The sudden rumble of the train an are said to be ten thousand of these nounces that it is crossing a bridge. lazy, crafty, licentious men, who sit The pilgrims, so closely packed in the about in front of the temples, shrines cars that there is not standing room, and bathing places, extracting money begin untying knots in the corners from the poor pilgrims, who, once in of their turbans, girdles and veils, for the city, are practically at their mercy. coins to throw into the water as an When the passenger trains arrive, the offering to the goddess of the sacred driveway to the station is lined on river; and, simultaneous with the both sides with these human leeches, splash, is the shout from hundreds of waiting to fasten themselves on the throats, "Jumna Ji Ki Jai” (Victory ignorant pilgrims and suck from them to the goddess of the Jumna).

their last coin, under the guise of reThis is the approach to the sacred ligion. city of Muttra. From the car window Brindabun has about a thousand the city presents a wonderful sight, temples, one of which cost two milrising on a gently sloping hillside, “as lion dollars, and has an annual inbeautiful as a crescent moon over the come of forty thousand dollars from dark stream of the Jumna.” The num its endowment. Connected with these bers of stone steps, extending into the temples are said to be six thousand water, mark the sacred bathing places temple women and girls, many of of the Hindus; above them

them widows from Bengal, enticed shrines and temples and on up the here by priests, sent out as agents of hillside the houses are closely packed the temples. These widows are made together and occupied by about sixty to believe that living thus in a sacred thousand people.

city, in absolute subjection to the It is a sacred city because accounted priests, is their only hope of felicity in the birthplace of the most popular, the future. altho the vilest, god of the Hindus, Several times a year these two cities Krishna, the eighth incarnation of are filled with multitudes of Hindus, Vishnu, who became incarnate for the who come to celebrate some great fespurpose of killing Kuntz, the former tival. Mrs. J. E. Scott, the first repking of Muttra. It was in the city resentative of the Woman's Foreign of Brindabun, six miles from Muttra, Missionary Society of the Methodist that he played his lewd pranks with Church in Muttra, says in her report the milkmaids, and the two near vil- of 1888: lages of Gokul and Goberdhan are also “The first event of the year was the connected with his life. Muttra, be Brindabun Mela (festival). About ing the railway center for all of these, twenty-five of us American missionmakes it one of the most sacred cities aries stopped in a fine old stone palace of India and one of the greatest places on the banks of the Jumna, which was for pilgrimages.

put at our disposal by the King of The whole city is practically owned Bhartpore. We ladies worked mornand controlled by the priests. There ing and evening for nine days among


‘Lamb of God who taketh away the sin of the world.'”

In Muttra, the bathing festival is one of the greatest. There is a Hindu legend that Bisram, the goddess of the Jumna River, went to her brother, the god of hell, on the Sisters' Day and made the tilak on his forehead. Then, according to Hindu custom, he said, “Now, sister, name your gift." She replied, "Grant that all who bathe in my waters may never go to you in hell.” He said, “Your request is too great, but I will grant that all who bathe in your waters at the Bisram Ghat" (a special bathing place in Muttra) “shall never come to me in hell." Believing this, thousands go to Muttra on that day every year to bathe at the Bisram Ghat, until sometimes the streets leading to it are wet with the

drippings from their bodies and the crowds of women who had come clothes. The water, filled with sacred from all parts of India to attend this turtles, the sacred bulls standing on the celebrated festival. It was sad, very steps and eating from the hands of the sad, to see the daily procession in worshipers, the monkeys in evidence honor of Krishna, whose ugly, black everywhere and jumping over the image was carried in a different, gor- hard backs of the turtles and stealing geous conveyance each time, until the their food; the bells ringing, the ninth day, when the great car, which lights burning, the people bathing and is bricked up in its tall house all year, drinking the filthy water and shoutwas taken out and the idol placed in ing—these make sights and sounds this, with several little girls in at- never to be forgotten-worthy the tendance, in addition to the usual fat, pen of an Isaiah. half-naked priests. At night, too, Early missionaries recognized this when with bursts of fireworks and cal- as a field of need and unusual opporcium lights the great Thakur (Krish- tunity. About forty years ago Mr. na) was conveyed under a white bro- Zenker of the Church Missionary Socaded silk canopy to a garden temple, ciety went to Muttra and has been illuminated like fairyland, one felt there ever since without once having more than sadness—even a great in- been home on furlough. The Baptist dignation—at this awful idolatry, and and Methodist Episcopal Churches of almost expected God to visit this peo- America also have well established ple with some terrible and sudden work, which is so planned that many judgment. How one longed to point classes are being reached and several these poor deluded heathen to the kinds of work carried on. The Church


Missionary Society has three or four church. These buildings were nearly ladies who devote themselves almost all given by Mr. Blackstone, of Chiexclusively to the zenanas and city cago, and the members of his family. schools among the high-caste Hindus In the tower of Flora Hall is a great and Mohammedans; the Baptist mis bell, sent from America and bought sionary reaches the people largely with the pocket money left by Flora through bazar preaching and itinerat Blackstone at the time of her death. ing among the villages; but the large This bell, higher, larger and louder educational work is being carried on than any in the temples, peals forth by the Methodist Episcopal Church. its witness and call seven days in the When the Woman's Foreign Mission- week, and may be heard all over the ary Society (M. E.) was casting about city. Bishop Warren, after his visit for the best location for its training to Muttra, in 1900, said: "I think school for Christian workers, it these buildings, with their necessary seemed that no better could be found adjuncts, are the finest plant of any than this heart of heathenism. Estab mission in any city in India." lished in 1889, it has steadily grown The Church Missionary Society until it is now the largest and best representatives in Muttra are also equipped training school in India. The doing zenana work in Brindabun, but pupils last year represented ten dif the only mission property there is ferent missions in various parts of the owned by the Methodist Episcopal country. The school has an English Church. On this, in the heart of that department in which missionary assist city, is a dispensary, and a good misants are trained, and a vernacular de sion home, where a medical lady mispartment for the preparation of native sionary is located. This was estabteachers, Bible readers and wives of lished largely for the purpose of preachers. Besides this, a girls' reaching the temple women, but it is boarding school admits pupils from really the center of the medical misthe kindergarten to the end of the sion work of the entire Muttra district. grammar grade. Across the street The money has been given and plans from the girls' schools are boarding are being made for the erection of a school dormitories for the boys' board- hospital in connection with the dising school and the men's training pensary. school. Besides five dormitories for Only a few years ago Muttra was the girls and three for the boys and such a bigoted city that a low caste men, there are three large buildings man in passing through the streets in for the woman's work: the deaconess day time had to call out as the lepers home, the English training school of old, that the people might get out building and the school house for the of the way to prevent his shadow from vernacular work of the boarding and falling on any of them; to-day, when training schools, and largest and locat- cluring the summer school the Eped in the center of the heathen city worth League has its annual rally, the is Flora Hall, which serves six days Christians, many of whom are from in the week as the boys' school house the lowest caste, form a procession of and the seventh as the large city five hundred strong, march to the city

church with banners flying, singing the jubilee year for American MethChristian songs and for the time lit- odism in India, and surely there is erally take possession of the street. cause for great thanksgiving for what

Eighteen years ago the Methodist God has wrought in this place, not in Church had not a single Christian in fifty, but in only eighteen years, and the Muttra district; to-day there are perhaps no city or district will yield a fifteen thousand. The doors are open greater harvest for the expenditure of on every hand and the people begging time, money and prayers than this for teachers and preachers. This is birthplace of Krishna,



BY REV. J. W. BASHFORD, D.D. Resident Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church, Shanghai, China A condition, and not a theory, con- times of pressure dogs, cats, rats and fronts the laborers of Europe and dead animals are eaten. The people America. The world has become a wear blue cotton clothing, with cotton neighborhood, and among the neigh- padding for winter. They use straw bors who will soon enter into compe- sandals, worth a cent and a half a pair, tition with our workmen, are four and straw hats worth two cents each, hundred million Chinese. Two facts and often discard these as luxuries. throw light on the situation.

With such industry and economy it is 1. The Chinese are economically not strange that in every place where the most effective non-Christian na- Chinese workmen have met the labortion on earth. They are intelligent ers of other nations on even termsand untiring workers, and most of the in Hongkong, Singapore, Borneo, the women and children engage with the Philippines and South Africa—they men in productive labor. Their fields have driven competitors to the wall.

so well cultivated that I have In no feigned despair did American passed a score of them at a time with- workmen, after their first struggle out seeing a weed. The Chinese sur- with Chinese laborers on the Pacific pass the world in saving. Several coast, turn to the government for profamilies live in a clan house, with mud tection. walls, thatched roof, dirt floor, and no 2. American and European workartificial light. The roots of rice and men must meet these Chinese laborers sugar cane, sweet potato vines, leaves, in the markets of the world during the weeds, and the grass along the roads, next twenty-five years. Many Ameriserve for fuel. Provinces are literally can laborers dream that their Excluswept clean of vegetation every year. sion act and high tariff will deliver Rice is so common a diet that "Have them from such competition. But the you caten rice?" is their politest form need of American workmen to-day is of salutation. The poorer classes live not only protection of the American on sweet potatoes, and taste meat market, but a share of the markets of only at the Chinese New Year. In the world. American exports have



averaged $1,400,000,000 a year for the are clearing from ten to twenty per last five years. This enormous trade cent. profit for the investors. With can only be maintained by giving more hundreds of millions of capital in Euand better goods for the money than rope and America seeking investment, any other people. The American with half of the world's supply of coal workman holds the markets against lying in the Chinese hills, with an the Chinese because, while he receives abundance of iron ore in China, and ten to fifteen times as much pay, he with this super-abundance of Chinese produces from ten to twenty times as labor of so fine a natural quality at much in the same time. But the in- one-fifteenth the cost of labor in evitable and beneficent tendency of in- America, how far will the new century ventions is to spread around the globe. advance before American and EuroThe Chinese are obedient to instruc- pean enterprises will be teaching four tion and very imitative. Hence, when hundred million Chinese to handle our they are once shown how to handle tools, master our inventions, and enter machinery they are skilful and careful upon the struggle for the markets of in its use. A crisis will doubtless ac- the world. That the danger is real is company the introduction of machin- shown by the fact that the Japanese, ery in China similar to that which fol- whose industrial advance the Chinese lowed the supplanting of hand looms are rapidly following, are displacing in England. But one source of relief American manufacturers in world will be vastly larger production for markets. I have seen in Shanghai the markets of the world. Suppose, during the last year a score on therefore, Chinese competitors master of Japanese-made articles displacing inventions and learn to use machinery American goods. It is thus a condisufficiently to enable the Chinese la- tion, and not a theory, which conborer to produce one-half as much as fronts the laborers of Europe and his American competitor. Is it not

America. clear that, if their living and wages The solution of the problem, both remain upon the present low plane, humanitarian and economic they will drive us from the markets of grounds, lies in raising the standing the world?

of living and the wages of the Chinese. China has already started on a ca- Whenever the workingmen in Amerreer of industrial development. I have ica find themselves in competition with visited ten out of the eighteen prov- an additional group of workers, the inces of the empire during the year, invariable policy is to enrol the latter and can cite in each province visited in the union and lead them to demand illustrations of industrial awakening. the union wage. As the Chinese canEuropean and American capital is not be excluded from the markets of seeking investment, and men of busi- the world, the alternative is to lead ness and technical training from Eng- them into such familiarity with Westland, Germany and Japan are eager to ern civilization as will elevate their take charge of industrial enterprises. standard of living and raise their A few of these enterprises fail, but wages. Already the latter are admost of them are paying their for- vancing in some proportion to their eign managers very high salaries and mastery of our industrial arts, just as


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