apportioned, in proportion to the number of census children, among the districts having not less than fifty census children. The average monthly wages of male teachers in California is $84 28; female, $63 37.

COMPULSORY EDUCATION. In addition to remodeling the school laws, the Legislature, last winter (1874), passed an act, which took effect in July, compelling parents and guardians to yearly send all well children between eight and fourteen years old, under their control, to school two-thirds of the time during which a public school may be taught. The children taught at home or in private schools may be excepted from the operation of the law by the proper educational authorities. The penalty for the first violation of the law is a fine of not more than $20, for every subsequent offense not less than $20 nor more than $50.

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1873-'74. School districts...........


684.... Whole number of schools............. 754....

1,868 Number of male teachers.............. 535....

882 Number of female teachers.......

1,454 Average number of children belonging to

public schools................. 22,965.... 72,972 Number of pupils in public schools. .... 29,416.... 97,681 Number of pupils in private schools .... 9,1.58.... 12,507 Amount paid teachers' salaries.........$328,338 02....$1,434, 366 93 Total amount paid for school libraries

and apparatus..... ...... $2,271 97.... $29,245 18 Total expenditures for school purposes. . $483,407 49....$2,113,356 25 Total receipts for school purposes......$581,055 77....$2,551,799 07 CONNECTICUT.

BIRDSEY GRANT NORTHROP, Secretary of the Connecticut State Board of Education, was born in Kent, Litchfield County, Conn., July 18, 1817. He graduated at Yale College in 1841, and at Yale Theological Seminary in 1845. For ten years from March, 1847, he was pastor of the Congregational Church in Saxonville, Mass., and for the next ten years (with one exception), Agent of the Massachusetts Board of Education. He became Secretary of the Connecticut Board of Education Jan. Ist, 1867, and has since been actively engaged in that State, except for six months in 1871-2, which he spent in Europe for rest and the recovery of impaired health. Under his supervision the schools of Connecticut have made progress.

EDUCATION IN PAST YEARS. The present system of public schools originated in the practice of the first settlers of the towns which composed the colonies of Connecticut and New Haven, before any law was enacted for the regulation and support of educational institutions. Records show that a school existed in New Haven in 1639; and three years later an appropriation of thirty pounds was granted to a school in Hartford, as one of the established interests of that place. The first code enacted by the Connecticut colony, that of 1650, provided that every township of fifty householders should appoint a teacher to “instruct all such children as should resort to him, to read and write." A township of one hundred families was required to maintain a grammar school. Later, grammar schools were organized in each county, and land was granted for their support. In 1766, towns were authorized to divide themselves into proper districts for keeping their schools. In 1798, School Societies were invested with the control of the schools. Under their management, the means of education were unequally distributed over the State, and the standard of education was lowered. Their property and obligations were finally transferred to towns. The school fund of Connecticut is largely derived from the sale of lands, now the Northwestern part of Ohio, which were embraced in its original charter. The money thus received, amounted to $1,200,000. Under careful management it was nearly doubled by 1849, although about that time nearly $98,000 were annually expended for school purposes. The income for 1874, was $132,848. The Commissioner of this fund was, until 1849, ex-officio Superintendent of Common Schools. In that year the office was transferred to the Principal of the State Normal School, then just established. In 1865, this regulation was again changed, and the office is now

held by Hon. B. G. Northrop, under the title of Secretary of the Board of Education,

PRESENT SCHOOL SYSTEM. In 1871, the General Assembly appointed a committee to revise the laws relating to education. The report of the committee was adopted in the next year, and the following are the main features of the law as it now stands :

First.–Those having charge of children between the ages of eight and fourteen years, are required to have them instructed in the ordinary English branches, at least three months in a year, and six weeks of this tuition must be consecutive. Children physically or mentally unable to study are exempted from the provisions of this act. The penalty of noncompliance with these provisions is a weekly fine of five dollars, for a term not exceed. ing thirteen weeks in any one year.

Second.-Any person employing a child who has not been instructed as above, to labor in any business, shall be liable to a fine of one hundred dollars.

Third.The Selectmen may bind children whose parents habitually neglect them, to some suitable charitable institution, or to some proper master, until they become of age.

Fourth.—The police shall arrest truants, and habitual truants may be committed to some house of reformation.

Fifth.—The general control of the schools is intrusted to the State Board of Education, consisting of the Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, and four persons appointed by the General Assembly, and holding office for four years. The Board appoints a secretary, who has general supervision of the schools. His salary is three thousand dollars per annum, and his traveling expenses, not exceeding five hundred a year.

Sixth.-Schools shall be maintained for at least thirty weeks each year in districts where the school population exceeds twenty-three. In other districts schools shall be open twentyfour weeks, except that no school is required to be held in districts where the average attendance is less than eight. Towns shall likewise have power to establish high schools which shall be under the supervision of a committee appointed for that purpose.

Seventh. Each town shall.elect a Board of School Visitors, consisting of six or nine members, who shall regulate the studies and discipline of the schools. They shall examine all persons desiring to teach, and give certificates to those they deem qualified to instruct children in the ordinary English branches and in drawing. They shall select the text-books for schools, which shall not be changed oftener than once in five years.

Eighth.-If a district, or a town maintaining a high school, shall contribute ten dollars to establish a school library, or to obtain necessary apparatus, a like sum shall be paid to it by the State Treasurer, who shall further annually pay five dollars for this purpose if an equal amount be contributed by the town. Districts containing a school population of more than one hundred, can draw multiples of these sums, at the rate of one appropriation for each one hundred pupils in attendance at school.

Ninth.—The income of the school fund shall be distributed among those districts which have maintained schools according to the law, in proportion to the number of children between four and sixteen years of age; in addition to this, the Comptroller of the State shall pay the town the sum of one dollar and fifty cents for each child of legal school age. The balance of money necessary for the support of the schools shall be paid by the towns.

STATISTICS FOR 1873–74. School districts in the State....

1,502 School-houses erected during the year..... Cost of the same. .................................. $226,705 78 Number of teachers employed........

2,957 Number of pupils registered in the schools, winter term.. 114,857 Average daily attendance, winter term

67,172 Average length of public schools........ ...... 174.18 days Total receipls..........

........$1,542,489 20 Total expenditure......................

e................................. 1,477,442 72 TEN YEARS PROGRESS.

YEAR 1874, Children enumerated .........

...... 110,491.... 132,908 Children registered, winter term ............. 76,207.....

95,199 Average attendance, winter term ....

54,468.... 67,172 Wages of male teachers.......... ...... $28 74.... 69 03 Wages of female teachers.......

16 82.... 36 05 Amount expended for building and repair

. ing school-houses... ....... $33,500.... 280,666 Amount raised for support of schools. ......... 390,454....1,542,489.

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YEAR 1864.

There is no Snperintendent of Public Instruction in Delaware.

EDUCATION IN THE PAST. DELAWARE was one of the original thirteen States of the Union. Her Constitution contained this provision : “ The Legislature shall, as soon as conveniently may be, provide by law for establishing schools and promoting arts and sciences." In 1796, an act was passed “ to create a fund sufficient to establish schools." This fund was increased by subsequent legislation in 1797, 1816, 1821, and in other years. In 1829 the Legislature passed a bill to provide for free schools. The chief feature of the proposed system was “ to put the whole matter of education in the hands of the people.” This act was variously changed and amended in 1830, 1832, 1833, and in 1835. In 1837, the income of the United States Surplus Revenue Fund was appropriated for the benefit of the school districts. In 1861, the Legislature authorized the school committees to levy an annual tax in each of the districts of New Castle of $75, since raised to $100; in the districts of Kent County, the sum of $50; and in the districts of Sussex County, the sum of $30 ; to be applied to the support of schools. Certain special provisions and limitations were made for repairing school-houses and for particular districts. An attempt was made during the legislative session of 1873 to pass a new law providing for a thorough supervision of the schools, for annual reports of the condition of the schools to be made to the Governor or Legislature, and for giving to the colored population their pro rata share of the school fund. The act, which consisted of seventeen sections, further provided for State and County Boards of School Commissioners.

PRESENT SCHOOL SYSTEM. The bill was, however, defeated, and it is noteworthy that the school system adopted forty-five years ago is substantially in force in Delaware to-day. The act of 1829-only slightly modified by the Legislature at various times—is the present school law. The following are its main features :

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