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That the various States received in revenues from the alcoholicbeverage industry approximately $450,000,000.

In the scheme of human government, man may make laws which forbid, and he may be punished if he breaks those laws, but to remove temptation by law or to make men good by law is an assumption of authority as unjustified by reason as it is useless in practice.

Any law that will not be respected and cannot be enforced ought not to be placed upon the statute books.

A law that will breed lying and deceit in the people is not a temperance measure þut an intemperance measure.

That the International Brewery Workers are sponsoring a program for the use and not abuse of alcoholic beverages. This program is being carried out by State Councils of Brewery Workers in the various States.

That other groups and organizations that are against the return of prohibition are also sponsoring educational programs along these lines.

There are any number of valid reasons why this committee should not report S. 265 out, but paramount is the fact that the people of the United States repudiated national prohibition after a long and fair trial; are still in the majority opposed to a return of national prohibition, and this bill, sponsored by the prohibition forces, is actually a first step toward a return of national prohibition.

And, Mr. Chairman, I have two exhibits here. I have listed them as A and B.

One is the tear sheet of a national magazine of October 28, actual photographs of the conditions in the State of Kansas in "blind pigs.”

Senator REED. They will be received and filed.

Mr. BRADY. I would like, if there is no objection, to have the text incorporated in the record of this committee.

Senator REED. It will be received and made a part of the record. (The text referred to is as follows:)

WETS FIGHT DRYS IN KANSAS ELECTION

(Photographs for Life by Mark Kauffman) In Wichita, Kans., battleground of the late Prohibitionist, Carrie Nation, her monument was smashed recently by a beer truck. This was regrettable but legal, for 3.2 beer is approved by Kansas law. About the same time a straw vote in Carrie's home town of Medicine Lodge showed that 31 percent of its citizens now drink hard liquor, which is a crime. Both incidents have a symbolic significance. Dry Kansas is getting so wet that the State's prohibition law, never seriously challenged before, is the biggest issue of the current election campaign.

To Harry Woodring, Democratic candidate for Governor in a State which has had only five Democratic governors, the issue is a godsend. Plumping for repeal, he has become the darling of the wets. The drys prefer Republican Frank Carlson, who can afford to be leisurely about reforming the law because his party is almost sure of winning anyway. But the prohibition issue cuts right across party lines. Both Republicans and Democrats in Kansas run the gamut from the WCTU, which is especially strong there, to ardent advocates of repeal-with a large number of people in the middle who drink wet and vote dry.

In the 11 days he spent in Kansas, Life photographer Mark Kauffman had no trouble finding and entering saloons in virtually every town he visited. The photographic evidence he gathered of the interesting contrast between Kansas law and its habits is shown above and on the following pages.

THE SPEAKEASIES ARE EVERYWHERE AND RAIDS SELDOM BOTHER THEM

9

The 66-year-old prohibition amendment to the Kansas State Constitution reads, "The manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors shall be forever prohibited in this State, except for medical, scientific, and mechanical purposes.” But to a casual visitor it might seem that everybody in Kansas is either a doctor, a scientist, or a mechanic.

Roadhouse speakeasies are spread all over the State, and one successful Topeka liquor vendor operates right under the window of the mayor's committee room. At some of them you take your own bottle, easily bought from any number of local bootleggers or brought in from the neighboring wet States. At others you ask for the "soup man," or bootlegger-in-attendance, who wanders casually from table to table taking orders. Prices range from $8 to $15 a fifth for Kansans' favorite liquors-rum and brandy. The liquor is the best there is because the liquor runners can afford to pay high wholesale prices. It is like national prohibition all over again, with the same old dodges, the same old hypocrisy.

Around election time a few local raiding squads dash around the speakeasies and blow their whistles, but the proprietors easily avoid any trouble by converting their places to “pitcher joints," where all the liquor is kept in a pitcher under the bar and can be poured down the drain if any sheriff gets too nosy. By a curious quirk in the Federal liquor laws, speakeasy owners can buy Federal licenses to sell liquor in Kansas, are only breaking the Federal law if they contract to have liquor transported into the State. Although there have been many Federal raids recently, the agents naturally have a hard time proving that the speakeasy owners had anything to do with bringing the liquor in.

Most of the time, however, liquor vendors have less trouble with the law than they do getting help to clean up the empties the morning after.

WETS MADE A GOOD START BUT THE DRYS ARE STRONG Kansas Republicans are still reeling from the blow they got when Roosevelt's ex-Secretary of War Harry Woodring shot out of political hiding, blasted prohibition, and got himself nominated Democratic candidate for Governor. By State tradition the present Governor, Andrew Schoeppel, is not running for a third term, so the job of beating Woodring and his wets has fallen on up-andcoming Republican Congressman Frank Carlson.

Despite all the wet-dry hullabaloo, Carlson should not have much difficulty. Woodring's call for immediate repeal of prohibition has forced reluctant Republicans to promise a referendum in 1948. But the Republicans are backed by such powerful dry organizations as the WCTU and the political machine of old "Alf" Landon. In traditionally Republican Kansas, the Democrats will have a tough time, whatever the issues.

Even if the Democrats should win, however, the political dopesters hold out little hope for repeal of State prohibition. The curious Kansan state of mind was once described by the State sage, the late William Allen White. Said he, "Kansans will vote dry as long as the voters can stagger to the polls.”

Mr. Brady. Also, here is a pamphlet on prohibition propaganda. I would like to present that.

Also I would like to present to the committee the names of our delegates. We have delegates from New York, Connecticut, Michigan, Tennessee, Indiana, Massachusetts, Florida, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Ohio. I have their names here, and the States they come from.

Senator REED. Do you want them to appear, Mr. Brady?
Mr. BRADY, Yes.
Senator REED. You may proceed.

Mr. BRADY. At this time, I would like to call on Mr. Anthony Ferro, executive secretary of the New York State Council of Brewery Workers, as our first speaker.

Senator REED. Proceed, sir.

62655-47--7

STATEMENT OF ANTHONY J. FERRO, EXECUTIVE SECRETARY, NEW

YORK STATE COUNCIL OF BREWERY AND SOFT DRINK WORKERS, UTICA, N. Y.

Mr. FERRO. Mr. Chairman, my name is Anthony J. Ferro. I am the executive secretary of the New York State Council of Brewery and Soft Drink Workers, which organization represents 15,000 workers in this State, the State of New York.

I come before you today in behalf of the beer drivers, brewery workers, shipping clerks, and office employees of our industry whose jobs will be affected if Senate bill 265 were favorably reported by your committee, passed, and made into law.

Mr. Chairman, this bill which you have before you is a prohibition measure. If passed it will prohibit legitimate concerns from advertising their products. No other concern in this great country is prohibited from advertising its product.

It will prohibit radios, newspapers, and magazines from accepting alcoholic-beverage ads. What is so bad about newspapers and radios advertising alcoholic beverages ? Certainly I have never seen an ad or heard a radio program where the public was told that they must take to drink.

Mr. Chairman and members of this committee, persons who wish to impose their wishes in this great free country which our children fought so hard to retain can do so by bringing their communities to a local-option vote and thereby letting the majority of the people decide whether or not beverages should be continued to be sold. We have already heard of the dry progress. Local-option elections are permitted in approximately 31 States at the present time. As a result of this organized dry minority of people, there has been much bootlegging, speakeasies, and the operation of stills in Kentucky, Alabama, Texas, Mississippi, and Georgia.

Mr. J. Edgar Hoover, of the Department of Justice, can bear that out. In my own State of New York, I know of speakeasies which operate in townships which have already voted dry. In the past 8 years in New York State, 11 townships which formerly voted dry have since voted to once again permit the sale of alcoholic beverages.

I know it is needless for me to say anything about the amo taxes which your State and county receive from the sale of beverages. At this time taxes are secondary. We, of our industry, cannot afford this type of prohibition which this dry group of people are trying to impose. It will result in unemployment in our industry, especially in the great many shipping plants which are located throughout the country, not mentioning the smaller ones. Radio will be affected as well as newspaper and magazine companies and their workers. Paper mills, steel mills, glass mills, farmers, et cetera, will also be affected. There are over 200 industries which in some way or the other would be affected if the sale of alcoholic beverages were curtailed.

I ask you, gentlemen, can we afford any more unemployment than we already have or will have? Can we afford to give in to a few selfish persons who can only see things their way? We, in this great country of ours where everyone is given freedom of speech, cannot be muzzled by this small minority. If it is their opinion that there is considerable drinking and it should be cut down, then there should be education in the moderate use of beverages, and this should be brought to the attention of drinking persons through the medium of radio and newspaper advertising. Legislation of this type will not accomplish their purpose.

Mr. Chairman, this legislation, if reported favorably by your honorable committee and finally made into law, will not only cause unemployment in the brewing industry but will also cause a great financial loss to those persons who have investments in the various industries, many of whom are small investors. Many of those investors who may sustain losses will come from the States of Maine, New Jersey, Washington, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Indiana, and many more too numerous to mention.

I appeal to you in behalf of the hundreds of thousands of persons in our country, many of whom are servicemen, who will be affected if this bill is reported favorably, passed, and finally signed by our President, to please vote against reporting this bill favorably.

I have also attached, Mr. Chairman, to my remarks, the industries and the commodities which would be affected in the event that the sale of beverages would be affected. I wish to also file a copy of the entire statement with your committee.

LIST OF INDUSTRIES DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY CONNECTED WITH THE ALCOHOLIC

BEVERAGE INDUSTRY

Acacia gum

Batteries Accounting equipment and supplies

Belting Acids

Bins Adhesives

Biscuits and cracker industry Advertising

Bitters Advertising agents

Blacksmiths Advertising displays

Blending and rectifying equipment Advertising (electrical)

Blueprinting Advertising (outdoor)

Boats Advertising novelties

Boilers Agar

Boots and shoe industry Ageing plants

Borates Agitators

Bottles Agriculture and horticulture equipment Bottle closures Air conditioning

Bottle capping, sealing, and corking Air mail and express

industry Allied chemicals

Bottle cartons Aluminum caps

Bottle-filling machines Aluminum goods-castings

Bottle rinsing and washing machines Amusement industry

Bottle stoppers Animal feed

Bottle wrappers Aniseed

Bottling equipment Asbestos filter pads

Books and job printing Asphalt roofing

Boxes Automobiles

Bran Automobile products

Brandy Bags

Branding machines Baking industry

Brass and bronze Banking, commercial, investment Brick industry Bar equipment and supplies

Brushes Barley

Building construction Barrel-branding machines

Bulldozers Barrel-handling equipment

Bungs Barrel racks

Burlap Barrel stackers

Burnt sugar color (caramel) Barrel washing machines

Business machines Barrels

Cabinetmaking Baskets and bassinets

Calculating machines

LIST OF INDUSTRIES DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY CONNECTED WITH THE ALCOHOLIC

BEVERAGE INDUSTRY-Continued Cane sugar

Cooling equipment Canvas

Cooper industry Capping machines

Cooperage, barrels and kegs Caps, corks, and closures

Cooperage machinery Capsules, foil, and celluloid

Coppersmiths Car bracing

Cordage twine Carbon (activated)

Corks Carpenters

Corn products Carpets

Corn syrup Cartons

Cotton Cases and boxes

Cotton textiles Cash registers

Counter displays Cast-iron piping

Cranes Cement industry

Crude botanical drugs Chain stores

Crude oil Chalk

Cutlery-tools Charcoal

Decalcomania Chemical glassware and equipment Department stores Chemicals

Disinfecting Chemists

Distillers Chinaware

Distillery and wine equipment Chips

Distributors Cider presses

Drain racks Citrus fruits

Druggists Clarifying equipment

Drums Clay products

Dryers Cleaners

Dwellings Cleansing agents

Earthenware Cleaning products

Eating and drinking places Clocks

Electric lamps Closures

Electric motors Closures, containers, and labels

Electrical equipment and supplies Clothing--men and women

Electrical gages Coal industry

Electrical repairs Coasters

Electricians Cocks

Elevators Coils

Enameled ware Coke

Engineering Cold storage

Engines (Diesel) Colors

Engines (steam) Columns

Engraving Compressors

Evaporators Condensers

Explosives
Construction

Express companies
Construction equipment
Containers

Extracts, flavors, oils
Conveyors

Essences, berries, seeds, etc. Cookers

Eyeglass industry

Senator REED. Very well.

Mr. BRADY. Mr. Chairman, I would like to call on Mr. Ralph Walter, of Indiana.

STATEMENT OF RALPH WALTER, CHAIRMAN, INDIANA STATE

COUNCIL OF BREWERY AND SOFT DRINK WORKERS

Mr. WALTER. There is no doubt that Senate bill 265 is plainly the result of an organized professional dry movement whose ultimate goal is not only aimed at outlawing alcoholic beverage advertising, but national prohibition.

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