his present Majesty's reign, accompanied account of his religion, when it is a noto as they are with necessary restrictions and rious fact that the right even to the crown, securities for the safety of the established the highest civil right in these dominions, Church, but they look with the deepest was conferred on, and is now enjoyed by, anxiety to the claims now made for the the present royal family, to the exclusion abrogation of all restrictions by persons of others more nearly related to it, upon who acknowledge the spiritual superiority the mere ground of an objection to their of the Pope in these realms, and who hold religion, and, should it once be established tenets in many respects as inimical to the by the legislature that religious opinions principles of the English constitution in mat. are not a sufficient ground of civil inca. ters of state as they are subversive of all reli- pacity, the petitioners apprehend there gious toleration, and utterly inconsistent can be no pretence whatever afterwards with the docirines of the established for saying that the crown of these domi. Church; and praying the House to adopt nions shall not be worn by a Papist; and such measures as will best maintain the Pro- that the petitioners cannot but observe, testant ascendancy in Church and State, that the most strenuous supporters of the and give stability and permanence to the claims of the Roman Catholics admit that civil and ecclesiastical constitution of the every attention ought to be paid to the secountry.”

curity of our civil and religious establish

menis, and that effectual measures ought A Petition of the freeholders of the to be adopted for the security of both, but county of Oxford was also presented and the petitioners also observe, that none of read; setting forth,

those persons who make these admissions That the petitioners have observed, have ever pointed out or suggested the with the deepest concern, the repeated measures they should think effectual for attempts that have been made to break that purpose, trom wbich they cannot but down, repeal, and destroy, all those secu. infer the extreme doubtfulness and diffirities of our civil and religious establish culty, even in the judgment of those perments which we owe to the wisdom and sons themselves, or rather, as the petifirmness of some of the best of our ances- tioners firmly believe, the absolute im. tors, securities not demanded by any oc- practicability of devising such measures; casional or temporary causes only, but and that the petitioners apprehend, that, founded in principles as immulable as if the claims of the Roman Catholics they are wise; and that the petitioners should be acceded to, every other restriccannot conceive a situation of things more tion and test must of course be abolished, repugnant to the principles of sound and that the government of our establish policy, than that Roman Catholics should ments in Church and State must be thrown possess the power of framing the laws and open to sects of every denomination, and of administering the highest offices in the of the most discordant opinions and prin. government of a Protestant establishment ciples; and that the petitioners most in Church and State, to the very character solemnly declare, that they are not influand principles of which their tenets are enced by any wish to restrain the free decidedly hostile, nor can they conceive exercise of religious opinions, and, if posit to be any hardship that Roman Catho- sible, still less by any kind or degree of lics, who exclude all persons except those animosity towards their Roman Catholic of their own communion, from any autho- fellow.subjects, but they are actuated by rity or interference whatever in the go- an honest and firm persuasion that the revernment of their Church, should be strictions now attempted to be abolished excluded from any share in the govern- have essentially contributed to the preserment of a Church to which they are not vation of those establishments which have only strangers but adversaries ; and that, been the source of our prosperity and by the constitution of England, the go. happiness, and that the abolition of them vernment of the Church and the State are would inevitably tend to weaken and uninseparable, and whoever is admitted into dermine those establisbments, and ultithe share of the government of the one, mately lead to the overthrow of the conmust consequently be intrusted with a stitution; and praying, that the restricshare of the government of the other ; and tions by which Roman Catholics are exthat the petitioners have beard, with asto- cluded from the power of framing the nishment, persons contending that no one laws and administering the bighest offices ought to be excluded from a civil right on in the government of our civil and reli

gious establishments may not be abo-, liam in 1638, the maintenance of the lished.”

Protestant Church is secured by law as an

essential part of the constitution; and it A Petition of the mayor, aldermen, ca. appears to the petitioners to be attended pital burgesses, clergy, and principal in with the greatest danger to remore these habitants of the borough and town of Sud- safeguards, which our ancestors thus bury, Suffolk, was also presented and wisely provided, and which the experead; setting forth,

rience of more than a century has con“ That the petitioners, ever grateful for firmed; and tbat the petitioners have those privileges, civil and religious, as seen with satisfaction ihe concessions also for that internal peace and prosperity granted by the legislature to the Roman which they, in common with the subjects Catholics during his present Majesty's of this country, have enjoyed since the reign, accompanied as they are with ne. glorious æra of the Revolution, and deeply cessary restrictions and securities for the convinced of the magnitude and import- safety of the established Churcb, but they ance of those blessings, must ever depre- look with the deepest anxiety to the claims cate, in the strongest manner, the least now made for the abrogation of all restricdeparture from those principles, the ad- tions by persons who acknowledge the herence to which alone has raised this spiritual superiority of the Pope in these country so eminently above all other realms, and who hold tenets in many renations in religious and political free- spects as inimical to the principles of the dom; and that the petitioners are, English constitution in matters of state as therefore, greatly alarmed by the re- they are subversive of all religious tolerapeated and incessant attempts that have tion, and utterly inconsistent with the been made by the Roman Catholics doctrines of the established Church ; and of this united kingdom to obtain the full praying the House to adopt such mea, enjoyment of political power, by procur-sures as will best maintain the Protestant ing the repeal of those statotes which the ascendancy in Church and State, and give wisdom of our ancestors enacted for the stability and permanence to the civil and safety and protection of the Protestant go ecclesiastical constitution of the country." vernment of this country in Church and State; and praying that those statutes A Petition of the bailiff, justices, baimay not be repealed, but that the same lifts, peers and burgesses of the very anmay be preserved inviolate, as in their cient borough and liberties of Wenlock, opinion these salutary provisions appear Salop, in common-hall assembled, was to be still essentially necessary to give also presented and read; setting forth, permanency and security to our most ex- « That the petitioners view the present cellent constitution.”

claims of the Roman Catholics of Ireland

as unconstitutional, presumptuous, and, if A Petition of the mayor, corporation, granted to thein, dangerous in the extreme and principal inhabitants of the borough to the Protestant establishment; and that and town of Great Torrington, Devon, their claims are unconstitutional, inasmuch was also presented and read, setting as they insist upon unqualified emancipe forth,

tion, with free admittance to all places of “ That whilst the petitioners place the trust, power and authority in the executive firmest reliance on the wisdom of parlia. government of these kingdoms, without ment, the lawful guardian of the consti- suffering any of those guards and contution of their country, they feel it their ditions to be applied wbich might tend to duty humbly to offer their

sentiments upon secure from future dangers or encroach-the recent claims of the Roman Catholics ments the Protestant establishment; and to a full admission to the highest offices that they are presumptuous, inasmuch as of trust in the state, and to the power of this would place the Catholics in a far legislation for these Protestant kingdoms ; more independent and uncontrouled state and that the petitioners are the zealous than are even the Protestant subjects friends of every toleration in religion themselves, who are required, previous to which is not inconsistent with the mainte. their being admitted to or exercising any nance of one national Church in full vi- office, post or place of honour power trust gour and security, and that in the provi- or authority within these nealms, to take

adopted by parliament at the the Oaths of Allegiance, and of the King's period of the accession of king Wilo Supremacy, as also the Oath of Abjuration, and receive the blessed holy Sacrament, it is peculiarly incumbent on the peti. according to the rites of the Church of tioners to make this unreserved avowal, as England as now by law established; and the city over whose civil polity they preside that they may be dangerous, inasmuch as is the general resort of strangers of every recent events and past experience have description, and in which almost all denotaught the petitioners, and the whole tenor minations of Christians have established of history furnisheth them with many places of devotion, where they may adproofs, that no indulgence granted can dress themselves to their Creator agreesatisfy Catholic ambition, but that it only ably to their own form and creed ; and tends rather to provoke and strengthen that the protection of all in the enjoyment their demands for fresh and future claims of those valuable privileges which our adand encroachments upon, and thereby mirable constitution has allowed them, the manifestly endangers, our invaluable Pro. petitioners will ever esteem as one of the testant constitution and government, under most sacred duties of their corporate funcwhich the petitioners enjoy so many and tions, but while they make this just and great blessings; and that they do there candid acknowlecigment of their tolerant fore humbly, though earnestly and hearti. spirit, they must as Protestants, anxious ly, pray the House not to grant the Ro- for the preservation of our invaluable man Catholics any further indulgences, constitution, object to the grant of unrebut to maintain, keep and preserve invio. stricted powers to persons whose religious late, from all further and future encroach- tenets would, in their apprehension, endanments, those truly pure Protestant princi- ger those civil and ecclesiastical establishples and interests, which placed the august ments, the maintenance of which our anHouse of Brunswick in the throne of these cestors so wisely and providently enderkingdoms, and for the preservation of voured to secure; and that, under the which our present most gracious sovereign mild and equable reign of the present so. hath always shewn himself particularly vereign, many of the restrictions and disanxious, and upon a very recent occasion abilities which controuled our fellow subproved himself to be most tenderly and jects of the Romish communion have been paternally solicitous; and that, as far as either totally removed or liberally ameliomerely regards the free worship of God, rated; and the petitioners would humbly the petitioners would that every obstacle submit to the consideration of the House, be removed, and that the Roman Catholics that the admission of those claims, so long should enjoy the most extensive toleration; and now sostrenuously urged, might be an but they again and again do most humbly unsafe, injudicious, and imprudent mea. beseech the House to guard and watch, sure; and praying the House, weighing with a jealous eye, their inroads and am- the danger of concession, maturely to de. -bitious incroachments made from time to liberate before they admit persons who time upon the Protestant establishment, maintain principles inimical to the estabbut above all on no account to permit lished religion of the realm, and who acthem, either directly or indirectly, to knowledge the supremacy of a foreign interfere with the legislation of these power, to the unlimited right of enjoying realms, nor suffer them to fill any judicial offices of authority and high responsibiBituation, nor to have, hold, or exercise lity.” any office or place of power, trust, or au- Ordered to lie on the table. thority in the empire, nor at any time to have, hold, or exercise any command, PetitionS RESPECTING THE RENEWAL either naval.or military, in any of his Ma- of The East India COMPANY'S CHARTER jesty's fleets or armies."


-SAIPBUILDERS OF YARMOUTH-GLAS. A Petition of the mayor, aldermen, and GOW CHAMBER OF COMMERCE MERcommon council of the city of Bath, was CHANTS HOUSE OF GLASGOW--MERCHANTS also presented and read; setting forth,


NEWARK "That the petitioners beg leave to pre- Bailies or Porr GlasGOW AND NEWARK mise, that they are sincere friends to reli- - MANUFACTURERS of Tavistock-East gious toleration, and would have every INDIA COMPANY'S PACKERS-AND EAST sect and society of Christians possess the India Company's Cloth Drawebs.] A * unrestrained use of divine worship, in Petition of the company of merchants of such manner as their opinions may dictale, Edinburgh, was presented; setting forth, and their consciences approve; and that “That the petitioners being informed




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that some arrangements will soon cometish-built ships; they, however, presume it under the consideration of parliament, will be admitted, on an impartial considewith regard to the trade to India, they ration of the subject, that, to encourage humbly hope that it will in its wisdom the building and equipment of ships in discover good grounds for extending the Asia, for the purpose of being employed indulgence that was granted to private in the carrying trade of this empire, will traders by the Act of 1793; indeed they be both impolitic and unjust; and that it would hope that parliament will judge it will be impolitic, as the removal of a maexpedient to place all his Majesty's sub- nufacture of such importance as the build. jects in the same situation with regard to ing and equipment of ships from this .the trade to the East Indies, as they placed country to India (a manufacture of more the subjects of all foreign powers who are importance than any other) will render in amily with Great Britain by the Act of precarious the means of maintaining his the 37th of bis Majesty, and whatever ex. Majesty's navy, and especially of fitting tension of the trade may appear to parlia- out with dispatch his Majesty's fleets on ment to be proper to be granted, the peti- pressing emergencies, and will thereby tioners humbly hope, tbat that extension undermine that great bulwark of our in. will not be limited to the port of London, dependence and greatness as a nation; but embrace such other of ihe ports of the and secondly, it will be unjust, as many kingdom as to parliament shall seem just, of the stores and materials necessary to and among others Leith, the port of the the building and equipment of ships in this metropolis of Scotland; and the peti- country are charged with considerable tioners confidently trust, that if such an duties, and as the mechanics and other extension of the trade as has been stated persons employed therein, as well as the shall be granted, this reasonable indul- petitioners, contribute their proportions gence will have the most beneficial effects of the burthens imposed on the public on the commerce and prosperity of the from the exigencies of the state, to neiUnited Kingdom, without 'injuring the ther of which persons engaged as owners great and important concerns of the East or builders of ships in Asia are subject or India Company."

liable; and that the petitioners respect,

fully submit to the House, that, from the A Petition of several ship-builders of heavy taxation of the country, there never Great Yarmouth, was also presented; set- was a period when it was so necessary to ting forth,

confine the carrying trade of the country “ That the petitioners have for some to British-built ships, from the utter inabitime past observed, with very great regret, lity of the owners of them to enter into that ships and vessels, built within the ter. a competition with the owners of East . ritories of the East India Company in Asia, India or other foreign ships upon terms at have been admitted to registry in Great all like equality; and, for these and other Britain, and, in consequence thereof, al reasons, which the petitioners flatter themlowed to participate in the carrying trade selves must be obvious to the House, prayof this country and its colonies; and that, ing, that in future ships built in Asia, and if Indian-built ships continue to be ad. the islands thereto adjacent, may mitted to British registry, and to partici- hibited by statute from being admitted pate in the carrying trade of the empire, to registry, and to the privileges of Brithe most injurious consequences will re- tish-built ships.” sult to the maritime interests of the nation, and more especially so, when the A Petition of the chamber of commerce trade to the East Indies is opened to all his and manufactures of Glasgow, was also Majesty's subjects; and that the peti- presented; setting forth, lioners forbear to press on the attention of That the petitioners, in common with the House, by entering into any detail of the other commercial bodies of the emobservations on the impolicy of admitting pire, feel deeply interested in the question Indian-built ships to the privileges of Bri- now before the House respecting the retish-built ships, not only as affecting the in- newal of the E. I. Company's monopoly, terests of the petitioners, but also the landed and that in a Petition to the late parliament commercial and manufacturing interests of they stated their ideas upon

this subject, the country as well as those of the various showing that confining by a monopoly classes of persons who are dependent on the the trade with the extensive countries to building, repairing and equipment of Brio the east of the Cape of Good Hope, had (VOL. XXIV.)


be pro:

Petitions respecting the Renewal [388 been no less an 'infringement of general countries to the eastward of the Cape of rights than it had been impolitic as a mea- Good Hope, in consequence of charters of sure of commerce in having appropriated to monopoly granted to the E. I. Company; the benefit of a few advantages which'were and they humbly beg leave to represent the property of all, and impolitic as a that they are by such charters not only measure of commerce, because trade con individually excluded from a most beneducted under a monopoly never can prove ficial commerce, but they are deprived of beneficial to a country in the degree that privileges which they are proud to prize the same trade would, if left open to the as their birtti-right, and which, as no tempexertion of individual enterprize; and that tation could induce them willingly to rethis principle, considered a fundamental linquish, no payment is sufficient to purone in political economy, had been strik chase; and that, besides the manifest ingly exemplified in the circumstances of injury which such charters have produced the case in question, the trade from the on the efforts of individuals, they have United States of America to the East Indies necessarily had a similar effect on the and China, carried on by individual citi- national resources, which under a free zens of those states, had been commenced trade must have become greatly more and prosecuted with a success unexampled considerable than while the commerce is in its rapidity of progress during the pe. restricted and confined; and that the period in which the trade of the British em. titioners being convinced that such im. pire with those countries had been pro-, portant troths cannot fail to produce congressively on the decline; and that with viction of the impolicy of any monopoly regard to the trade to China, a trade car- of the trade to India and China, look to ried on with an independent foreign na- the expiration of the present East India tion, there existed, the petitioners humbly charter with the confident hope of seeing conceived, no plea for giving a monopoly a period put to any exclusive trade to of it to a particular company, or confining these countries, and a wide field thus laid it to particular ports, more than might be open to the capital skill, and industry, of offered for bringing, under similar restric. British inerchants and manufacturers; and tions, any other branch of foreign trade at that, in this confident hope and expectapresent free, and that no danger, they be" tion, the petitioners humbly pray that no lieved, was to be apprehended to the re- monopoly be granted of the commerce venue from opening to the outports the and navigation to the countries eastward trade with those countries, it being an of the Cape of Good Hope, but that the unquestioned fact that the daties levi- trade may be free and open, in the same able upon other foreign articles, now im- manner as other branches of commerce, portable into the outports, have been col. not only to the port of London, but to lected with a fidelity not less successful in other ports of Great Britain and Ire. productive amount than will be found in land.” the case of those leviable upon similar articles destined for the port of London; A Petition of several merchants, traders, and that these principles and facts, with and manufacturers of Port Glasgow and regard to this trade, being as the peti Newark, was also presented ; setting tioners believe truly what they have stated forth, them to be, they confidentially trust that « That the petitioners with regret have the House will not again consent to con- observed, in the hon. E. I. Company, a fine this commerce, either in whole or in continuance of the spirit of monopolizing part, to a single company, but will open the commerce of India, China, and the it intire to the nation at large, permitting other countries to the eastward of the it to be carried on from all the ports of the Cape of Good Hope, which it has too long United Kingdom, subject to such regula held, as the petitioners conceive, to their tions only as may be considered necessary prejudice, and that of the other ports and for the protection of the revenue." towns of the United Kingdom; and that

the petitioners respectfully advance, along A Petition of the merchants house of with their fellow subjects of the empire, Glasgow was also presented; setting their claim to a participation of a free

trade with those countries, and right to “ That the petitioners bave, in common oppose any farther exclusive monopoly, with other classes of his Majesty's sub- either to that Company, or any other jects, been prevented from trading to the company or body whatever; and that this


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