall be given by any regulation of of Commerce or revenue, to the ports of one State over those of another: nor shall vessels, bound to or from one State be obliged to enter, clear, or pay duties in another.

pended by legal

6. No money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in consequence of appropriations made by law: and a regular Money to be ex statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of appropriation all public money shall be published from time to time.


bility can be

the U. States;

Na titles of no- 7. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United ennferred by States. And no person, holding any office of profit or trust Hor can its off under them, shall, without the consent of the Congress, acpresents, &c. cept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince or foreign State.

cers accept

drawn from


1. No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or conPowers with federation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; States individ- emit bills of credit; make any thing but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder; ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts; or grant any title of nobility.


2. No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection Powers which laws; and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by exercise only any State on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the under the sanc- Treasury of the United States; and all such laws shall be

the States can

tion of Con


subject to the revision and control of the Congress. No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops, or ships of war, in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another State, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.



1. The Executive Power shall be vested in a President of er vested in a the United States of America. He shall hold his office dur

Excentive pow.

Electors of
President and

President, &c. ing the term of four years, and, together with the VicePresident, chosen for the same term, be elected as follows: 2. Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a number of Electors, equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives, to which the State may be entitled in the Congress; but no Senator, or Representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States shall be appointed an Elector.


Meeting of the
Electors of

President, &c.


3. The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by ballot for two persons, of whom one, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for, and of the number of votes for Their proceed each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate, and House of Representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such majority and have an equal number of votes, then the House of Representatives shall

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