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Taxes for this purpose cannot exceed one per cent. of the taxable property of the district in any year, and must first be voted by the electors.

The aggregate paid teachers during the year ending September 15th, 1873, was $2,248,676. The expenditures for the purchase of grounds and for school-houses for the same period was $1,163,953. The amount paid for district libraries and apparatus, $20,129, and the amount of all other contingent expenses, $796,696, making a total expenditure for schools of $4,429,455.

Large as this sum seems to be, however, the cost per capita for each person of school age per annum in the State, exclusive of school-house buildings, was but $6.24, while the actual yearly expense of educating those who were enrolled in the schools during the last year was only $8.82.

The law provides for a district, township, county, and State supervision. The public schools of each district are under the control of the Board ; those of each county under the direct supervision of the County Superintendent; while the Superintendent of Public Instruction is charged with the general supervision of all the schools of the State.

Under the law, teachers' normal institutes are held in each county annually from three to six weeks.

LEGISLATION DURING 1874.

While the Legislature of 1874-5 made several minor changes in the school law, the only bill of general interest passed was one for holding Teachers' Normal Institutes. It stipulates that each County Superintendent shall hold annually a normal institute for the instruction of teachers, and those who may desire to teach, and with the concurrence of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, procure such assistance as may be necessary to conduct the same, at such time as the schools in the county are generally closed. To defray the expenses of said institute, he shall require the payment of a fee of one dollar for every certificate issued ; also the payment of one dollar registration fee for each person attending the normal institute.

The first of a series of Conventions of the Iowa County School Superintendents, under the direction of the State Superintendent, was lately held. Many useful suggestions were made. State Superintendent Abernethy urged the County Superintendents to hold frequent examinations, and invite the attendance of the citizens. He said that he would not renew certificates without re-examination, or grant any on the testimony of other persons. Teachers ought to be progressive students all the time, and he declared that he would insist on this by not granting a low grade of certificate twice to the same person, for if they do not feel enough interest to improve their grade, they are not proper persons to engage as teachers.

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TEN YEARS' PROGRESS.

1863–4 1873-4 Number of schools.......... ....... 6,237.... 8,816 · Number of youth between the ages of 5 and 21 years .......

........ 281,733..... 491,344 Number of youth enrolled................. 199,750.... 347,572 Total average attendance....... ........ II1,185.... 204, 204 Average number of months school has been

taught............. ........ 4 m 2 d.... 6 m 10 d Average compensation of male teachers per

...................... $22 09.... $36 28 Average compensation of female teachers per

month............................. $15 68.... $27 68 Amount paid teachers...

......$570, 115.... $2,248,667 Amount paid for school houses, grounds, libra

ries, and apparatus..................$160,253.... $1,184,082 Amount paid for fuel and other contingencies.. $31,169.... $796,696 Total amount expended for school purposes... $761,537.... $4,229,455

The history of the common school in the United States is a record of increasing intelligence and virtue. Its movement has been forward continually, delayed only, if delayed at all, by transverse currents of ignorance from abroad.

If it is not a distinct part of the teacher's work, it is, at least, a duty to teach the pupil, both by precept and example, to be honest and truthful.

KANSAS.

Hugh D. MCCARTY, LL.D., State Superintendent of Public Instruction, was born on a farm in Washington County, Pa., March 9, 1822. He attended the academy at West Alexander, Pa., and graduated at Franklin College, Ohio, in 1849. In 1857 he proceeded to Kansas, and soon after became connected with the schools of Leavenworth, which connection, with the exception of three years spent in the army, continued for twelve years. Their present high state of perfection is mainly due to the thoroughness with which he performed his work. In March, 1863, he called the first Teachers' Institute ever held in Kansas, and called and aided in the organization of the State Teachers' Association, and was shortly after elected its President. At the same time he was elected editor of The Kansas Educational Journal, and has from that time forward contributed much time and money to its encouragement and support. In 1868 he was elected Superintendent of Public Instruction of the schools of Leavenworth County, and served two years. In 1870 he was elected State Superintendent, with the largest majority of any candidate on the ticket. In 1872 he was re-elected to the same position, with the largest vote of any candidate. The honorary degree of LL.D. was conferred upon him by the Regents of Franklin College, Ohio, June 26, 1873. Col. McCarty entered the army as a private, but was soon promoted to the position of Colonel. He was wounded a number of times, and very severely at the battle of Wilson's Creek, near the place and a few inoments before Gen. Lyon was killed.

EDUCATION IN THE PAST.

KANSAS was admitted into the Union in 1859. Her Constitution, ratified October 4, enjoined the Legislature to “encourage the promotion of intellectual, moral, scientific, and agricultural improvement, by establishing a uniform system of Common Schools, and schools of higher grade, embracing Normal, Preparatory, Collegiate, and University departments." The Constitution further provided for a State Superintendent, County Superintendents, and a State Board of Commissioners. Sections sixteen and thirty-six, in every township of public lands, were set apart for schools; and seventy-two sections of land were set apart and reserved for the maintenance of a State University. Money from military exemptions, fines, and estrays, it was stipulated, should be applied to the support of common schools ; furthermore, the proceeds of all school lands, and of the five hundred thousand acres under the Act of 1841, and of estates without heirs or will, should be a perpetual School Fund.

The Legislature proceeded to enact laws, in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution. These school ordinances

have been enlarged, abridged, or otherwise modified, nearly every year, particularly during 1864, 1868, 1870, 1872, and 1874, until they now embrace the following main features :

PRESENT SCHOOL SYSTEM.

The State Superintendent of Public Instruction is elected for two years. He performs the duties usually incumbent upon a Superintendent.

The State Board of Education comprises the Principals of the Normal Schools, the Presidents of the State University and Agricultural College, and the Superintendent of Public Instruction. This board meets annually, on the fourth Monday of August, and may issue to teachers, upon examination, a diploma for life, or a certificate for three years or five years.

The State Board of Commissioners for the management of the permanent School and University Funds, consists of the State Superintendent of Instruction, Secretary of State, and the Attorney-General.

County Superintendents are elected for two years. They apportion the school money according to the number of persons between the ages of five and twenty-one years in each school district, visit schools, note the condition of the various school-houses, and encourage Teachers' Associations. They receive salaries ranging from $3 for every day's work performed, up to $1,500 annually.

County Boards of Examiners consist of the County Superintendent and two competent persons appointed by the County Commissioners. No certificate issued to teachers by these boards is valid longer than for one year, and then only in the county where issued.

Teachers' Institutes are required to be held annually by the State Superintendent of Instruction, in the various judicial districts of the State; furthermore, County Superintendents are required to hold Institutes in all counties having fifteen different schools.

The School Month consists of four weeks of five days each, of six hours per day. Any District Board refusing the admission of any children into the common schools, shall forfeit to the county $100 each for every month so offending.

COMPULSORY EDUCATION. An Act passed by the State Legislature in March, and taking effect August, 1874, compels parents and guardians to send healthy children to public or private schools twelve weeks every year. Failure to do so is punishable with a fine of from $5 to $10 for the first offense, and from $10 to $20 for every subsequent offense. School Directors are compelled, under penalty of a fine, to see to it that this law is enforced.

LEGISLATION DURING 1874.

During 1874, the State Legislature enacted seven other school measures, in addition to the one above. The only points of general interest are the following: . First. Any person convicted of unlawfully issuing school bonds of any description, shall be fined in a sum of not less than $500, nor more than $5,000, or be imprisoned for from one to twenty years.

Second. Hereafter there shall be taught, in every school district in the State, orthography, reading, writing, English grammar, arithmetic, and such other branches as may be determined by the District Board.

TEN YEARS' EDUCATIONAL PROGRESS.

1863-64.

1873-74. School districts....................... 705 .... 3,404 Children of school age, males...... 25,574.... 184,957 Children enrolled............

15,103.... 121,690 Average daily attendance. .....

5,549.... 71,062 Male teachers employed.......

164.... 1,880 Female teachers employed. ...... ..... 527....

2,143 Average monthly salary of male teachers.. $27 00.... $38 43 Average monthly salary of female teachers. $16 10.... $30 64 Amount paid teachers. ................ $24,845 27.... $716,056 08 Disbursement of State School Fund..... $12,918 14.... $231,917 28 Amount raised by district tax...........$12,300 59.... $931,958 69 Total number of school-houses (1867)... 703.... 3,133 Value of school-houses....... .........$32,972 60....$3,408,956 00

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