sions were consumed, and they had to march 40 miles before there was a possibility of supply.

97. On the 13th of December, general Tupper conducted another detachment to the rapids, consisting of between 1500 and 2000 men. On the east side of the Miami, a few miles above the rapids, a body of the enemy was discovered, consisting of 300 British regulars and 600 or 700 Indians. Ilaving ascertained the position of the enemy, Tupper ordered a small detachment to advance and commence an attack, and then to retreat. This stratagem succeeded. The enemy pursued with impetuosity until they were nearly surrounded, and on being charged, were repulsed on all quarters with considerable slaughter, and put to flight. Fourteen or fifteen of the British, and seventy or eighty Indians, were left on the field. Many were likewise killed in swimming across the river, into which they precipitately plunged, that being their only means of escape.

$ 8. While these operations were carried on on the borders of lake Erie, several expeditions were set on foot against the Indian settlements in the Indiana and Illinois territories. A portion of the Kentucky volunteers, under general Hopkins, and a corps of Kentucky rangers, commanded by colonel Russel, were particularly destined for this service. This force having met at Vincennes, it was agreed that Hopkins should first proceed to the relief of Fort Harrison, a post higher up the Wabash, which was at that time invested by the Indians, and should then proceed to the Peoria Indian towns on the river Illinois, where he was to be met by the rangers

under Russell. Another detachment, under captain Craig, was to join them at the same place. This last detachment was to march


the Illinois river.

Captain Taylor, the commander at Fort Harrison, having received information of the approach of the hostile Indians a short time before they made their appearance, had used every precaution that the smallness of his garrison would admit of. The first hostile symptoms appeared on the evening of the 3d of September, when two young men, who had been employed a short distance from the fort, were shot and scalped, and were found in that condition the next morning by a small party that had been sent out to seek them. This circumstance caused them to redouble their vigilance, and the officers of the guard were directed to walk the round all night, in order if possible to prevent any surprize.

About 11 o'clock on the evening of the 4th, the garrison being alarmed by the firing of one of the centinels, every man instantly flew to his post. In a few minutes the cry of fire added

to the alarm ; when it was discovered that the lower block-house, in which had been deposited the property of the contractor, had been fired by the Indians. Such was the darkness of the night, that although the upper part of the building was occupied by a corporals guard as an alarm post, yet the Indians succeeded in firing it undiscovered, and unfortunately, a few minutes after the discovery of the fire, it communicated to a quantity of whiskey that had been deposited there, and immediately ascended to the roof, baffling every effort that was made to extinguish it. As the block-house adjoined the barracks, which constituted part of the fortifications, most of the men gave themselves


for lost; and indeed the raging of the fire, the yells of the Indians, and the cries of the women and children (who had taken refuge in the fort), were sufficient to appal the stoutest heart. Happily the presence of mind of the commander never forsook him. He instantly stationed a part of his men on the roof of the barracks, with orders to tear off that part adjoining the block-house, while the remainder kept up a constant fire on the Indians from another block-house and two bastions. The roof was torn off under a shower of bullets from without, by which, however, only one man was killed and two wounded.

By this success the soldiers were inspired with firmness, and now used such exertions, that before day they had not only extinguished the fire, but raised a breast-work five or six feet high in the gap occasioned by the burning of the block-house, although the Indians continued to pour in a heavy fire of ball and showers of arrows during the whole time the attack lasted (which was seven hours), in every part of the parade.

On the first appearance of the fire, two of the soldiers had, in despair, jumped the pickets. One of them returned about an hour before day, and, running up towards the gate, begged for God's sake that it might be opened. On suspicior. ihat this was an Indian stratagem,

he was fired at. He then ran to the other bastion, where, his voice being known, he was directed to lie down till day-light behind an empty barrel that happened to be outside of the pickets. This poor fellow was shockingly wounded, and his companion cut to pieces by the Indians.

After keeping up a constant fire till six in the morning, which after day light was returned with considerable effect by the garrison, the Indians retreated out of reach of the guns. They then drove together all the horses and hogs in the neighbourhood, and shot them in sight of their owners.

The whole of the horned cattle they succeeded in carrying off.

In this attack the Americans had but three killed, and three wounded, including the two that jumped the pickets. The Indian loss was supposed to be considerable, but as they always carry off both their dead and wounded, the amount could not be ascertained. At the moment of the attack there were only fifteen effective men in the garrison, the others being either sick or convalescent.

$9. The Indians, disheartened by this failure, made no further attempt on the fort, but the garrison still remained in a perilous situation, as the greater part of their provisions had been destroyed by the fire, and the loss of their stock prevented future supplies. Captain Taylor therefore attempted to send, by night, two men in a canoe down the river to Vincennes, to make known his situation, but they were forced to return, the river being found too well guarded. The Indians had made a fire on the bank of the river, a short distance below the garrison, which gave them an opportunity of seeing any craft that might attempt to pass, with a canoe ready below to intercept it. A more fortunate attempt was made by land, and the garrison was immediately after relieved by the force under general Hopkins, consisting of nearly 4000 men.

8 10. After the relief of Fort Harrison, Hopkins began his preparations for his expedition against the Peoria towns. They commenced their march on the morning of the 15th of October, and continued it for four days in a direction nearly north. But here again the spirit of insubordination began to show itself. The general states in his official despatch, that having ordered a halt in the afternoon of the 4th day, in a fine piece of grass, for the purpose of refreshing the horses, he was addressed by one of his majors, in the most rude and dictatorial manner, requiring him instantly to resume his march, or his battalion would break from the army and return. Of the reply of the general to this modest request we are not informed. Next evening, however, an event took place, which seems to have spread the spirit of discontent through the whole detachment. A violent gust of wind having arisen about sun-set, just as the troops had encamped, the Indians set fire to the prairie all around them, which drove furiously on the camp. They succeeded, however, in protecting themselves by firing the grass around the encampment.

Next morning, in consequence of the discontent that prevailed, the general called a council of his officers, to whom he stated his apprehensions, the expectations of the country, and the disgrace attending the failure of the expedition ; and, on the other hand, the exhausted state of the horses, and the want of provisions. He then requested the commandants of each regiment to convene the whole of the officers belonging to it, and to take

fully the sense of the army on the measures to be pursued ; adding, that if 500 volunteers turned out he would put

himself at their head, and proceed in quest of the Indian towns, and the rest of the army might return to Fort Harrison. In less than an hour the report was made almost unanimously to return. In vain did the general request that he might dictate the course for that day only. His authority was now at an end ; and all the efforts of the officers were necessary to restore order in the ranks, and to conduct the retreat without danger from the surrounding though unseen foe.

Though this expedition returned almost without obtaining the sight of an enemy, yet it was not altogether unproductive of benefit. The Indians of the neighbouring towns, hearing of its approach, had marched the greater part of their warriors to meet it, leaving their villages in a defenceless condition. In this state they were found by colonel Russell, who had marched upon them in the expectation of meeting with Hopkins' army, and his detachment attacked and defeated those who had been left behind. Having driven them into a swamp, through which the rangers pursued them for three miles, up to their waists in mud and water, he returned and burnt their towns, and destroyed their corn. The number of warriors who advanced to meet Hopkins from those towns is stated to have amounted to 700 ; Russell's force consisted of not more than 400 men. siderable number of Indians were killed in this attack. On the part of the Americans there were only four wounded, none of them mortally.

Craig's force was still smaller than that under Russell ; it is stated to have consisted of not more than 80 men. With this small body he marched up the Illinois river, twenty miles above the town destroyed by Russell. Here he attacked an Indian settlement, which he totally destroyed, with all the improvements, and took 42 prisoners, one of them an Englishman, and a large collection of furs. He returned with his prisoners and booty, without the loss of a man.

$ 11. In the month of November another Indian expedition was undertaken by general Hopkins, with about 1250 men. This was directed against the towns on the Wabash, where the battle of Tippecanoe had been fought about twelve months before. Having left Fort Harrison' on the 11th, accompanied with boats for the transportation of provisions, forage, and military stores, Hopkins arrived at the Prophet's town on the 19th, with. out interruption. Early in the morning of that day, 300 men were detached to surprise the Winebago town, on Ponce Passu creek, a short distance below the Prophet's. Having sur

A con

rounded it about the break of day, they were surprised to find it evacuated. The party, accordingly, after destroying it, rejoined the main body at the Prophet's town.

For three days Hopkins' detachment was employed in achieving the complete destruction of the Prophet's town, and the large Kickapoo village adjoining, the former consisting of 40 and the latter of 160 cabins and huts. They likewise destroyed all their cultivated fields, fences, &c. and constructed works for the defence of the boats and of the

encampment. On the 21st a reconnoitering party were attacked by a body of Indians, and one of their number killed. The following day 60 horsemen were despatched to bury their comrade, and gain a better knowledge of the ground, but they unfortunately fell into an ambuscade, in which 18 of the party were killed, wounded, or missing. This party, on their return, brought information of a large assemblage of the enemy, who, encouraged by the strength of their camp, appeared to be waiting an attack. Every preparation was accordingly made to march early next morning, to engage the enemy. A violent fall of snow, however, prevented the movement on the 23d ; and the camp was found abandoned on the following day. The position which the Indians had thus abandoned is spoken of as having been remarkably strong. The Ponce Passu, a deep rapid creek, was in their rear, running in a semicircle ; in front was a bluff, 100 feet high, almost perpendicular, and only to be penetrated by three steep ravines.

On the return of the troops to camp, the river was found so full of ice, as to alarm them for the return of the boats. Hopkins had intended to have spent one week more in endeavouring to find the Indian camps ; but the shoeless, shirtless state of the troops, now clad in the remnants of their summer dress; a river full of ice; the hills covered with snow; and, above all, the uncertainty of finding an enemy; all these circumstances determined him to return. They accordingly

They accordingly set out on the 25th, and in a few days arrived at Fort Harrison, having completed a march of upwards of 100 miles into the Indian country, which is totally devoid of roads, and destroyed three of their principal towns, in the space of less than twenty days.

The last Indian expedition of which mention is made, in this quarter, is one which was commanded by colonel Campbell, consisting of 600 men, which marched from Greenville (Ohio). against the towns on the Mississinewa, a branch of the Wabash.

$ 12. On the 17th of December, after marching all night, Campbell arrived at one of the towns about day-break, which he instantly attacked, and the Indians were driven across the Mississinewa river, with the loss of 7 killed and 37 prisoners. Only

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