I am also impressed with the great change which has taken place. I am a man nearly 80 years old and so I speak with a good many years of experience, the great change that has taken place in the nature and character of the drinker.

As a young pharmacist, I came in contact with doctors and patients when I was a youth. The alcoholic was usually a man of no education, no special refinement. He was just one of the common folks. Today, alcohol, after prohibition, has become popular, has become refined, and while it was a disgrace to say, “Well, he was a drunk,” or “He was a drinker," when I was a boy, today a man says, “I have had a fling, had a great time."

As a psychiatrist, I recognize that 10 years of regular drinking will produce in 3 out of 10 definite deterioration of either mental or character condition, and so as a psychiatrist, being in a hospital which for 30 years never prescribed a drink of whiskey to thousands of patients, did not have to use alcohol at all, I must speak of alcohol as the brain's most seductive enemy.

Millions are being spent to recruit succeeding generations of alcoholics, one out of three of whom after 10 years' regular use of alcohol will assuredly be reduced to some level of alcoholic damage, usually marked mental or character inferiority.

Insofar as I am in any sense my brothers' keeper, my attitude toward the Capper

bill can only be dictated by my conscience. Senator REED. Thank you.

. Bishop HAMMAKER. Dr. Scott, the chairman of the executive committee of the Anti-Saloon League of America.




Dr. Scoit. In the absence of Bishop Ralph S. Cushman, president of the Anti-Saloon League of America, I have the privilege of speaking for the league. Bishop Cushman, who is one of the leaders of the Methodist Church, and who is not able to be present because of an official appointment in the West, which had been previously made, has sent the following telegram which I would like to read:

It is sent from Riverside, Calif.

Please communicate to Senator Wallace H. White and the other members of the Senate Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce my deep regret that important dates in Far West hold me from personally appearing to urge favorable consideration of Senate bill S. 265. There is widespread evidence of the strong and growing sentiment in all States that the unrestrained advertising of intoxicating beverages is unfair and menacing to democracy. The very recent unanimous pronouncement of my colleagues, the Methodist bishops, is indicative of the present trend. Passage of the Capper bill would encourage the moral forces of America, and create confidence in the courage and fairness of our legislators in Washington.

That is signed by Bishop Ralph S. Cushman, president of the AntiSaloon League of America.

Since its inception 54 years ago, the Anti-Saloon League of America has been the voice of the Protestant Churches in relation to temperance and prohibition. Its leaders are members of these churches and its active support comes from those who believe in the Christian way of life. While it is true that the main work of the church is to proclaim redemption from sin to individuals, yet the church cannot close its eyes to wickedness or evil conditions which tempt those who are weak and frequently lead astray those who are not able to overcome such temptation. For that reason, if for no other, the churches of America are tremendously concerned at the increased use, sale, and consumption of beverage liquor which is causing so much sin, wickedness, and disaster in individual lives, and in the social conditions of all communities.

There is an old adage with which all of us are familiar, namely, “It pays to advertise.” The beverage-liquor traffic has certainly proven the truth of this saying, for it would seem that in proportion to the expanding campaign of advertising, which the liquor industry has launched, there has come a proportionate increase in the sale and consumption of alcoholic beverages. This advertising by the printed page, the spoken word, through newspaper, magazine, and over the radio has been persistent and insidious. Liquor has been “dressed up” and made to appear to be not only attractive, but essential in all social forms of living. It never shows that net result or the end which is so frequently accomplished by false misrepresentations or half truths. This advertising of beverage liquor has misled and is misleading many of our people. The work of our Christian churches is made so much more difficult by this aggressive social pressure which is forthcoming from such advertising.

In addition, many of our people live in areas and sections from which they themselves have voted out liquor for beverage purposes. They have expressed in the true American way their opinion concerning the sale of that which they know to be harmful. Yet, over and over aagin, through radio programs which are started outside of those areas, through newspapers and magazines which are published perhaps in distant cities, the purpose, to which they have put their franchise is violated. Advertising of liquor comes into their homes and thus the very thing they have attempted to say shall not be done is put before them and their children, the suggestion of that which harms. or spoils life. This is a serious indictment of our National Government and should be speedily corrected by the passage of Senate bill 265, which is now before your committee.

It is to be remembered that when the President of the United States issued a proclamation which announced the ratification of the twentyfirst amendment to the United States Constitution, he said that the objective of the national policy would be toward greater temperance throughout the Nation. How can this be understood in the light of a national policy which permits the expressed wish of a voting unit to be thus disregarded? Temperance or prohibition sentiment is rapidly increasing in this country because of the open arrogance and disregard of human welfare on the part of the beverage-liquor traffic. In no respect is this more apparent than in the effort which the beverageliquor business makes through this expanding campaign of its ware. Young and old are reached; those who are strong and those who are weak are bombarded in every conceivable way to use liquors, without regard to personal effect or the community standard which might be forthcoming.

In behalf of the Anti-Saloon League of America, speaking for many of our Protestant churches in sections that are dry as well as in


areas that are wet, representing Christian homes into which these programs on the radio and this campaign of printed matter is going, I want to ask your committee to support, by vote and influence, Senate bill 265.

Liquor exists in this country by sufferance; our courts have held that it has a different category than any other business which is legitimate. The Congress of the United States and the several States have not only the right, but the duty to regulate this beverage liquor trafficto regulate it so that it will do the least possible harm to the citizens of the country or the principles upon which the Nation is established. It seems to us that the adoption of this proposed measure would be a step in this direction, a proper and a worthy step.

Senator REED. Thank you.

Bishop HAMMAKER. The Chicago Juvenile Protective Association wants to have a word in behalf of this bill. They are represented here by Walter 0. Cromwell. STATEMENT OF WALTER O. CROMWELL, CHICAGO JUVENILE

PROTECTIVE ASSOCIATION, CHICAGO, ILL. Mr. CROMWELL. The Federal Government should enact legislation as embodied in Senator Capper's bill, S. 265, to control the advertising of alcoholic beverages.

I represent the Juvenile Protective Association of Chicago—a private child welfare agency whose 50-year history is one of civic-minded men and women seeking to soothe the injuries of children and young people; to obtain for them their rightful opportunities to live and grow into useful citizens; to protect them from the abuses and pain often inflicted on them by incompetent or irresponsible adults; to obtain local, State, and national laws which not only safeguard the child but will improve his home and neighborhood environment.

This association has lived and functioned in intimate contact with the domestic, economic, social, recreational, and moral problems and conflicts of a cross section of the country's children and parents; it has traced the roots of their problems to the underlying weaknesses and failures of the communities' institutions, to business, local government, schools, and churches; it has sought the facts about community conditions which impair the lives of children and has made them available to all groups of citizens for their enlightenment and action.

In the years preceding the prohibition amendment, during prohibition, and since the relegalization of the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages, the Juvenile Protective Association has continuously studied the alcohol problem in relation to the welfare of children, family and community life. Irrespective of the personal views or beliefs of members of its staff regarding the wet-dry controversy, this association has never taken sides but has steadfastly sought to protect children from circumstances or conditions in their environment which were demoralizing and conducive to delinquency and crime.

During the 15 years since repeal, this agency has made investigations of more than 15,000 retail liquor establishments in Chicago and its suburbs; it has observed and studied conditions in these places, talked with the patrons, the owners, and the employees; it has had a long association with judges, policemen, policewomen, juvenile offi

cers, State and local liquor control officials, officers of various liquor organizations, members of temperance groups, church leaders, and officials of public and private welfare agencies. In these respects the function of the Juvenile Protective Association has been unique.

Liquor advertising is one of the most insidious menaces to the health, welfare, and strength of the Nation because of the nature of alcohol and its effect on the individual and society.

The eminent scientist, Dr. Anton J. Carlson, of the University of Chicago, was asked by a member of a businessmen's club he was addressing in Chicago if he thought that something should be done about liquor advertising. Dr. Carlson said, “I am against lying in all advertising.” Deceptive and misleading advertising is not confined to the liquor trade alone; it is widespread in the conduct of American business. But there is no other widely advertised product which has such disastrous effect on its users as alcohol. Liquor advertising has far exceeded the bounds of consideration for the economic, physical, moral, and social welfare of the public.

The Juvenile Protective Association has observed among drinkers and nondrinkers alike an increasing concern about the actual and potential hazards in the indiscriminate promotion of the use of alcoholic beverages through advertising. The liquor problem is one of great complexity and is not likely to be solved by the control or elimination of liquor advertising. But there is an increasing recognition among citizens that the advertising of alcoholic beverages is one of the strongest links in our liquor problem chain.

It is the duty and function of our Government to protect its people. Uncontrolled liquor advertising has used every appeal it could devise to promote the sale of liquor—appeal by suggestion, appeal to youth, appeal to the senses, appeal to self-superiority, appeal to old times, selling the idea that the best people drink, it is good to drink, successful people drink, athletes drink, ladies and gentlemen drink, it is patriotic to drink, it is healthful, it is pleasant, it is fun, it is fine for everyone to drink. Chicago's 26,000 chronic alcoholics and its 100,000 excessive or problem drinkers mutely refute the liquor ads.

If we legalized the manufacture and sale of heroin and cocaine and permitted anyone to make it, and if we licensed 400,000 retail stores to sell it, and permitted those in the business to spend a hundred million dollars a year to tell the people about the dreamy delights of their product, the result would be a great increase in the number of addicts.

The advertising of liquor or cocaine is just as effective as advertising in other fields—it pays. A Chicago newspaper carried an account recently of a man who inserted the following ad in the local paper, "Your last chance to send $1 to post office box 106.” The dollar bills poured in until authorities intervened. And so will a larger and larger number of the population fall victim to the liquor ads unless authorities act.

Senator REED. Thank you.

Bishop HAMMAKER. Before I present Dr. O. R. Miller, the Secretary of the International Reform Federation, I wonder if I might have your permission to inquire if Mr. J. T. Saunders of the National Grange has come to the caucus room this afternoon.

Apparently he has not.
Dr. Miller.

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CIVIC LEAGUE, ALBANY, N. Y. Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, the wet American Mercury magazine in an editorial recently, when defending the repeal of national prohibition ended the editorial by saying, “The battle against the rising tide of drunkenness and juvenile delinquency will be won or lost in the American home."

Bishop Arthur K. White, in a recent issue of the Dry Legion answers the American Mercury as follows:

In the minds of hundreds of thousands of people today the American home has been liquor deluged. Liquor advertisements pour into the home in radio Programs, the newspapers, magazines, and journals in advertisements like the one at the back of the Mercury magazine containing your article. Children in the home see and hear these appeals to drink everywhere they go.

You are very much like a man in a scow in the rising waters of a Mississippi flood. All around you are homes that have left their foundations and are floating in the treacherous and rising tide. The children look pitifully out of the windows of the upper stories. Many of them are perched on the roofs. You cry through your megaphone, "American homes, save yourselves."

The victims of this unprecedented situation could very scientifically and logically laugh you to scorn. The way to save the homes is to do something about the flood tide with methods of prevention, such as prohibition that takes us back to the plans, the hills, and the mountain ravines, where prohibition dams must be built.

The New York Journal-American recently published an editorial syndicated in many other newspaper across the country entitled "Women at the Bar.” The editor is not afraid to warn of returning “prohibition.” That editorial begins thus:

"One of the saddest and assuredly social spectacles of city life nowadays is the dark and dingy cocktail bars where at almost any hour of business the clientele is largely feminine and unescorted.” This remarkable article concludes as follows:

"If this promiscuous and continual drinking in saloons continues much longer, too many mothers, wives, and sisters to whom society looks for refuge and sanity and health in an age of moral laxity, will instead become derelicts, meriting at the worst disgust and at the best, pity. A cleanup is drastically needed, and those who shrink from the word 'prohibition' will do well to remove from the social scene one of the most potent arguments for that very thing.

"Sir, compromise with and toleration for the modern saloon will get us nowhere. Prohibition is the only language the liquor traffic understands. Better stop theorizing, speculating, and writing articles for wet magazines and get into the fight to dry up this flood-this beast of destruction."

Life is a great training school. We should make it as easy as possible for people to do right and as hard as possible for them to do wrong, especially for the young and inexperienced in our homes.

We should make it easy for weak men to grow strong and for strong men to stay strong. It is cruel, it is wicked, it is inhuman to place temptation in the path of the weak by which they are caused to stumble and fall. But it is still true that “Man's inhumanity to man makes countless thousands mourn."

If a person went through a crowd of weak, starving people in Europe with large trays full of delicious turkey sandwiches, bacon and eggs, mince pie, custard pie, chocolate pie, and so forth, and offered them free to the starving people—but told them that there was poison in all this food, how many of those starving multitudes could resist the temptation to take and eat?

Thousands of men and women whose wills have been weakened by drink cannot resist the temptation to drink when it is offered to them,



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