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NATIONAL LAND-GRANTS IN BEHALF OF EDU

CATION.

I. THE ACQUISITION OF TERRITORY. The territory belonging to the United States as a body politic has been acquired (1) by treaties with foreign nations, (2) by cessions from States, (3) by treaties with Indian tribes.

1. Treaties. The treaties by which territory has been acquired are those of 1783 with Great Britain, of 1795 with Spain, of 1803 with France, of 1819 with Spain, of 1848 and 1853 with Mexico, of 1867 with Russia. In the same connection may be mentioned Texas, which was admitted to the Union in 1845, having previously been a portion of Mexico, and later, an independent republic.

. 2. Cessions by States. Prior to 1781, only six of the original States had exactly defined boundaries. The seven States with inexact boundaries ceded their claims to lands west of their present limits, as follows: New York, 1781 ; Virginia, 1784; Massachusetts, 1785; Connecticut, 1786 (Later, in 1800, Connecticut relinquished to the United States all jurisdiction over the “Western Reserve," which had been excepted from the previous cession); South Carolina, 1787; North Carolina, 1790; Georgia, 1802. . Besides these cessions by the original States, Texas, in 1850, ceded all her claims to lands west of the 26th meridian west longitude (103d Greenwich), and between 32° and 30° 30' north latitude.

3. Treaties with Indians. The numerous treaties with Indian tribes located within the territorial jurisdiction of the United States have of course added nothing to the national area. But since these tribes have always been regarded and treated as being in some respects independent communities, the General Government has

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