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LOCOMOTIVE.FIREMEN'S, MAGAZINE. concerning the Hawaiian Islands as having ceased to exist at Hawaii, and they should deem necessary or proper. being about to cease in other countries The Commissioners having fulfilled the coming under the sovereignty of the mission confided to them, their report United States, the provisions for the will be laid before you at an early day. relief and transportation of destitute It is believed that their recommenda- American seamen in these countries tions will have the earnest consideration under our Consulate regulations will in due to the magnitude of the responsi- consequence terminate.

It is proper, bility resting upon you to give such therefore, that new legislation should be shape to the relationship of those mid- enacted upon this subject, in order to Pacific lands to our home Union as meet the changed conditions.” will benefit both in the highest degree,

W realizing the aspirations of the com

On the sixth day of Decem

The Terri munity that has cast its lot with us and torial ber the President transmit

Government elected to share our political heritage,

ted to Congress the voluwhile at the same time justifying the minous report of the Hawaiian Comforesight of those who for three-quarters missioners. A large portion of this of a century have looked to the assim- report was simply descriptive and hisilation of Hawaii as a natural and in- torical of the islands and their inhabievitable consummation, in harmony tants. The customs of the past and with our needs and in fulfillment of our present were dwelt upon and the induscherished traditions.

trial conditions of the present time are " The questions heretofore pending reviewed. between Hawaii and Japan, growing Three bills were proposed for presenout of the alleged mistreatment of Jap- tation to Congress all of which were for anese treaty immigrants, were, I am the purpose of carrying out the recompleased to say, adjusted before the act mendations of the Commission as to of transfer by the payment of a reason- the future government of the Territory able indemnity to the Government of of Hawaii. Of the principal bill the Japan.

Commissioners say that it will be " such • Under the provisions of the joint a measure for the government of the resolution, the existing customs rela- Hawaiian Islands as will best promote tions of the Hawaiian Islands with the the interests of their people at the same United States and with other countries time that it promotes the interests and remain unchanged until legislation shall maintains the sovereignty of the people otherwise provide. The Consuls of of the United States." Hawaii, here and in foreign countries, It is evident that the Commissioners continue to fulfill their commercial fear that the interests and sovereignty agencies, while the United States Con- of the United States will not be prosulate at Honolulu is maintained for all moted by the granting of the franchise appropriate services pertaining to trade to the common people — only those and the revenue. It would be desirable people who can count their wealth by that all foreign Consuls in the Hawaiian the thousand are granted full citizenIslands should receive new exequaturs ship. This was the law of the islands from this Government.

previous to the annexation, and the The attention of Congress is called Commissioners seemed to have preto the fact that our Consular offices ferred such electoral restrictions to that

in vogue in the United States where sessed by the Attorney General of the "A man's a man for a' that.”

Republic of Hawaii, with a few excepFrom Washington comes the follow- tions; a Treasurer, with similar powers ing review of the territorial government and duties to the present Minister of recommended by the Commissioners Finance, and such powers and duties and approved by the President:

regarding licenses, corporations and It provides for the erection of the companies and partnerships and regisvarious islands into a territory of the tration of prints, labels and trade marks United States, to be styled the Territory as are now possessed by the Minister of of Hawaii. The bill contains provisions the Interior, except as changed; also a for the government of the territory, giv- Superintendent of Public Works, a ing it executive, legislative and judicial Superintendent of Public Instruction, an officers. A Governor, Secretary of the Auditor and a Deputy Auditor, a Sur

[graphic]

CULTURE OF RICE IN HAWAII. The rice is planted in marshes and is plowed or raked in by a harrow drawn by a buffalo.

territory, a United States District Judge, veyor, with the powers and duties of a a United States District Attorney and Surveyor General, and a Chief Sheriff, a United States Marshal are to be ap- to succeed to the duties of Marshal of pointed by the President, and an internal the Republic, all to be appointed by the revenue district and a customs district Governor.

W are created. The offices of President, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Finance,

Probably the most impor

Franchise Public Instruction, Auditor General,

Restricted.

tant portion of the bill is Deputy Auditor General, Surveyor Gen

Section 4, which defines eral and Marshal are abolished. The the laws of citizenship, and provides that officers of the territory under the new “all white persons, including Portugese regime are an Attorney General, with and persons of African descent, and all similar powers and duties as now pos- persons descended from the Hawaiian race, on either the paternal or maternal own five hundred dollars' worth of propside, who were citizens of the Republic erty or have an income of two hundred of Hawaii immediately prior to the and fifty dollars a year. transfer of the sovereignty thereof to the Voters for Representative are reUnited States, are hereby declared to quired to be male citizens, twenty-one be citizens of the United States." years old and of one year's residence in

Provision is made for a Legislature, the territory, to have registered, to have to consist of two houses, a Senate, to paid all taxes due the Government, and consist of fifteen members, as at pres- to be able understandingly to speak, ent, and a House of Representatives, read and write the English or Hawaiian consisting of thirty members, double the language." To be qualified to vote for membership of the House under the Senators a person must possess all the Hawaiian Republic. The members are qualifications and be subject to all the to be elected at a general election to conditions required for voters for Repbe held on the Tuesday after the first resentatives, and in addition own in his Monday in November, 1899, and bi-en- own right real property worth one thousnially thereafter. The Supreme Court and dollars, upon which valuation legal is to be sole judge of the legality of taxes shall have been paid for the year election to a seat in either House in case preceding that in which he offers to of contest. No member of the Legisla- register, or shall actually have received ture is to be eligible for appointment a money income of not less than six or election to any office of the territory, hundred dollars during the previous year. and no officer or employe, notary public Five registration districts are proor agent of the territory is to be eligible vided, and the Governor of the territory to election as a Legislator. There is is authorized to appoint registration also a provision that no person who, boards, with the advice of the Senate. having been entitled to qualify and vote prior to October, 1897, and since July,

The bill also provides for

A Congres1894, failed to register as such voter, sional Rep the election of a delegate to

reseatative. shall have a vote unless he shall take an

the House of Representaoath to support the Constitution of the tives in Congress by the voters qualified United States. The sessions of the to vote for Representatives in the LegisLegislature are limited to sixty days in lature, this delegate to possess the same duration, and each member is allowed powers and privileges now accorded to four hundred dollars as salary and ten other delegates in Congress. cents a mile for traveling expenses. The Government is to appoint a Chief

A Senator is required to be a male Justice and two Associate Justices of citizen of the United States, thirty years the Supreme Court, the Judges of the of age, to have resided in the territory Circuit Court, the members of the Board three years, be the owner in his own of Health, Commissioners of Public right of two thousand dollars' worth of Instruction, prison inspectors, Boards of property, or to have during the preced- Registration, inspectors of election and ing year received an income of one other public boards that may be created thousand dollars.

by law, and all officers whose salaries Representatives must be twenty-five exceed two thousand dollars per annum. years old, male citizens, must have lived Other provisions of the bill are as three years in Hawaii, and must either follows: The Governor is to possess the

seatation.

was

veto power, but his veto may be over- labor into Hawaii. Remarking upon ridden by a two-thirds vote of both this point they say: “ It has been the Houses of the Legislature.

policy of the Government of Hawaii, The Legislature is authorized to cre- before and since the establishment of ate town, city or county municipalities. the Republic, to import men under

labor contracts for a term of years, at Foreign goods and articles the expiration of which they are to reMore Taxation imported into the island turn to the countries from which they Than Repre after July 7, 1898, are, if came. Those brought in are mainly

afterwards brought into the from China and Japan. Since the act United States, to pay the same duties of Congress annexing Hawaii charged upon like articles when im- passed prohibiting Chinese immigraported from any foreign country. The tion, the Hawaiian sugar planters have existing laws of Hawaii, not inconsistent seemed to be making an unusual effort with the Constitution and Laws of the in securing the importation of JapanUnited States, or this act, continue in ese laborers, fearing trouble and emforce, subject to repeal or amendments barrassment on account of insufficient by the Legislature of Hawaii or by Con- labor for the care and carrying on of gress.

their sugar plantations. Of course, it The laws of Hawaii relating to public becomes necessary to extend our labor or Government lands continue in force laws over the islands, so as to prohibit until changed by Congress, but no leases all kinds of foreign contract labor from of agricultural lands are to be granted, coming to the territory. sold or renewed for a longer term than The question whether white labor five years, unless Congress shall direct. can be profitably utilized in the sugar

The laws of Hawaii relating to agri- plantations is yet a problem; but the culture and forestry are continued in planters are preparing to give such labor force, except as they may be modified a trial, and some of them believe it by Congress or the Legislature, and the will prove superior to the labor of either Secretary of Agriculture is charged China or Japan. with the duties of examining the laws of Hawaii relating to agriculture, forestry,

The Commissioners public lands and public roads, and re

Other Colonies take pains to express

Not to Fare porting thereon to the President. The So Well. their united opinion that bill also provides that the Constitution

the plan outlined for the and Laws of the United States locally government of Hawaii cannot be reapplicable shall have the same force and garded as a precedent for Porto Rico effect in the territory of Hawaii as else- and the Philippines, saying on this where in the United States.

point : This is the usual provision found in Much has been said to the effect the acts of Congress providing for the that the policy or scheme of governestablishment of Territorial govern- ment for the Hawaiian Islands will be ments in the United States, but the taken and accepted as an index or Commissioners regard the provision as precedent to be followed in the plan of exceptionally important in this bill for government for Porto Rico and the many reasons, among which they men- Philippines. In view of this apparent tion the continued importation of Coolie expectation or belief on the part of many good people in the United States, constituted special counselors of the the Commission deem it proper to say Governor, to be consulted by him conthat the people of Hawaii are capable cerning all matters of public policy. of self-government, and have proven Mr. Dole gives as his reason for this this by the establishment of the Re- recommendation the fear that, without public of Hawaii and the adoption of a some such provision, the Governor Constitution and code of laws which may arrogate to himself greater power will compare favorably with those of than is contemplated. Outlining his any other Government, and under such reasons for this position, he says : Constitution and laws have maintained While, with some misgivings, I have a stable Government for several years, assented to the provisions of the maworthy of a free people. The people jority report, which place the executive of these islands are more or less power of the Territory in the hands of familiar with the institutions and laws one individual and do away with the of the United States, while the laws of Executive Council, I am unable to acthe little Republic are largely taken cept those which confer upon the Govfrom the laws of this country. It can- ernor the appointment of all subordinot be said that either the Porto Ricans nate officers, and, which, while giving or the Filipinos are at all familiar him the appointment of heads of dewith our system of Government or partments, with the approval of the with any other based on the principles Senate, permit him to remove them of liberty. The underlying theory of without approval, a power not enjoyed government is the right of self-govern- by the President of the United States. ment, and a people must be fitted for Nor can I agree to the absence of any self-government before they can be provisions whatever limiting or checktrusted with the responsibilities and ing the Governor's executive power duties attaching to free government. under the laws excepting as to the apThe remarks are made to negative the proval of the Senate required in ceridea that because the people of the tain appointments." Hawaiian Islands can, in the judgment The majority in their report express of the Commission be consistently the opinion that the precaution is not given self-government to an extent al- necessary, saying that the history of most equal to that given the people in the Territories of the United States the States, it can be safely inferred covering many years of experience has that other insular possessions which the not, in the opinion of the Commission, United States have, or may acquire by shown a necessity for the creation of treaty with Spain, can be granted equal any number of advisers." freedom in government." The report is unanimous except upon

Of the other two bills, one one point, on which President Dole

relates to Hawaiian silver

Currency makes a minority recommendation.

and treasury notes and the This recommendation is for a Board of other to postal savings banks in Hawaii. Advisers to the Governor of the Terri- The first provides that unmutilated tory, and he recommends that the Hawaiian silver coins shall be received Treasurer, Attorney General, Superin- at par value in payment of all dues to tendent of Public Works and the Com- the Government of the Territory of missioner of Public Lands shall be Hawaii, and of the United States, and

The

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