pauper schools and those belonging to naval, military, and penal establishments no schools have been organized by the government, nor has their management been vested in the government. It has, however, made conditional grants in aid of popular education. In 1870 a new school system was established by the government, which provides for the annual grant by Parliament of a sum of money to secure the establishment and maintenance in every school district of public schools sufficient for the elementary instruction of all the children resident therein, whose education is not otherwise provided for.

School Boards, composed of not less than five nor more than fifteen members, are elected in boroughs and parishes (not within the Metropolis) to enforce the provisions of the new law. They are permitted to compel the attendance of children between five and thirteen years of age. All school expenses are paid out of the school fund, which consists of fees, Parliamentary grants, loans. Special provision is made for the election of School Boards in London.

Throughout England the average attendance in aided schools (day and night) has risen from one million and thirty-three thousand six hundred and seventy-five in 1868 to one million five hundred and twenty-eight thousand four hundred and fifty-three during 1873, three-fourths of this increase having taken place since 1870. Altogether, there were last year two million two hundred and eighteen thousand five hundred and ninety-eight children attending school more or less regularly, of whom, however, only a small proportion qualified for examination by fulfilling the prescribed number of attendances. Not more than seven hundred and fifty-two thousand two hundred and sixty-eight children above seven years of age who had completed their attendances were actually present for examination by the Government Inspectors. There are three hundred and sixty-four thousand children who ought, according to their age, to be examined in the three higher standards—the fourth, fifth, and sixth—but only one hundred and twenty-seven thousand eight hundred and eighty-four presented themselves for examinațion, and of these only seventy-three thousand two hundred and fifty-six were able to pass the ordeal without failing in any subject.

In England and Wales the average income of certificated

masters of elementary schools aided by the Parliamentary grant was, for 1873, £103 IIs.— the average being taken on the income of seven thousand six hundred and twenty-nine such masters; three thousand nine hundred and twenty (more than half), were provided with a house or lived rent free. The income of certificated mistresses averaged £62 ios.—the average being taken on five thousand and thirty-five, and two thousand and twenty-two were provided with a house or were rent free. The average income of certificated infants' mistresses was £60 gs.—the average being taken on two thousand six hundred and seventy, and seven hundred and forty-three were provided with a house or rent free.

FRANCE. EVERY grade of public instruction in France is under the direct control of the government, which acts through the Minister and Superior Council of Public Instruction. This Council, under Napoleon, consisted of the minister, three senators, five bishops or archbishops, three councillors of State, three members of the Court of Appeals, eight inspectors-general, three clergymen (Lutheran, Reformed, and Jewish), five members of the Institute, and two heads of private educational establishments. The schools are classified as, 1. Primary, including all elementary and the lowest grade of Normal Schools ; 2. Secondary, comprising the Communal Colleges, Lyceums, and the second

mies. To ensure a high standard of excellence in the schools of every grade, a rigid system of inspection prevails. Every Commune is required to establish and maintain schools for primary instruction, and is aided by the government whenever the school fees and local taxes are insufficient. Instruction in religion is given in all public schools, but no pupil is obliged to receive instruction in any creed against the wish of his parents. Private schools are encouraged, but instructors in these must pass the examinations required of those serving in the public schools, and the proficiency of their pupils and their general management are subject to governmental supervision. The Lyceums are founded and maintained by the State with the coöperation of the departments and towns, while the Communal Colleges are founded and maintained by the Communes. The arrangement of classes and studies is fixed by the government, and is the same in both. Superior education is provided for by the Academies, of which there are fifteen in France proper, each constituting the educational center of an academy district, and embracing several departments of the country. These institutions correspond to the universities of other countries, though many of them are inferior to the German universities. A complete academy embraces the five faculties of sciences, letters, theology, law, and medicine. Only the Academy of Paris, however, includes all these faculties. Applicants for the position of teacher in any of the public schools of France must prove their qualifications by rigid examinations, regulated by the government. The educational system of France has recently undergone some changes, and is now in a transitional state. For further facts regarding it, see Appleton's new American Cyclopedia, to which we are indebted for the above.

JAPAN. The educational advancement being made in Japan is attracting considerable attention, and deserves more than a passing notice. Until 1872 instruction was imparted in Japan, as among the ancient Greeks, by men of learning to their individual followers. In that year, however, a new school law was promulgated, and many schools have since been established in all parts of the empire. The new system, when fully carried out, will secure a thorough system of education for the whole empire.

Under the new regulations, the administration of learning in the whole country is to be directed by the Mombushô, or Educational Department, alone. There are seven circuits, in each of which is a high school; and each circuit is to be divided into thirty-two middle school districts, whose subdivision into primary school districts will be regulated by the size of the territory and the scarcity or density of population, this being a matter within the discretion of the local authorities. The appointment of inspectors is also a district affair, it being only required that these officials shall be popular with the

inhabitants, and there is no objection to the mayors of villages holding the office. The salaries of the school inspectors are to be paid out of funds provided for this purpose by the locality; but, in necessary circumstances, the government may give aid for a certain period. All subjects, whether nobles, two-sworded men, foot-soldiers, peasants, artizans, tradespeople, or women, who send their children to school, must report the fact to the inspectors. If children, on passing the age of six years, do not attend school, the reason of their not doing so must likewise be reported. A bureau is to be established in each circuit, composed of officers acting under the instructions of the Education Board, and superintending all the schools in the district, in consultation with the local authorities. Schools are divided into three kinds—high, middle, and primary. There are to be special seminaries for teaching the higher branches of learning, among which are classed philosophy, law, composition, and medicine. Pupils who seem likely to make extraordinary progress in acquirement, but who are too poor to pay the charges and support themselves, may have allowances on giving a bond for repayment or for entering the government service. All students educated abroad at the government expense must bind themselves to serve the State for a certain number of years, or to repay the money on their return to Japan.

There are now in operation in Japan, under the new system, one thousand seven hundred and ninety-nine private schools,

total, five thousand four hundred and twenty-nine. At these schools there are now under instructions three hundred and thirty-eight thousand four hundred and sixty-three males, and one hundred and nine thousand six hundred and thirty-seven females, making a total of four hundred and forty-eight thousand one hundred; but to the above numbers, which do not include the higher schools, may be added, Mr. Tanaka (the Japanese Vice-Minister of Public Instruction) considers, some thirty thousand other persons who are likewise now under instruction, making, in all, nearly four hundred and eighty thousand persons; or, taking the population of Japan, in round numbers, to be thirty-three millions, which is eighty-nine thousand seven hundred and seventy-seven below the last census, one in sixty-eight of the people.


The Prussian System of Education, which likewise prevails in most of the German States, is the most complete and thorough of any in the old world. It assumes that it is the right and duty of the State to provide schools, and compels the attendance of all well children between seven and fourteen years of age. It furthermore looks to the special preparation of teachers, as far as practicable, for every grade of school, with opportunities for professional improvement and promotion, and guaranty of pecuniary aid when sick, infirm, or aged, and for their families in case of death. The State exercises supervision over all schools, public and private. Formerly the clergy possessed this supervising power to a large extent. The new school law of 1872, however, aimed at the entire separation of school and church, and the withdrawal of school management from the clergy as such. The Minister of Instruction, appointed by the crown, exercises supreme authority in educational matters. Local supervision rests in the provincial authorities, who have general control of secondary education, including the gymnasia, “Realschule," and primary normal schools. The schools of Prussia are divided by Professor Drone into five general classes : ist, primary ; 2d, burgher ; 3d, Realschule; 4th, gymnasium ; 5th, university.

In nearly all the German States, as well as in Denmark and Sweden, persons are prohibited from opening schools or seminaries without undergoing examinations before Boards constituted for that purpose. If found qualified, the candidate receives a teacher's license, but in this license the grade of school which he is found capable of teaching is clearly defined, and he renders himself liable to prosecution as an impostor if he represents his school in his announcements as of any higher grade than that which his license declares him qualified to teach. The following studies are obligatory for all children in Prussia : Religion, the mother tongue, including writing and grammar, arithmetic, practical elementary geometry, reolin (comprising geography, history, the elements of natural history, and the rudiments of physics), drawing, singing, gymnastics, and for girls, needle-work. To each of the last four branches the pupils

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