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day, 35 years before, viz. the 16th of August, 1777. Twentyfive hundred muskets and rifles, and a considerable quantity of ammunition, likewise fell into their hands.

The reasons stated by general Hull for this unfortunate surrender, were, the great inferiority of his force to that of the enemy, joined to the numerous band of Indians, who were daily increasing in number; the hazardous situation in which the detachment under colonels M.Arthur and Cass was placed ; and the impossibility of furnishing his army with the necessary supplies of provisions, military stores, clothing, and comforts for the sick, on pack horses, through a wilderness of 200 miles, filled with hostile savages. The contesc, he observes, could not have been sustained more than a day for the want of powder, and but a very few days for the want of provisions. “A large portion,"continues he, "of the brave and gallant officers and men I commanded, would cheerfully have contested until the last cartridge had been expended, and the bayonets worn to the sockets. I could not consent to the useless sacrifice of such brave men, when I knew it was impossible for me to sustain my situation."

15. The disasters accompanying this expedition did not end here. On the change of prospects in general Hull's army in Canada, a messenger was despatched to Chicago, or fort Dearborn, situated near the south-west corner of lake Michigan, with orders to captain Heald, to evacuate that post, and proceed with his command, which consisted of 66 men, to Detroit, leaving it to his discretion to dispose of the public property as he thought proper. The neighbouring Indians, hearing that the goods in the factory were to be given to them, crowded into the fort from all quarters. On the 13th of August, captain Wells arrived from fort Wayne, with 30 Miamies, whom he had brought by request of general Hull, for the purpose of escorting the garrison to Detroit. The following day all the goods in the factory store were delivered to the Indians. The surplus arms and ammunition, however, and the spirituous liquors, were destroyed, lest the Indians should make a bad use of them if put into their possession.

On the 15th the garrison commenced their march for Detroit, a part of the Miamies being detached in front, and the remainder in the rear, as guards, under the direction of captain Wells. Their course lay along the beach of lake Michigan, the lake on their left, and a high sand bank on their right, distant about 100 yards. They had not proceeded two miles before they were fired on by the Indians from behind the bank, and an action immediately commenced; but the Miamies giving the garrison no assistance, in fifteen minutes thirty-eight soldiers, two women, and twelve children were killed, and the Indians had gained possession of all their horses, provisions, and baggage. The remainder were surrounded, and made prisoners. They were then carried back to the fort, and distributed among the different tribes. Next morning the Indians burnt the fort, and carried off their prisoners. The number of Indian warriors in the action was between four and five hundred; their loss about fifteen. Captain Heald and his lady were carried to the mouth of the river St. Joseph, and being both badly wounded, were permitted to reside there with an Indian trader, whence they took an opportunity of going to Michillimackinac, where the captain surrendered himself to the British as a prisoner of war. A lieutenant, twenty-five non-commissioned officers and soldiers, and eleven women and children, were prisoners when the captain separated from them.

By the disastrous issue of this unfortunate expedition of general Hull, besides the loss of men and arms at Detroit, a weak frontier of vast extent was expossed to the brutality of Indian warfare, which continued for twelve months to harass the western settlements, and the territory of Michigan was occupied as a British province.

CHAPTER II.

$ 1. Character of the American navy. § 2. Cruise of the squadron un.

der commodore Rodgers. § 3. Pursuit of the Belvidera. § 4. Escape of the Constitution. § 5. Capture of the Guerriere. 6. Cruise of the Essex. $ 7. Rodgers' second cruise. 8. The Argus. § 9. Capture of the Macedonian. § 10. Capture of the Frolick and Wasp. § 11. Affairs on the lakes. S 12. Capture of the Caledonia and Detroit.

13. Battle of Queenstown. $14. Smyth's abortive expedition.

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$1. FROM the disastrous scenes which followed the first efforts of our arms in the north-west, we turn with pleasure to record the glorious events that have taken place on the ocean. There our gallant tars, strong in spirit, though weak in number, in despite of the thousand ships of the self-styled mistress of the ocean, have triumphantly borne the flag of America through every sea, from the rude and inclement shores of Greenland, to the rich and temperate regions of Chili and Peru. The enemy, with his immense disparity of force, has to boast of but two triumphs over us, whilst we can claim almost as many as we have ships.

But the courage of our tars, though it has achieved victories which have thrown a halo of glory around our little navy, forms by no means the most conspicuous or lovely trait in their character. Their modesty and disinterestedness, their humanity and liberality to the conquered, have been such as uniformly to extort the grateful acknowledgments of the enemy that they have thus doubly vanquished, and have convinced the world, that the character of bravery which they have acquired does not rest merely on the exertion of physical strength and technical skill

Nor has the naval glory of America suffered by the few reverses that have taken place. On no occasion has its honour been in the slightest degree tarnished; it has been equally sustained in defeat as in victory; and the clouds of adversity have served but to display its character in a new light, and to show that it is adequate to every emergency..

These remarks do not solely apply to national vessels. The commanders and crews of our privateers have not been outshone either in courage or magnanimity, as has been amply proved by their valorous deeds, and by the numerous public testimonies

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which have been borne to their worth by the unflattering tongue of those who have suffered by their enterprize*.

$ 2! A few days previous to the declaration of war the frigates United States and Congress, and the brig Argus, received orders to rendezvous off Sandy Hook. On their arrival there on the 21st of June, they were joined by the brig Hornet and the President, from New York, and the same day commodore Rodgers, who commanded the squadron, having received official intelligence of the declaration of war, they put to sea in search of a British convoy which had sailed from Jamaica in the preceding month.

The following night information was received of the convoy from an American brig, which had passed them four days before, and the squadron crowded sail in pursuit.

* We are favoured with the following anecdote by a gentleman who was present when the circumstance related took place, he having been captured by the British squadron in a merchant vessel which sailed from England before the knowledge of the war.

In July, 1812, the privateer Dolphin, captain Endicot, of Salem, was captured by a British squadron under commodore Broke, and the captain and crew were put on board the Eolus, lord James Townshend. Endicot, during the short space of time that had elapsed from the declaration of war to his capture, had taken fifteen vessels, and by his enterprize, activity, and courage, had excited a considerable degree of asperity against him in the minds of the officers of the squadron, who had almost daily heard of his exploits. On the arrival of the crew on board the Eolus, they were treated with much haughtiness, and suffered some indignities. Captain Endicot, in particular, was treated with such haughty reserve, that for several days not a word was exchanged with him.

This treatment, however, was but of short duration. On board the Dolphin the British found more of their own countrymen prisoners than there were men in the privateer, and on examining them, they were equally surprised and mortified to hear the conduct of the Americans spoken of in the highest terms of approbation, to find that every thing had been done to render their situation comfortable, and that all on board had shared equally in every luxury that the vessel afforded. It was also discovered, that' in a former cruize Endicot had captured off Nova Scotia a vessel in which there was an old woman passenger, who had $ 800 in cash on board, and who appeared in great distress at the prospect of losing her property Endicot had with difficulty soothed her, as she could hardly be persuaded that her little all was not irrecoverably gone. The crew, on hearing of the woman's fears, unanimously declared that not a cent of it should be touched. In the warmth of her gratitude for this liberality, she made the circumstance publicly known through the newspapers on her arrival in the United States.

The British officers, ashamed now of their past conduct, and mortified at be. ing outdone in magnanimity by a privateersman, changed their conduct towards Endicot, and invited him to mess in the gun-room, where his frank, manly be. haviour quickly secured him their highest respect. In speaking of privateers, he remarked to the British officers, that they were under the same regulations as national vessels, and that American privateering naturally differed from that of other nations, as it was generally considered in the United States as a national mode of carrying on the war, and hastening peace, by operating on the enemy in her most vulnerable point.

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3. Next morning, however, their course was altered by the appearance of the British frigate Belvidera, to which they immediately gave chase. The pursuit continued from six in the morning until past four in the afternoon, when the commodore's ship, the President, having got within gun-shot, commenced a fire with the bow chase guns, at the spars and rigging of the Belvidera, in hopes of crippling the one or the other so far as to enable them to get along side. The Belvidera returned the fire of the President with her stern guns, and the firing was kept up without intermission for about ten minutes, when one of the President's chase guns burst, by which unfortunate accident sixteen men were killed and wounded ; among the wounded was commodore Rodgers, who had his leg fractured. By the bursting of the gun, and the explosion of the passing box, from which it was served with powder, both the main and forecastle decks were so much shattered as to prevent the use of a chase gun on that side for some time. Orders were therefore given to veer the ship, and a broadside was fired, in the hope of disabling the spars of the enemy. This, however, did not succeed; but considerable damage was done to the rigging and the stern. The utmost exertion was now used on board the President, by wetting the sails, &c. to gain ground of her opponent, but without success. A constant firing was kept up on both sides, the President at times giving broadsides, until about seven o'clock, when the Belvidera, having cut away her anchors, started a number of water casks, and thrown overboard her boats and every thing that could be spared, began to gain ground, and to get out of the reach of the President's shot. The chase, however, was continued with all the sail our squadron could set, until about half past eleven, when it was given up as hopeless. Considerable injury was done to both vessels in this action. One of the first shots fired by the President killed one man and wounded six ; the captain was severely wounded in the thigh by the breaking of the breeching of a carronade. On board the President there were three killed and nineteen wounded, the greater part by the bursting of the gun.

The squadron now resumed their course in pursuit of the convoy from Jamaica, but did not receive further intelligence of it until the 29th of June, when an American schooner was spoken on the western edge of the banks of Newfoundland, that had passed them two days before. On the 1st of July they fell in with quantities of cocoa-nut shells, orange peels, &c. which indicated that the convoy were not far distant. On the 9th they captured the British privateer Dolphin, which had passed the convoy the preceding evening. The pursuit was continued,

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