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cation of the respective districts. No text-book can be changed within three years after its adoption, without the consent of three-fourths of the members of a board, given at a regular meeting.

Ninth. Boards of education can make rules and regulations for the protection of school property against injury, and of schools against molestation.

Tenth. Boards of education are empowered to establish separate schools for colored youth, when their number exceeds twenty, and to provide suitable evening schools for whites when required.

Eleventh. An enumeration of all unmarried youth between six and twenty-one years of age is required to be made in each district annually.

Twelfth. The school year begins on the first day of September, and closes on the thirty-first day of August.

Thirteenth. All property, real or personal, vested in any Board of Education, is exempted from tax and from sale on any execution.

The State Commisssoner of common schools is elected for a term of three years, and receives an annual salary of two thousand dollars. He is required to give five thousand dollars bonds for the faithful performance of his duties, to visit each judicial district annually, and to make a yearly report before the 20th of January.

The State Commissioner is required to appoint a State board of three examiners, consisting of three competent persons, holding their offices for two years, and authorized to issue life certificates of high qualifications to such teachers as may be found upon examination to possess the requisite scholarship.

The State common school fund consists of such sum as is produced by the annual levy and assessment of one mill upon the dollar valuation on the taxable property of the State, and the moneys arising from the sale of lands appropriated by Congress for the support of schools.

LEGISLATION IN 1874. The General Assembly of 1874 passed four different acts, making some slight modifications in Sections 23, 24, 25, 27, 42, 47, 59, 77, 83, 93, and 96, of the general law for the reorganization and maintenance of common schools, passed May 5, 1873.

The changes made are, in substance, as follows:

First. Clerks of special school districts and of sub-districts are required to post in three or more conspicuous places, at least six days prior to the election, notices designating the day and hour of opening and closing said election.

Second. Boards of education can suitably remunerate persons employed to take the annual enumeration of unmarried youths, but such compensation in sub-districts shall not exceed two dollars.

Third. County treasurers, when making annual settlements with county auditors, are entitled to mileage for traveling to and from the county seat.

Fourth. No money shall be paid to the treasurer of a board of education other than that received from the county treasurer except by the clerk or upon his order.

Fifth. Boards of examiners, to secure a more thorough examination of teachers and pupils, may temporarily associate with themselves one or more other persons in conducting examinations.

In addition to these changes, the General Assembly likewise passed, March 30, 1874, a supplementary act to that of the previous year, which provides for the organization of new village districts, election of and organization of boards of education, and continuance of members in office in certain cases. It also stipulates what gives validity to teachers' certificates.

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1,900

• STATISTICS FOR 1873–74. School districts in the State ....... School-houses erected during the year .................. 542 Cost of the same .........

....... $1,008,786 Estimated value of school-houses including grounds. 17,659,276 Number of different teachers employed. .............. 21,899 Number of pupils enrolled in the schools............. 704,018 Average daily attendance..... ............... 407,917 Average number of weeks the schools were in session ... 2,797 Number of school officers...

....... 39,922 Total receipts, including balance on hand.......$10, 144,683.16 Total expenditures ....

...... 7,431,975.60

'.....

NINE YEARS' PROGRESS.

YEAR 1864. Number of primary schools......... 11,661 Number of high schools....

149 Male teachers employed ........... 7,518 Female teachers employed ......... 12,590 Average wages of male teachers per 1 month in common schools ......!

$28.25 Average do. female .....

24.75 Aggregate expenditures for tuition and incidental expense .........

2,420,940

" Do. for buildings, sites, and repairs .. 317,184 Total expenditures for all purposes. 2,738,124

YEARS 1873–74. ..... 14,193 ....... 350 ...... 9,789 ..... 12,110 ..... $40.61 ..... 29.45 5,535,747.31 1,437,655.94 7,431,975.60

There are 264 county examiners in the State-of whom 152 are teachers, 40 attorneys, 23 ministers, 13 farmers, 6 physicians, 6 merchants, and 20 engaged in other employments.

Sixty-two Teachers' Institutes were held last year, and $12,590.72 expended in sustaining them.

The following is a literal copy of an application recently made in Jefferson Parish, La., for the position of teacher :

KENNERVILLE, Jefferson Parish, La. SIR MR.: I have the honor of writing a few lines to you addressing you with some of the names of the Generals in first discovery of America -and if I am accepted as a teacher in this Parish By you I will do all I can for you as their are greate many Books Will be Wanted, you can get them at hold sale price, and forward you the money for the said books, from time to time. Leaving these Remarks with you hoping you will do all you can for me Your respectfully servant

REV LEWIS, Teacher.

OREGON.

Hon. S. C. SIMPSON, Superintendent of Public Instruction of Oregon, was born in Platte County, Mo., March 21, 1844. He proceeded to Oregon with his parents in 1846, and has lived here ever since. He was educated principally at Willamette University, Salem, Or., and received from that institution the degrees of A.B, and A.M. He was elected Professor of Ancient Languages in Willamette University in September, 1865. After serving for two years, he resigned, and was admitted to the bar of the Supreme Court of Oregon as an attorney-at-law in September, 1866, and commenced practice in 1867. He was elected Chief Clerk of the Oregon State Senate in 1868, again in 1870, and again in 1872. In 1872 a law was passed creating the office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, and providing for an election at that session of the Legislature of a person to fill the office until the general election in 1874. The Legislature, however, adjourned without electing any one, and in January, 1873, the Governor appointed Mr. Simpson to the office. Rev. L. L. Rowland, M.D., has been elected to succeed him.

EDUCATION IN THE PAST. OREGON was admitted into the Union, as a State, in 1859. The Constitution adopted by the people two years before provided that the proceeds of all lands granted to the State for educational purposes, except the University land, all money which might accrue to the State by escheat or forfeiture, exemptions from military duty, from the sale of the five hundred thousand acres reserved by the act of 1841, and from the five per cent. of net proceeds of the sales of the public lands on the admission of the State into the Union-should constitute an irreducible fund for the support of common schools in each school district, and the purchase of suitable libraries and apparatus therefor. The Constitution further stipulated that the Governor should act as Superintendent of Public Instruction for the first five years, at the end of which time the Legislature should designate a successor. At the end of the five years' time, viz., in 1862, a general school law was enacted, which made provision for a State Superintendent, for the election of County Superintendents, and for three Directors for each school district.

PRESENT SCHOOL SYSTEM. This act underwent changes at the hands of the Legislature until 1872, when a new school law was passed, which is still in force. The following are its main features: .

The State Superintendent is elected by the people for four years, receives an annual salary of $1,500, and exercises a general superintendence of the county and district school officers and

the public schools of the State. He is Secretary of the Board of Education, is required to annually hold one State Teachers' Institute at the capital, and a Teachers' Institute in each judicial district, and to report biennially to the Legislature.

The State Board of Education consists of the Governor, Secretary of State, and State Superintendent of Instruction. It is empowered to grant, at its semi-annual meetings, to teachers, upon examination, life diplomas, State diplomas (good throughout the State for six years), and State certificates (good throughout the State for two and a half years). The fees charged for diplomas and certificates are as follows: For State life diploma, $10; for State diploma, $6; for State certificate, first grade, $4; second grade, $2.50. The fees resulting go to defraying the expenses of the Board. The State Board is likewise empowered to prescribe rules for the general government of the public schools.

County Superintendents are elected for two years, and are liable to a fine of $100 for non-performance of their duties, which are about the same as those of County Superintendents generally, viz., visiting schools, laying out school districts, examining teachers, and collecting school moneys belonging to the State. Their pay is fixed by the County Courts.

District Directors, three for each district, employ teachers, build school-houses, issue warrants for the collection of school taxes, etc. Women who are widows, possessed of taxable property, and having children to educate, are entitled to vote in the elections for School Directors.

Teachers, in case the County Superintendents do them injustice on examination, may apply to the State Superintendent, who is authorized to issue certificates to them of the same force as those given by county certificates.

The legal school age is from four to twenty years. Sixty days, or twelve school weeks, constitute a quarter of a school year.

On the application of one hundred voters, in any district containing not less than ten thousand inhabitants, one of the schools in such district must be taught in the German language.

So late as 1872, there was the utmost possible diversity of text-books in use in the public schools of Oregon. There was scarcely a series of school books, in any of the common branches, in print in the United States, which was not more or less used

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