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73

76

PAGE. Boston, Hartford, Windsor and Newbury ........

71 Increase in Number of Dissenters.....

72 Baptists and Episcopalians........ Prominent men among Dissenters.....

74 Dissenters not social outlaws in 1700...

74 Baptist ordination in Boston.........

74 Rector Cutler and the Episcopalians.........

75 The condition of religion at the beginning of the Eighteenth Cen

tury....... Influence of the Half-way Covenant....

76 Influence of State Churchism.......

77 Opinions of the Rev. Torry, Dr. Mather and Mr. Willard on the Condition of Religion..........

77 The Dissenters and the Exemption Laws.......

79 Progress of Religious Liberty......

80 In Massachusetts........

80 Exemption Laws for Episcopalians, 1735, 1742; for Quakers and Baptists......

80 Baptists object to Certificate System because it acknowledges State control.........

83 Bill of Rights of 1780.......

84 In Connecticut..........

85 Act of Toleration, 1708.........

85 Exemption Laws.....

85 Episcopalian, 1727...

86 Quaker and Baptist, 1729..

87 The Great Awakening...

87 Law of 1742..

87 Separates .....

88 Saybrook Platform abrogated 1784......

89 In Nero Hampshire......

89 Law of 1714 cited.........

89 Bill of Rights, 1784...

90 In Vermont ........

90 Bill of Rights, 1777..

90 Law of 1783 quoted.....

91 In Rhode Island ......

93 No State Church-Disfranchised Catholics.

93

CHAPTER V.-DEVELOPMENT OF RELIGIOUS LIBERTY IN THE NINE

TEENTH CENTURY-DISESTABLISHMENT,
The Federal Constitution .........
Its amendments as to religious tests and religious freedom help to

settle the question in the States.......

95

96 PAGE. Disestablishment.........

98 In Vermont.....

98 Law of 1801 to appease dissenters not satisfactory..

98 Disestablishment in 1807.........

99 In Connecticul........

99 Could more be asked for than the Law of 1791 granted ? Law quoted. .........

99 Dissenters combine with Republicans to overthrow the Charter government.......

100 Bill of Rights, 1818, destroys the Church establishment. Articles quoted......

101 In New Hampshire..........

101 Baptists recognized as a sect in 1804; Universalists in 1805; Methodists in 1807..........

101 Toleration Act of 1819..........

102 In Maine........

102 Separates from Massachusetts-New constitution puts religion on a voluntary basis.........

102 Article III of the Bill of Rights quoted......

102 In Massachusetts.......

103 Baptists test Certificate System under Bill of Rights...... 103 Unjust interpretation of the Laws...

104 Religious Freedom Act of 1811........

104 Government by majority......

104 Dedham case cited.........

105 The Unitarian Ascendancy..

106 Disestablishment, 1834......

106

CHURCH AND STATE IN NEW ENGLAND.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTORY.

A study of church and state in America may well begin with results of the Reformation in England. Puritan, Independent, Separatist, Pilgrim, were but the names of those zealous English Protestants who, no longer satisfied with the Church of Rome, stood for the reform of its doctrine and polity. The teachings of Wycliffe, Erasmus and Colet had prepared the way for the reform in England, and, whatever may have been Henry VIII.'s motive for declaring his ecclesiastical independence, there is little doubt that there was a considerable party ready to support him in his opposition to the Pope. The Defender of the Faith was far from ready to take up the cause of Protestantism ; nevertheless, the advocates of reform saw in the separation from Rome a point gained for their cause. The dissolution of the monasteries which followed gave the death-blow to the Catholic hierarchy in England and undermined the whole Catholic party; and, more than that, it raised up a party which not alone from principle but from self-interest opposed every effort to re-establish Catholicism. In this way again the King aided the cause of the reformers. Henry VIII., however, was at heart a Catholic and he aimed to enforce a Catholicism, with himself as Pope, upon the English people. The Statute of Six Articles passed in his reign made it a crime punishable by death to write, preach or dispute against transubstantiation; celibacy of the clergy and auricular confession were insisted upon. Aside from these and some minor points the King was not unwilling to be more or less liberal to the Protestants. He at one time permitted an English translation of the Bible to be used in every parish church ; but even this privilege was abridged a few years before the King's death.

The reign of Edward VI. is marked by the effort made to establish Protestantism. Images were removed from the

hes; auricular confession was made optional with each individual ; marriage was allowed to the clergy; the sacrament of the altar was administered in both kinds. Hallam tells us that the Roman worship was proscribed ; that many persons were sent to prison for hearing mass, and that Mary herself was not permitted to have the exercise of her religion at home. Parliament made it penal for any minister to use in any cathedral, parish or church any other than the Book of Common Prayer. In this way uniformity of service was to be secured. The Six Articles of Henry VIII. were repealed. A Book of Homilies embodying the doctrines of Cranmer was compiled and ordered to be read in the churches. The Forty-two Articles of Religion were introduced as the standard of doctrines. Subscription to these Articles was demanded of all clergymen, church-wardens and school-masters. The Reformation in England under Edward tended towards a Calvinistic theology and Zwinglian ceremony. “The new Prayer-book,” says Green," was revised, and every change made in it leaned towards the Protestantism of Geneva." It must be remembered, however, that the great body of English people was Catholic and consequently there was no little opposition to these reforms. It was, therefore, inexpedient for the English reformers to go as far as those of the continent wished them to go. Cranmer thought it wise to retain some of the ceremonial usages. He refused to do away with the copes and rochets of the bishops and the surplice of the priest. On account of this and in spite of all the sweeping changes that had been made, some of the continental reformers did not hesitate to utter their dislike of “the backwardness of the English Reformation.” But there is no doubt that it approached in both doctrine and ritual as near to Protestantism as the circumstances of the time would permit. The position taken by the English church was midway between Catholicism and Protestantism. It satisfied neither party ; its authority had now to be maintained by persecution of Catholic and Protestant alike.

1 Constitutional History of England, Vol. I, Chap. II, p. 106. The references are to the Standard Edition.

2 Green's Short History of the English People, p. 366.

At the accession of Mary the realm was brought back to the old religion. The Anti-Catholic acts passed in the reigns of Edward and Henry were swept away. Many of the nobility and a large part, perhaps a majority, of the people supported Mary in the return to Catholicism. Her marriage with Philip of Spain, however, made her unpopular; it also“ created a prejudice against the religion which the Spanish Court so steadily favored.” In addition to this, her widespread and cruel persecution of the Protestants alienated many of her subjects. Hallam tells us, on the authority of Strype, that many became Protestants under Mary who, “at her coming to the throne, had retained the contrary persuasion.”? Persecution drove Protestants out of the realm. Some of them took refuge in Switzerland, others in Germany. Calvin and Zwingli received the exiles kindly, but Luther had little sympathy with them. During their stay in Geneva and other parts of Switzerland they observed the simplicity of worship so characteristic of the Zwinglian churches. Here they saw the affairs of church and state administered by the people. By a majority of votes the people chose their ministers. That

Hallam, Vol. I, p. 115.

? Const. Hist., I, 115.

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